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Exergy efficiency can be used as an objective function in order to improve systems efficiency. Thus, the most efficient regions for the operation parameters can be searched easily. Exergy efficiency data of a turboprop engine’s components that have been calculated using basic engine parameters in the previous studies are modeled using cubic spline curve fitting methodology. Spline curves are on the two dimensional plane, where x axis is the input parameter and y axis is the exergy efficiency of the component. A spline curve is defined by the points subject to arbitrary selection of number and position. Initially positions of the points are located with two different methods and then in order to obtain better accuracy point positions are improved by ‘Ant colony’ and ‘Goldsection’ optimisation methods. Sum of Squares of the errors between the fitted value and data value was used as the fitness function. Least square error of 5 × 10−9 is assumed as acceptable accuracy which yields to a minimum R = 0.9998 linear correlation coefficient. In the optimisation step, independent engine variable versus calculated engine performance parameters were checked against spline fitted values. Improvement of the fitness function is observed as the number of fitting points is increased. Ant colony optimisation in engine exergy efficiency parametric modeling is a new approach in authors’ point of view.
The Turkish poultry industry has rapidly developed in the last decade. Viral pathogens continue to threaten the industry, causing economic losses worldwide, including Turkey. At present, infectious bronchitis and infectious laryngotracheitis are major challenges, as are, to a lesser extent, avian metapneumovirus, infectious bursal disease, Marek's disease and chicken infectious anaemia. The prevalence and severity of these diseases in Turkish chickens varies depending on environmental and management factors, vaccination strategies and biosecurity measures. In Turkey, infectious bronchitis virus, including vaccine and field strains, were detected in 83.6% (41/49) and 64.2% (9/14) vaccinated broiler and layer flocks, respectively. Virulent and vaccine strains of infectious bursal disease virus were found in 83.5% (1548/1855) of excised bursa Fabricius from vaccinated broilers. Virulent Marek's disease virus was found in 19.93% (120/620) of spleens from vaccinated chickens. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in commercial poultry and Newcastle disease in backyard chickens have been detected. To date, Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus have not been reported in commercial poultry. Avian metapneumovirus was found in 7.2% (8/110) of the broiler samples. Antibodies to gyrovirus and avian leukosis virus have been detected. Commercial vaccines, such as attenuated, inactivated and vectored vaccines, are being used for prevention and control of viral poultry diseases in Turkey. This review summarises the available information on viral poultry diseases in Turkey. It highlights the need to strengthen surveillance and reporting for diseases and addresses the vaccination practices used in Turkish poultry industry. The future prospects of vaccination and need to empower diagnostic capacity in controlling viral poultry diseases are discussed. The information presented here is aimed at improving research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases for researchers, veterinarians, policy makers and other professions related to poultry industry.
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) in rod-shaped Gold (Au) nanoparticles patterned with Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) technique are observed via reflectance measurements. Resonance peaks corresponding to the principal axes of the nano-rods are shown to be affected by each other. Excitation of one of the peaks is found to result in a decrease in the peak intensity of the resonance through the other axis. Arrays of Au nanoparticles with constant width and thickness but increasing length are examined for further understanding of the effect. As the particle length increased from 70 nm to 300 nm, resonance peak wavelength shifted from 650 nm to 1200 nm. Total reflectance intensities of samples with varying principal axis dimensions obtained through the spectral region of interest are also examined to see the relation between contributing electrons and total amount of reflected intensity. Results corresponding to both polarized and unpolarized illumination of samples are presented together to gain better understanding of lowered reflectance peak intensities obtained from the latter case. Based on the results obtained so far, nano-sized metal rods are promising tools for optically switched intensity modulation in the visible and near-IR region.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The National HIV/AIDS strategy aims to increase retention in care (RIC) to reduce HIV transmission and mortality. Previous studies have evaluated clinic-level interventions such as appointment reminders and peer navigation. However, few studies have investigated the association between multiple clinic-level factors and RIC among PLWH across the United States. We conducted a multi-site cohort study to identify clinic-level factors associated with RIC in the United States from 2010-2016. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We included PLWH with at least one HIV primary care visit from 2010-2016 at seven sites of the Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). Individual-level data collected as part of routine clinical care were abstracted from the electronic health record. Clinic-level data were gathered through a survey and included questions on site characteristics (i.e. clinic volume) as well as services available at the site during each year of the study: peer navigation, RIC posters/brochures, laboratory test timing, flexible scheduling, appointment reminder types, and stigma support services defined as intensive HIV education and advocacy regarding support to address stigma at outreach visits. RIC was defined as ≥2 encounters per year, ≥90 days apart, observed until death, administrative censoring (December 31, 2016), or loss to follow-up (no visit for >12 months with no future visits). Poisson panel regression with robust error variance, clustering by site and adjusting for calendar year, age (modeled with a cubic spline), sex, race/ethnicity, and HIV transmission risk factor, was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RIC. Clustering by site has been shown to absorb for clustering that could occur at the individual level as well. