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A student's t-test was applied in carbon nanospheres synthesis from cis-1,4-polyisoprene considering the green chemical principles. The synthesis was carried out by Chemical Vapor Deposition method with a quartz tube reactor using an AISI 304 steel bar as catalyst. It was possible to obtain two types of different samples, one from the surface of the steel bar (catalyst) and another from the quartz tube surface (without catalyst) in the same experiment. Carbon spheres were observed in both samples by micrographs obtained by FESEM. The Raman and FTIR spectroscopies shown characteristic bands of this carbon structures (G and D). The results obtained by student's t-test proved a statistical significance between spheres means of samples collected from steel bar and quartz tube surface.
Two-dimensional (2D) quantum materials offer a unique platform to explore mesoscopic phenomena driven by interfacial and topological effects. Their tunable electric properties and bidimensional nature enable their integration into sophisticated heterostructures with engineered properties, resulting in the emergence of new exotic phenomena not accessible in other platforms. This has fostered many studies on 2D ferromagnetism, proximity-induced effects, and quantum transport, demonstrating their relevance for fundamental research and future device applications. Here, we review ongoing progress in this lively research field with special emphasis on spin-related phenomena.
To study whether there are personality characteristics that discriminate between IPV women and non-abused control women, taking into account the effect of emotional state (depressive symptoms).
A total of 176 women victim of IPV and 193 non-abused control women were assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley, 1990), the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II; Beck, 1996), and the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA; Hudson & McIntosh, 1981). Women victim of IPV were recruited from Domestic Violence Centers, and non-abused control women were recruited from Primary Care Centers and Mental Health Services. A two way analysis of variance (IPV * Depression) were used for detecting differences in personality traits taking into account the effect of depression (BDI ≥ 17).
After controlling for depression, IPV victims scored higher than control women in submissiveness (F=6.41; p=0.01), cognitive distortion (F=4.35; p=0.04), intimacy problems (F=27.02; p< 0.001), suspiciousness (F=5.02; p=0.03) and self-harm (F=4.93; p=0.03), and lower in rejection (F=14.66; p< 0.001).
IPV victims showed high submission, low hostility, intimacy problems, suspiciousness, tendency to depersonalization or derealization, and suicidal ideation and attempts, as a result of chronic abuse. Some of these aspects could be explained by the presence of PTSD, more than by pre-existing personality characteristics. Traumatic and chronic stress can alter functional aspects of the brain and lead to the development of dysfunctional cognitive and behavioral characteristics that may be considered in the psychotherapeutic approach.
Despite lithium has been used for the last 50 years as a maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, there is limited information about perinatal clinical outcomes from fetal exposure to lithium.
1. To quantify the rate of lithium placental passage
2. To assess any association between plasma concentration of lithium at delivery and perinatal outcome.
Observational and prospective study. Subjects: Women in maintenance treatment with lithium, being attended during pregnancy at the Perinatal Psychiatry Programme of Hospital Clínic (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009. Procedure: We assessed sociodemographical data; dose/day of lithium carbonate; other drugs doses; plasmatic concentration of lithium carbonate in maternal blood intrapartum and in the umbilical cord; obstetrical maternal complications; gestational age at delivery; weight at delivery; Apgar scores; congenital malformations; hospital stays, infant serum concetrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Eight mother-child diads. Mean age of the mother (SD): 32.1 (4,7); 100% caucasian and married. Mean dose of maternal lithium (SD): 675mg (237,5mg). Premature rupture of membranes (%):25. Gestational mean age (in weeks) (SD): 39,9 (1). Birth weight (SD) : 3625gr (451,2gr); Mean Apgar1min (SD): 8,38 (1,1); Mean Apgar5min (SD): 9,75 (0,4). Loss of fetal intrapartum wellness (%): 12,5. Days of hospitalization (mean) (SD):9,5(16,6). Lithium plasmatic concentration (mEq/L), mean (SD): maternal 0,45(0,1), umbilical cord 0,33(0,1), lithium ratio uc/m 0,93 (0,3); infant TSH μU/mL mean (SD): 4,9(4,6).
