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The Friendly Relations Declaration of 1970 may be seen as the culmination of a process of reassessment of international law in the time of the Cold War. It was the most advanced product of agreement between East and West in the field of international law since the UN Charter.
Learners preferentially interpret novel nouns at the basic level (‘dog’) rather than at a more narrow level (‘Labrador’). This ‘basic-level bias’ is mitigated by statistics: children and adults are more likely to interpret a novel noun at a more narrow label if they witness ‘a suspicious coincidence’ – the word applied to three exemplars of the same narrow category. Independent work has found that exemplar typicality influences learners’ inferences and category learning. We bring these lines of work together to investigate whether the content (typicality) of a single exemplar affects the level of interpretation of words and whether an atypicality effect interacts with input statistics. Results demonstrate that both four- to five-year-olds and adults tend to assign a narrower interpretation to a word if it is exemplified by an atypical category member. This atypicality effect is roughly as strong as, and independent of, the suspicious coincidence effect, which is replicated.
This paper tackles two questions. Our first question addresses the multi-actor activity that is visibly required for building radical innovations like eco-innovation. Our second question addresses the tricky issue of how to assess contribution to ecological transition when innovation projects are still in the fuzzy early-upstream phase. In this aim four research projects are selected and analyzed in this paper because they share a common scope—the development of new processes or materials tied to the conversion of biomass. Through the analysis of the actors interactions conducted in these projects, of their perimeters, of their sustainability objectives and of their results we show a limit of the eco-innovation capacity of these projects linked to the limits of their crossdisciplinarity.
We examine the 2008-2016 gamma-ray and optical light curves of a number of bright Fermi blazars. In a fraction of them, the periodograms show possible evidence of quasi-periodicities related in the two bands. This coincidence strengthens their physical meaning. Comparing with results from the periodicity search of quasars, the presence of quasi-periodicities in blazars suggests that the basic condition for its observability is related to the relativistic jet in the observer direction, but the overall picture remains uncertain.
Forest conservation incentives are a popular approach to combatting tropical deforestation. Here we consider a case where direct economic incentives for forest conservation were offered to newly titled smallholders in a buffer zone of a protected area in the northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon. We used quasi-experimental impact evaluation methods to estimate changes in forest cover for 63 smallholders enrolled in Ecuador's Socio Bosque program compared to similar households that did not enroll. Focus group interviews in 15 communities provided insight into why landowners enrolled in the program and how land use is changing. The conservation incentives program reduced average annual deforestation by 0.4–0.5% between 2011 and 2013 for those enrolled, representing as much as a 70% reduction in deforestation attributable to Socio Bosque. Focus group interviews suggested that some landowners chose to ‘invest’ in conservation because the agricultural capacity of their land was limited and economic incentives provided an alternative livelihood strategy. Interviews, however, indicated limits to increasing enrollment rates under current conditions, due to lack of trust and liquidity constraints. Overall, a hybrid public–private governance approach can lead to larger conservation outcomes than restrictions alone.
Rural depopulation has different effects on biodiversity and ecosystems in many regions of the world. For large carnivores such as pumas (Puma concolor) the effects are uncertain. An analysis of relationships between patterns of rural depopulation and perceptions of the risk posed by pumas among Aymara people in the altiplano region of Chile examined perceived risk, as well as self-reported losses, in relation to livestock husbandry, sociodemographic variables (age, household size, and residency status), and reported self-sufficiency. There was no evidence that rural depopulation elevated perceived risk, or the level of self-reported losses of livestock blamed on pumas. Indeed, many respondents, including older respondents and those with smaller households, reported a decline in perceived risk over the preceding five years. These perceptions of risk were not associated with self-reported losses to pumas in the previous year. An increase in perceived risk was associated with the use of guards for livestock, suggesting livestock owners accommodated their absences from herds by using guards. Absolute numbers of livestock lost increased with the distance from households to where livestock were grazed or gave birth. A cost-effective verification system for puma attacks is recommended, and further human dimensions research is required to identify the owners who complained and the costs and benefits of different wildlife species. Further interventions to prevent either livestock losses or retaliation against pumas can then be targeted more precisely.
In many areas, wildlife managers are turning to hunting programmes to increase public acceptance of predators. This study examines attitudes measured before and after a hunting and trapping season (wolf hunt) in Wisconsin (WI), USA, and casts some doubt on whether such programmes actually promote public acceptance. In Wisconsin, attitudes toward wolves (Canis lupus) were recorded before and after the inaugural regulated wolf hunt. Measuring longitudinal changes is particularly important in assessing management interventions. The attitudes of 736 previous respondents were resampled in 2013. Changes in individual responses to statements about emotions, behavioural intentions, beliefs, and attitudes toward wolves and wolf management between 2009 and 2013 were assessed using a nine-item scaled variable called ‘tolerance’. Although the majority (66%) of wolf range respondents approved of the decision to hold the hunt, the results indicate a negative trend in attitudes toward wolves among male respondents and hunters living in wolf range, both before and after the state's first legal hunt, suggesting that hunting was not associated with an increase in tolerance for the species after one year. Tolerance levels among female respondents remained stable throughout the study period.
We show that, given extensive exploration of a three-dimensional volume, grid units can form with the approximate periodicity of a face-centered cubic crystal, as the spontaneous product of a self-organizing process at the single unit level, driven solely by firing rate adaptation.