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 21,046 patients contributing 103,348 person-years, 67% of person-years were RIC. Text appointment reminders (IRR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03-1.24) and stigma support services (IRR=1.11; 95% CI:1.04-1.19) were significantly associated with RIC. RIC disparities in individual-level patient characteristics were observed even after accounting for clinic-level characteristics. Older patients were more likely to be RIC demonstrated through year comparisons due to the use of a spline; for age 50 years (IRR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06-1.08) and 60 years (IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.13-1.17) compared to 45 years. Female PLWH were more likely to be RIC compared to males (IRR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.05) and Hispanic PLWH were more likely to be RIC compared to white, non-Hispanic PLWH (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13). Although commonly found to be associated with worse RIC, Black race and injection drug use were not associated with RIC in this population. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this multi-site US cohort study from 2010-2016, availability of text appointment reminders and stigma support services at a clinic were associated with approximately 10% higher probability of RIC than at clinics without those services. RIC disparities persisted with respect to individual-level characteristics of age, sex, and race/ethnicity even after accounting for these clinic-level factors. Prospective studies examining the impact of these clinic-level factors and individual-level uptake of these services on RIC are needed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our primary objective was to understand the relationship between incident or recent stressful events and adherence to HIV care in the context of other person, environment, and HIV-specific stressors in a sample of Black women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with Black women living with HIV who receive care at an academic HIV primary care clinic in the Southern region of the United States to elicit stressful events influencing adherence to HIV care. Semi-structured interview guides were used to facilitate discussion regarding stressful events and adherence to HIV care. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were independently coded using a theme-based approach by two experienced coders, findings were compared, and discrepancies were resolved by discussion. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants described frequently experiencing incident stressful events including death or serious illness of a close friend or family member, and relationship, financial, and employment difficulties. Furthermore, participants reported experiencing traumatic events such as sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescents. While experiencing traumatic events such as sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescence may be distressing, these events did not influence adherence to HIV care. However, incident stressful events as defined above did influence adherence to HIV care for some participants, but not for others. For participants who reported that stressful events did not influence adherence to HIV care, factors such as personal motivation, access to social support, and adaptive coping strategies facilitated their engagement in care. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Experiencing stressful events, incident or traumatic, is common among Black WLWH and have the potential to negatively influence adherence to HIV care. Thus, Interventions aimed at identifying and addressing stress, social support, and coping are essential to improve adherence to HIV care behaviors.
This study examined the relations between receptive language development and other developmental domains of preschoolers from low-income families, through an inter-cultural perspective involving the United States and Turkey. A total of 471 children and their caregivers participated in Turkey, while 287 participated in the United States. Children's development was assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for both samples. Different versions of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test were used for Turkish and US samples, to measure receptive language development. Results revealed similar patterns, with some differences, between the two countries. Receptive language predicted only communication and personal–social scales in the Turkish sample, while the US children's receptive language skills were associated with communication, problem solving, personal–social, and fine and gross motor development scales. These results were discussed in the context of each country, and the comparative conclusions contribute to the extant literature by illustrating the importance of language for three domains.
There is still a need for short, practical, and daily-appropriate scales to distinguish between normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia for patients with memory complaints. This study aimed to determine validity and reliability of AD8 (Dementia Screening Interview) to detect both MCI and dementia in Turkish geriatric outpatients.
Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed in 334 patients, who attended with their informants to the geriatric outpatient clinic for memory complaints. In addition to the AD8, they were screened using Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) and Mini-Mental State Examination. The diagnosis of dementia and MCI was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria.
The mean age of the patients was 74.5±8.5. Of them, 156 were considered as non-cognitive impairment, 60 as MCI, and 118 as dementia. Cronbach's α value of the AD8 was 0.928. The total AD8 scores were found to be negatively correlated with the MMSE scores (r = −0.801), and positively correlated with CDR score (r = 0.879) (p < 0.001, for each). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.979 for cognitive impairment, and 0.999 for dementia. We found that AD8 can show dementia and MCI when the cut-off values are ≥5 and 3–4, respectively, with a sensitivity of 100% and 81.67% and specificity of 96.3% and 93.59%.
AD8 is one of the fast, simple, and sensitive screening methods for detecting both minor and major cognitive impairments. With regard to these features, it can be used in older adults attending the primary care settings with memory complaints.