Lithium placental passsage was 0,93 (0,63-1,07). ≤At umbilical cord lithium levels ≤ 0.60 mEq/L, we didn't have any preterm deliveries, low birth weight newborns, nor neonatal complications.
Describe Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder's (ADHD) prevalence in Bipolar Disorders (BD) and relatives.
78 admissions for Bipolar Disorder (DSM-IV) in Impatient Psychiatric Unit, in Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valladolid (Spain). Only 36/78 patients participate in study. Demographic, social and clinical information were registered. ADHD symptomatology was evaluated from patient and descendant (Conners short version).
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in childhood/adolescence were detected in 13,9% (5/36). Conners score were negative (below 15) in all case.
ADHD symptomatology suggestive in their children were detected in 6,25% (n=3). Conner score were positive in 2,1%. Family psychiatry history in 72,2% (n=26), affective disorder in 60,52% (n=23). No family history with ADHD diagnosis. Only one case (2,8%) with symptomatology suggestive of ADHD in relatives.
The ADHD prevalence in our sample of BD and relatives weren’t higher than general population.
- Frontiers Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. Cathryn A. Galanter, MDa, Ellen Leibenluft, MD. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 17 (2008) 325-346.
- Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children.
Fiction films offer unexplored opportunities of rehabilitation for schizophrenia and other psychoses. Schizophrenia produces deficits y distortions in the perception and comprehension of reality, also expressed in the perception and comprehension of films. After a year of an “ad hoc” experience, the following technique was developed:
1) Selecting a fiction film for its narrative, affective, cognitive and social cognitive content
2) Briefly presenting of the film to a group of 8-16 patients with diverse psychosis.
3) Screening of the film to the patients and the therapeutic team.
4) Summarizing of the plot by a patient. Group correcting of distortions and deficits caused by problems of attention and working memory, as well as positive, negative, affective and social cognitive symptoms (emotional perception, theory of mind, attributive style)
5) Selecting 1-2 sequences by each patient, and group commenting using the same technique.
6) Field recording of all the commentaries obtained.
7) Second screening of the film two days after, repeating points 2 to 6.
8) Comparing both field records.
An experimental study using this technique is presented. 8 patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses watched 4 fiction films (“The 39 Steps”, “Charade”, “M”, “The General”). The differences founded in both viewings by two external evaluators (using CGI and analogical scales of the main variables) are presented and commented. An evaluation of the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of the participants was included.
Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death. In 1993, Bleuler emphasized its importance in his “Suicidal behavior is the most serious symptom of schizophrenia”. Since then, various studies have confirmed importance of suicide in schizophrenia, and today it's clear that his research and knowledge is one of the great challenges of psychiatry.
- Establish clinical-socio-demographic profile and risk factors for psychotic people with autolytic behaviors.
- Determine frequency of suicides in psychotic disorders in our area of care.
Material and methods
Retrospective study(3 years evolution) that includes psychotic patients(diagnosed according DSM IV-TR) admitted to the HCU of Valladolid. With data provided by hospital medical records, analyzed socio-demographic variables and clinics. Study consists of two groups:group of cases(those patients who have suicidal behavior) and control group (those that haven't autolytic gesture during the study period). Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS.
- The sample includes 191 patients:41(21%) have attempted suicide.
- Of them:73% are males;88% singles;51% have basic studies;61% we re unemployed;37% were 31-40 aged;54% started disease 21-30 aged and 63.5% are schizophrenic.
- Considering statistical study we find that suicidal patient profile is male(p = 0.039),diagnosed with schizophrenia(p = 0.033),with previous suicide attempts(p = 0.009)and lack of social support(p = 0.007).
- 21% of hospitalized psychotic patients have presented some autolytic attempt.
- Profile of suicidal psychotic patient is a male, single, 21-40 aged, primary education, unemployed, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, particularly paranoid, with ten years evolution,without acceptable social support, number of revenues higher than non-suicidal psychotic and a personal history of previous autolytic attempts.
