Following the June 1982 war in South Lebanon, the Israel Ministry of Health sent a medical team to assess health conditions in the area, to assist in the restoration of local health services, and to provide additional medical assistance as needed in public health and specialized medical services. For the approximately 600,000 population of the area, public health sanitary conditions were restored by local authorities, with some external assistance. Sanitation and housing for the refugee camp populations were difficult to solve because of extensive damage in the camps; but United Nations activities, supported by international and Israeli sources, were effective. Epidemic conditions did not occur. Monitoring for specific infectious diseases showed increases not exceeding usual summer conditions. Child nutrition status was satisfactory. Medical needs for specialty services, not available in South Lebanon, were arranged through screening and referral to Israeli hospitals. Renal dialysis needs were met by establishing a dialysis unit using local personnel in a damaged and non-functioning government hospital. Private medical and hospital services, the bulk of health care in the area, functioned except for minor dislocations throughout the war and post-war period. Israeli medical aid, managed by a small multidisciplinary team, was designed to assist and, where necessary, augment rather than replace local health services.