We investigate the MgII 2800 and CIV 1540 absorption features of the gas in the halo of a foreground QSO through the absorption imprinting on the spectra of a background QSO that is closely aligned with the nearest quasar. We present the results for 13 QSO pairs (0.7 < z < 2.2) that allow us to probe the gas at distances between 60 kpc and 120 kpc from the QSO nucleus. We identify absorption features associated with the foreground QSO in 7 out of 10 systems for MgII, and one out of 3 for CIV (see example in Fig. 1). At variance with the case of inactive and less massive galaxies we find that relatively strong (EW ~ 1 Ang) absorption features are present out to a radius of 100 kpc. This suggests that a large extended halo is associated with massive galaxies.
The comparison of these results with those for inactive (not hosting active black holes) galaxies (see e.g. Chen et al. 2010a) shows that the halo of QSOs is similar to that of inactive galaxies. In the observed sample we do not detect a significant enhancement of the absorption strengths, as it could be expected if the QSO nuclear activity were driven by intense gas accretion onto the black hole. Moreover along the line of sight of the QSO we do not detect any Mg II absorbers of the same strength of the transverse one. These results are in agreement with models that consider a non-isotropic emission of the QSO, which are hosted by massive gaseous halos.
Cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the pediatric population with boys having a higher death rate than girls (1). Even though only 2% of the total number of cancers occurs in children it accounts for 10% of all childhood deaths in the USA and is second only to accidents (1, 2).
The most common cancers in the pediatric population are leukemia, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors (3). Together these cancers account for 63% of all cases presenting each year. Other common cancers that present in childhood are neuroblastoma, Wilms’ tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma (3). These tumors most commonly occur in younger children while osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and Hodgkin’s disease tend to present in children older than 10 years of age (3).
The treatment of children with cancer is in the great majority performed in pediatric cancer treatment centers that are members of the Children’s Oncology Group, the single pediatric cooperative clinical trials group that resulted from the recent unification of four pediatric cooperative groups, the Children’s Cancer Group, the Pediatric Oncology Group, the National Wilms Tumor Study Group, and the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (2). This guarantees access to state-of-the-art treatment protocols and diagnostic investigations.
Incentives used to encourage local residents to support conservation range from integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), which indirectly connect improved livelihoods with biodiversity protection, to direct payments for ecosystem services (PES). A unique hybrid between these two strategies, the Arabuko-Sokoke Schools and Ecotourism Scheme (ASSETS), provides secondary-school bursaries to encourage stewardship of a biodiverse highly-imperiled Kenyan forest. Household surveys and semi-structured interviews were used to assess the effectiveness of ASSETS by comparing attitudes and perceptions toward the forest among scheme beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The most commonly identified benefit of the forest was resource extraction (for example fuelwood), followed by ecosystem services (such as source of rain). Those in favour of forest clearing tended not to be ASSETS beneficiaries, were less-educated, and were less likely to mention ecosystem services and tourism as forest benefits. ASSETS appears to shape pro-conservation attitudes among beneficiaries and foster a sense of responsibility toward the forest. Challenges for ASSETS are similar to those faced by many conservation and development projects, namely unsteady funding and the risk that the extremely poor may be overlooked. ASSETS may serve as an effective hybrid between the PES and ICDP approaches, and such educational support provides a promising conservation incentive.
A very high energy (VHE) γ-radiation was detected from a flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) 4C 21.35 (PKS1222+21) by MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes on June 17th 2010. 4C 21.35 is only the 3rd FSRQ detected in VHE γ-rays. With its hard spectrum (Γ = 2.72±0.34) with no apparent cut-off at energies below 130 GeV and an extremely fast variation of flux (doubling in 8.6+1.1−0.9 minutes), this detection poses a challenge to existing models of VHE γ-radiation from FSRQs. The most important results of observations performed by MAGIC telescopes are presented here, as well as some possible explanations of those results.
We study the evolution of the MBH/Mhost relation up to z = 3 for a sample of 96 quasars with known host galaxy luminosities. Black hole masses are estimated assuming virial equilibrium in the broad-line regions, while the host galaxy masses are inferred from their luminosities. With this data, we are able to pin down the evolution of the MBH/Mhost relation over 85% of the age of the universe. While the MBH/Lhost relation remains nearly unchanged, taking into account the aging of the stellar population, we find that the MBH/Mhost ratio (Γ) increases by a factor ~ 7 from z = 0 to z = 3. We show that the evolution of Γ is independent of radio loudness and quasar luminosity. We propose that the most massive black holes, in their quasar phase at high-redshift, become extremely rare objects in host galaxies of similar mass in the local universe.
Conservationists are raising concerns over high lion Panthera leo mortality and prey population declines in the area at the frontier between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda. Confirming if threats to lions are severe or lion populations are disappearing requires extensive surveys on the ground because aerial detection of lions is inaccurate. Yet, ground surveys over large areas are unsafe or infeasible in the war-torn study area. We used aerial surveys of medium- to large-bodied ungulate prey to estimate lion abundance in two adjoining parks: Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, and Parc National des Virunga, Democratic Republic of Congo. We validated two approaches to predict lion abundance using total counts of lions from Uganda. From this, we predict the two national parks together could have held 221 lions in 2004 and they have the potential to hold 905 lions if prey recover and lion-specific mortality is curbed. This makes the region a potential stronghold for the species in central Africa. However, a recent one third decline in lion numbers in the Ugandan Park and pervasive threats to the Congolese Park lead us to recommend immediate conservation intervention for lions and their prey. In Uganda, we recommend focused action to protect lions from poaching and retaliation, whereas in Congo, general enforcement of wildlife protection and a ground-based survey for lions are needed.
The parallel distributed processing (PDP) perspective brings forward the important point that all semantic phenomena are based on analog underlying mechanisms, involving the weighted summation of multiple inputs by individual neurons. It falls short of indicating, however, how the essentially discrete nature of semantic processing may emerge at the cognitive level. Bridging this gap probably requires attractor networks.