UPD is a regional referral hospital psychiatric care unit, endowed with multidisciplinary equipment. It provides care to people with light/moderate/severe intellectual incapacity coexisting with mental disease and/or severe behavioral disorders. It offers attention to patients who need a protected therapeutical environment for correcting behavior disorders. It was opened in September 2008.
Description of:therapeutic goals, inclusion/exclusion criteria, admission protocol and psychotherapeutic/pharmacological interventions.
Analysis of inpatients's sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and preliminary assessment of therapy goals.
Retrospective study(13-month) of patients admitted to UPD of Leon Hospital from its inception to date. Data are collected from medical histories.
47 referrals have been received,5 of them have been rejected not to fulfill criteria. We’ve 16 patients on waiting list.32 incomes have been realized and 22 discharges have occurred.
19 of the incomes correspond to Mild,6 to Moderate,6 to Severe and 1 to Profound mental Retardation.
Regarding co-morbidity:22 patients presented serious behavioral disorder. From this group, 2 met criteria for autistic disorder, 5 had schizophrenia or unspecific psychotic disorders, 5 presented Personality Disorder and one ADHD.
10 patients did’nt present any important behavioral disturbance. From this group 2 were diagnosed with OCD,3 presented problems due to Alcohol and Substance-related Disorders,3 had Psychotic Disorders, one met criteria for Impulse Control Disorder and one presented Mood Disorder.
Before admission, 12 patients resided in specific handicappeds center, 5 intermittently at selected centers and in family, and 15 lived with family.
Psychotherapeutic intervention and treatment were useful in most cases. It was particularly helpful in treatment of behavioral disturbances. Now we must determine effectiveness in maintenance of improvement when they return to their community.
Alexithymia is a term to describe a state of deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. It expresses the cognitive-emotional state of vulnerable subjects who prone to suffer from psychosomatic illnesses. It’s characterized by difficulties in relationship and emptiness of feelings. It has been incriminated in genesis and maintenance of various psychosomatic pathologies, included psoriasis. Psychological stress is important in onset and exacerbation of psoriasis. We assume hypothesis that emotions that cannot be expressed through the appropriate symbolic language will be expressed through a symbolic somatic symptom.
A case study of psoriasis in a woman of 27 years without a previous psychiatric history. She was treated jointly by the service of psychiatry and dermatology. Methodology: We performed a detailed history in the course of the disease, summarizing vital changes and outstanding events of her lifetime in the different vital areas (family, work, school and sex life).
From the comprehensive revision of the ailments and pathobiography we can establish a clear relationship between physical-psychological symptoms.
Skin is an envelope that represents the boundary line between body-psyche. Skin and psyche interact in many ways. The skin reacts to feelings and perceptions. Psychosomatic patients feel extreme anxiety when they have to cope with separation and merger situations. They experience these situations as if they were to lose their physical limit. Broadly speaking, because of their alexithymia, they cannot process a painful emotion properly, and though they will express it through somatisation disorders and the development of diseases. In the case of our patient, the skin verbalizes her emotional silence.
To design a scale to measure perceived reasons to stay in violent partner relationships, and to carry out a preliminar analysis of its psychometric properties.
A 44 dicotomic items (true/false) self-report scale was designed (more a last open response question), elaborated according to published studies and open interviews with battered women. The questionnaire was administered to a pilot sample of 10 women to test its viability and comprehensibility. The questionnaire was then administered to a sample of 132 battered women. Exploratory factorial analysis was used to establish the underlying empirical structure. Internal consistency was calculated by mean of Cronbach's alfa coefficient.
The factor analysis identified two empirical factors: external factor (situational factor) and internal factor (psychological factors). Cronbach's alphas were 0.856 and 0.811, respectively.
The Block Escape in Intimate Partner Violence Scale is a reliable and easily comprehensible instrument mesuring percibed reasons of permanence with the aggressor. Its usefulness in both setting, clinical and social, will allow design with great effectiveness intervention strategies suitable for each case.