We read with interest the comment by Williamson and Larner on our recent study titled “Attended With and Head-Turning Sign can be clinical markers of cognitive impairment in older adults” (Soysal et al., 2017). After the authors read the study, they re-examined their data according to the presence of Attended With (AW) and Head-Turning Sign (HTS), and compared their results with ours (Larner, 2014). Then, they found that while the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AW in detecting cognitive impairment were similar to ours, HTS had lower sensitivity (80.95% vs. 65.0%) and higher specificity (64.7% vs. 95.0%) than our results (Larner, 2014; Soysal et al., 2017). We think that some methodological and cultural differences may explain these discrepancies between the two.
Depression is a common and serious healthcare problem for older adults. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of GDS-4 and GDS-5 in Turkish, and to establish a new short-form Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for our population, and also determine the superiority of each short scale to another.
A total of 437 outpatients were enrolled in the study. A researcher evaluated all participants according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, and then another researcher applied GDS-15 to all participants. We obtained the answers of short GDS forms, examined in this study, from GDS-15 forms. After Cohen's κ analysis, we compared the diagnostic value of each question for geriatric depression according to their κ values, and developed three (TGDS-3), four (TGDS-4), five (TGDS-5), and six (TGDS-6) question scales to screen geriatric depression in Turkish population.
A total of 437 participants were assessed. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 72.95 years (7.37).Cronbach's α values of GDS-4 and GDS-5 were <0.70. Cronbach's α values of TGDS-3, TGDS-4, TGDS-5, and TGDS-6 were >0.70. The best cut-off values were ≥5 for GDS-15 and GDS-5, and ≥1 for others.
GDS-15 is the most powerful screening scale for geriatric depression. GDS-4 and GDS-5 are not eligible for depression screening in Turkish older adults. All new short scales are valid and reliable, and TGDS-4 is a practical, less time-consuming option for daily practice.
Surface texturing of transparent conductive oxides is crucial to improve the fraction of incident light trapped in the absorber layer of thin film silicon based solar cells to improve the device performance. In this work, we fabricate and compare periodic, overlapping, and random surface textures and patterns on aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) using direct laser processing. The effects of the used laser wavelength, laser operating frequency, and pulse periodicity on the structural, morphological, and optical response of the AZO films were investigated. By optimizing the laser parameters and the associated process conditions, a drastic increase up to 60% in the transmittance haze over the entire solar was achieved.
The low (high) abnormal returns of stocks with high (low) beta, which we refer to as the beta anomaly, is one of the most persistent anomalies in empirical asset pricing research. This article demonstrates that investors’ demand for lottery-like stocks is an important driver of the beta anomaly. The beta anomaly is no longer detected when beta-sorted portfolios are neutralized to lottery demand, regression specifications control for lottery demand, or factor models include a lottery demand factor. The beta anomaly is concentrated in stocks with low levels of institutional ownership and it exists only when the price impact of lottery demand is concentrated in high-beta stocks.
Comprehensive neurocognitive assessment may not be performed in clinical practice, as it takes too much time and requires special training. Development of easily applicable, time-saving, and cost effective screening methods has allowed identifying the individuals that require further evaluation. The aim of present study was to assess the diagnostic value of the Attended With (AW) and Head-Turning Sign (HTS) for screening cognitive impairment (CI).
Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed in 529 elderly outpatients, and the presence or absence of AW and HTS was investigated in them all.
Of the 529 patients, of whom the mean age was 75.67 ± 8.29 years, 126 patients were considered as CI (102 dementia, 24 mild CI). The patients with positive AW had significantly lower scores on Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive State Test, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and activities of daily living compared to AW (−) patients (p < 0.001). Similar significant findings were obtained in the patients with positive and negative HTS (p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AW in detecting CI were 92%, 37%, 31.4%, and 93.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of HTS were 80%, 64%, 41.8%, and 91.5%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.90 for AW and 0.82 for HTS.
AW and HTS are fast, simple, effective, and sensitive methods for detecting CI. Therefore, they can be used for older adults attending the primary care settings with memory loss. Those with positive AW or HTS can be referred to the relevant centers for detailed cognitive assessment.
A conditional asset pricing model with risk and uncertainty implies that the time-varying exposures of equity portfolios to the market and uncertainty factors carry positive risk premia. The empirical results from the size, book-to-market, momentum, and industry portfolios indicate that the conditional covariances of equity portfolios with market and uncertainty predict the time-series and cross-sectional variation in stock returns. We find that equity portfolios that are highly correlated with economic uncertainty proxied by the variance risk premium (VRP) carry a significant annualized 8% premium relative to portfolios that are minimally correlated with VRP.