This study was supported in part by grant-58/05 from the Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Instituto de la Mujer.
To assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), and validate it against external criteria of intimate partner violence (IPV).
A case control, transversal study was designed. Spanish version of the ISA was administered to 405 women (223 controls and 182 IPV cases). Spanish items weights were developed. Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach's alfa, and factor structure by means of principal component analysis (PCA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to validate the ISA against external criteria.
PCA analysis yielded two factors that accounted the 69% of variance, and reproduced partially the original factors: physical (ISA-P) and non-physical (ISA-NP). Internal consistency coefficients oscillated between 0,88 and 0,98. For the ISA global score, the AUC value for detecting IPV was 0,99; and 0,89 for detecting physical IPV. The optimal cut-off scores were 13 for detecting IPV, and 15 for detecting physical IPV. For the ISA subscales, 6 was the optimal cut-off score for the ISA-P, and 13 was the optimal cut-off for the ISA-NP.
The Spanish version of the ISA is a valid and reliable instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity of the IPV in Spanish women population.
Since 1970, a relationship between cardiovascular morbi-mortality and anxiety disorders has been studied. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the possible mechanisms and has been studied in mental stress. The aim of this study is to compare the levels of two of the best known endothelial damage markers (von Willebrand Factor –vWF- and E-selectin) in patients and controls and its evolution after the treatment.
We recruited a sample of patients with recent onset panic disorder from the Panic Disorder Unit of Cantabria (University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain). Data were analyzed with the statistical package SPSS 12.0 and parametric test were used to compare the means (T test for paired and for independent samples).
We obtained measures in 54 cases and 43 age, sex and BMI matched controls. Mean age was 31.3 and 63% were women. Median duration of panic disorder was 7 months. Mean values of the markers were higher in patients than controls (vWF= 78.7 vs. 75.5; p=0.4, and E-selectin= 64.7 vs. 57.8; p=0.3) but did not reach statistical significance. When we analyzed evolution of markers in patients we observed a decrease in both (vWF= 78.7 → 74.6; p=0,058, E-selectin= 62.1 → 57.8; p=0,1) but again without reaching statistical significance.
These results could support our hypothesis of a relationship between the endothelial damage and panic disorder. The lack of statistical significance could be explained because of our small sample; therefore larger samples are needed to confirm our results.
It has been shown the relationship between Panic Disorder (PD) and cardiovascular mortality. Lipoprotein (a) is a well known cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between Lp (a) and clinical severity in Panic Disorder patients and changes related to treatment response.
Patients with recent onset Panic Disorder were recruited in the Panic Disorder Unit of Cantabria. All of them were drug naive to minimize potential confounding factors. Thereafter, patients entered in a naturalistic treatment with SSRIs and were evaluated after 8 weeks follow-up.
159 patients were included. The mean score of the CGI was of 4.2 ± 1.0 and the mean of Lp (a) levels was 25.0 ± 26.8 mg/dl. Clinical response occurred in about 80% of the patients.
There was a significant correlation between the CGI scale and the Lp (a) levels (rho: 0.208; d.f.: 147; p=0.011) at intake.
Evaluation of Lp (a) at follow up showed lower levels, without statistical significance. Only in the subgroup of patients without agoraphobia this diminution in Lp (a) was significant (p=0.047).
Patients with higher scores in CGI presented higher levels of Lp (a) with a linear positive correlation between this variables. These findings could implicate Lp (a) in the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PD.
At follow-up a trend toward decrease in Lp (a) was observed, being this reduction higher in patients without agoraphobia.
Future researches are needed to establish whether Lp (a) modifications occur at longer follow-up evaluations.
People with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are more likely to smoke, smoke more cigarettes per day and have greater mortality from smoking-related disease than those in the general population.
To describe the sample and to identify the relationship between the pattern of tobacco use and psychopathology.
Multicenter, observational, prospective, 12-month follow up study to assess the clinical efficacy of a multicomponent smoking cessation program specifically designed for patients with severe mental illness.
65 patients from 3 Mental Health Centers sited in Spain [64.6% males; mean age (SD) = 44.63 (8.93)].
(1) Pattern of tobacco use: Fargerstrom Test for Nicotine physical Dependence; Glover-Nilsson Test for Nicotine psychological Dependence; expired carbon monoxide (CO); n° cigarettes/day; n° smoking years.
Schizophrenia 64.6% and bipolar 26.2%; suicide attempts 36.9% (2.83 mean of suicide attemps); economically active 7.7%. There is no differences: in psychopatology severity between “heavy smokers” (ppm ≥ 26 or n° cigarettes/day ≥ 30) and “non heavy smokers” (ppm < 26 or n° cigarettes/day < 30) and in the pattern of tobacco use between schizophrenia and bipolar patients. There is no relationship between psychopatology severity and the pattern of tobacco use in schizophrenia patients. Finally, there is relationship between depressive symptoms (Hamilton) and nicotine psychological dependence (Glover-Nilsson Test) in bipolar disorder patients (r = 0.72, p = 0.004).
In bipolar disorder patients, there is relationship between the severity of depressive symptoms and the dependence of nicotine.
Lithium has been used in the treatment of pregnant women with bipolar disorder for many decades but information on the effects of its exposure on perinatal variables is scarce.
To determine the effects of in-utero exposure to lithium on neonatal outcomes among infants born to women with treatment with lithium during pregnancy.
Prospective and observational study including all consecutive cases of pregnant women with bipolar disorder type I or II (N = 22) and maintenance treatment with lithium monotherapy (n=13) or polytherapy (n=9), attended at the PERINATAL PSYCHIATRY PROGRAM CLÍNIC-BARCELONA between 2005 and 2012. We evaluated sociodemographic data, lithium plasma concentrations in maternal blood and umbilical cord, obstetric and neonatal variables.
No statistically significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic data between both groups. Rates for umbilical cord:maternal plasma lithium levels were higher in women treated with polytherapy than in women who received lithium alone (1.08 vs. 1.05). Neonates exposed to polytherapy had a higher weight percentile at birth (p70 vs p50) and greater gestational age (39.72 vs. 38.28 weeks), than those exposed to lithium alone. Acute neonatal complications were more frequently observed in infants that were exposed to lithium monotherapy (33.3% vs. 38.50), being all complications transitory and not severe.
The infants exposed to lithium polytherapy presented a higher weight at birth compared to those who received lithium monotherapy. However, no statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Further research is needed to better clarify safety of lithium and its effect on neonatal outcomes.
To our knowledge, only one study has assessed the risk of relapse of affective disorders after discontinuation of antidepressants in pregnancy (Cohen et al, 2006). The factors associated with antidepressant discontinuation are unknown.
To describe the factors associated to discontinuation of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) in pregnant women and the rates of reintroduction of SSRIs throughout pregnancy.
A transversal study was conducted at the Perinatal Psychiatry Program. Total sample was composed by 201 pregnant women with depressive or anxiety disorder (DSM-IV criteria) who received SSRI at the time conception. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were collected at the first visit. Descriptive analysis was performed; categorical variables were compared by using Chi-square statistics or Fisher's exact test and continuous measures were compared by t tests.
Among the 134 women in the sample, 71 (53%) discontinued treatment with SSRI when they know they are pregnant. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between women who maintain and women who discontinued treatment. Only unplanned pregnancy was associated with major risk of discontinuation treatment (OR 2.86, IC95 1.4–5.7). Also, women who discontinued medication had higher scores on EPDS and STAI (p < .05).
Nearly 58% (n = 41) of women who discontinued SSRI reintroduced antidepressant therapy during pregnancy, most of them between first and second trimester.
Unplanned pregnancy was a risk factor for abrupt discontinuation of SSRIs in pregnant women with depressive or anxiety disorder. More than half of pregnant women who discontinued SSRIs reintroduced antidepressant therapy during pregnancy.
Insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes are factors associated with macrosomia. Some psychiatric medications have well established side effects of weight changes in exposed pregnants. However, very few studies have investigated about the effects of lithium in fetal and neonatal anthropometry.
To investigate the effects of maternal use of lithium during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal growth.
A case-control study was conducted at the PERINATAL PSYCHIATRY PROGRAM CLÍNIC-BARCELONA. Case group consisted of 18 pregnant women on maintenance treatment with lithium monotherapy (n=13) or polytherapy (n=5) during pregnancy; control group involves 49 healthy women selected from an initial sample of 309. We evaluated sociodemographic data, lithium plasma concentrations in maternal blood and umbilical cord, fetal and neonatal anthropometry.
Women did not diabetes or obesity criteria pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy. Mean maternal age (SD) in lithium exposed cases was 33.5 (3.8) and 32.5 (4.1) in non-exposed pregnant. No statistically significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic variables and pre-pregnancy BMI. Caesarean section was required in 91.8% of lithium exposed mothers, whereas 8.2% of non-exposed women did not need it (p= 0.000). Fetuses exposed to lithium had greater abdominal circumference (p= 0.018) and femur length (p= 0.010) compared to non-exposed group. There were no differences in umbilical cord/maternal plasma lithium ratio between women treated with lithium monotherapy or polytherapy (1.11vs.1.03).
The fetuses exposed to lithium had a greater abdominal circumference, greater femur length and more caesarean section in comparison to non-exposed group. Fetal growth surveillance is recommended in pregnant treated with lithium.
It is well known that mental illneses are associated with higher prevalence of somatic disorders when compared to the general population. We observed that, at the time of admission to the Acute Psychiatric Unit (APU) at our Hospital, many patients have associated urinary tract infection.
To determine the characteristics of patients that present with urinary tract infection on admission to the APU
From all admissions to the APU during 2011, patients with urinalysis, sediment and culture suggesting urinary tract infection were recruited for this study.
83 out of the 229 patients admitted to the APU had urinary tract infection at the moment of admission. Most common psychiatric diagnoses in patients with urinary tract infection were: mood disorders (37.35%), psychotic disorders (22.89%) and personality disorders (14.46%) Of these 83 patients, 72.29% had a history of previous psychiatric admissions and 91.67% had a new admission with an associated urinary tract infection.
A high percentage of patients admitted to our APU have recurrent urinary tract infections. Urinary tract infections may play a negative impact on their psychopathological evolution and may be associated with the need for hospital admission.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in utero on child IQ and psychopathological syndromes.
A two cohorts study was designed. A cohort of 40 mother-child pairs with depressive or anxiety disorders (DSM-IV criteria) attended at a Perinatal Psychiatry Program between 2004 and 2006 and exposed in utero to SSRI was compared with a healthy cohort of 40 mother-child pairs, paired by gender and gestational age. The two groups were compared in terms of children's IQ between ages 60 and 72 months, assessed blindly through Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). The Early Childhood Inventory teachers’ and parents’ versions (ECI-4) were used to assess psychopathological syndromes. Statistical analysis were done with paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher's exact test.
There were no differences among the groups in maternal IQ, socioeconomic status and obstetric variables. There were no differences among the groups (exposed vs. non-exposed) in the Mental Processing Composite (101.20 vs. 106.95; p = 0.07), the Sequential Processing Scale (97.78 vs. 103.00; p = 0.11), the Simultaneous Processing Scale (103.90 vs. 109.23; p = 0.13) and the Achievement Scale (98.80 vs. 103.13; p = 0.13). The ECI-4 psychopathological syndromes rates of exposed children were slightly higher than non-exposed children, but these differences were only significant on Adjustment Disorder in parents’ reports (30% vs. 10%; p = 0.04).
Exposure to SSRI during pregnancy does not appear to adversely affect cognitive functioning. Exposed children showed slightly higher rates of psychopathology, especially Adjustment Disorder.