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Building from the base of knowledge presented in the preceding chapters, this chapter explores how the cycling of carbon in subduction zones and orogenic belts varies with supercontinent cycles and mountain building. It discusses the processes that link short-term and long-term carbon cycling and the timescales of these processes, such as the response times of weathering and atmospheric drawdown at periods of enhanced volcanism. This chapter covers topics of potential fluctuations in the long-term CO2 content of Earth’s atmosphere because of mantle–climate feedback, again taking advantage of the modeling platforms available for further exploration of these topics.
Over the centuries, Spanish historiography has attached great importance to the wars that Octavian launched at the start of the last third of the 1st c. B.C. against the population in the north of the Iberian peninsula. In this way he intended to bring an end to the long conquest of Iberia that had begun two centuries earlier in the hegemonic struggle with Carthage. Although the wars previously attracted the attention of European scholars, today they play little part in the historiography of the Early Roman Empire and even less in the biographies of Augustus, who suffered some of his worst military fortunes in this war, putting his very life in danger (Suet., Aug. 29.3 and 81.1; Hor., Carm. 3.14; Dio 53.25.5-7; Oros. 6.21.4). Even Departments of Ancient History in Spanish universities have failed to progress beyond well-worn exegesis of the written sources. This is because until just two decades ago all the information came from two historical sources: Florus and Orosius, on the one hand, and Dio Cassius, on the other (the relevant books of Livy being lost). Although they stress the importance of the conflict, these sources are excessively laconic; they have also been subjected to erudite speculations about place-names that have turned the military campaigns into a series of historiographic fictions.1
Weed management in container crops is primarily accomplished through frequent PRE herbicide applications and supplemental hand weeding. However, many ornamental species are sensitive to herbicides, and a significant number of tropical plants, ornamental grasses, and foliage crops have not been screened for herbicide tolerance. As nursery crops are produced in inert substrates that are largely composed of bark or peat, strategic fertilizer placement has the potential to significantly reduce weed growth in container-grown ornamentals. Growth and reproduction of three common container nursery weed species, eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.], large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], and spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata L.), were evaluated following fertilization via alternative methods, including subdressing or dibbling in comparison with industry standard practices of topdressing or incorporating a controlled-release fertilizer (17-5-11 [8 to 9 mo.]) to each 3.8-L container at 36.5 g per container. Fertilizer placement had little to no effect on germination of Eclipta prostrata or D. sanguinalis, but incorporation increased E. maculata germination by 77% to 183% compared with other placements or a nonfertilized control. Subdressing reduced seed production by 94%, 63%, and 92% for Eclipta prostrata, D. sanguinalis, and E. maculata, respectively, compared with the average number of seeds produced in the conventional placement methods (average of incorporation and topdressing). Dibbling fertilizer resulted in similar decreases in the case of D. sanguinalis and E. maculata, while Eclipta prostrata produced no seeds when fertilizer was dibbled. Similar to reductions observed in reproduction, subdressing fertilizer resulted in biomass decreases of 90%, 81%, and 85% compared with the average biomass of the incorporation and topdressed placements. Results suggest alternative fertilizer placements could be implemented as part of an integrated weed management program in container production to reduce weed growth.
Autonomous exploration requires the use of movable platforms that carry a payload of instruments with a certain level of autonomy and communication with the operators. This is particularly challenging in subsurface environments, which may be more dangerous for human access and where communication with the surface is limited. Subsurface robotic exploration, which has been to date very limited, is interesting not only for science but also for cost-effective industrial exploitation of resources and safety assessments in mines. Furthermore, it has a direct application to exploration of extra-terrestrial subsurface environments of astrobiological and geological significance such as caves, lava tubes, impact or volcanic craters and subglacial conduits, for deriving in-situ mineralogical resources and establishing preliminary settlements. However, the technological solutions are generally tailor-made and are therefore considered as costly, fragile and environment-specific, further hindering their extensive and effective applications. To demonstrate the advantages of rover exploration for a broad-community, we have developed KORE (KOmpact Rover for Exploration); a low-cost, re-usable, rover multi-purpose platform. The rover platform has been developed as a technological demonstration for extra-terrestrial subsurface exploration and terrestrial mining operations pertaining to geomorphological mapping, environmental monitoring, gas leak detections and search and rescue operations in case of an accident. The present paper, the first part of a series of two, focuses on describing the development of a robust rover platform to perform dedicated geomorphological, astrobiological and mining tasks. KORE was further tested in the Mine Analogue Research 6 (MINAR6) campaign during September 2018 in the Boulby mine (UK), the second deepest potash mine in Europe at a subsurface depth of 1.1 km, the results of which will be presented in the second paper of this series. KORE is a large, semi-autonomous rover weighing 160 kg with L × W × H dimensions 1.2 m × 0.8 m × 1 m and a payload carrying capacity of 100 kg using 800 W traction power that can power to a maximum speed of 8.4 km h−1. The rover can be easily dismantled in three parts facilitating its transportation to any chosen site of exploration. Presently, the main scientific payloads on KORE are: (1) a three-dimensional mapping camera, (2) a methane detection system, (3) an environmental station capable of monitoring temperature, relative humidity, pressure and gases such as NO2, SO2, H2S, formaldehyde, CO, CO2, O3, O2, volatile organic compounds and particulates and (4) a robotic arm. Moreover, the design of the rover allows for integration of more sensors as per the scientific requirements in future expeditions. At the MINAR6 campaign, the technical readiness of KORE was demonstrated during 6 days of scientific research in the mine, with a total of 22 h of operation.
The aim of the current study was to evaluate energy intake misreporting prevalence, its associated factors and its effects on nutrient intake, in the Portuguese population aged from 18 to 84 years.
Adults participants from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, IAN-AF, 2015–2016, who provided two complete 24 h dietary recall and complete covariate information.
Under, plausible and over-reporters were identified according to the Goldberg method. Total misreporting prevalence was 29·9 %, being 28·5 % of under-reporting and 1·4 % of over-reporting. The current study found higher odds of being classified as an under-reporter especially in participants with higher BMI and in those who self-reported health perception status as non-favourable. Energy intake estimation increases by 853.5 kJ/d (204 kcal/d) when misreporters are excluded, and the same tendency is observed for macro and micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the prevalence of inadequacy for protein intake decreases by about 5 % when considering plausible reporters.
The exclusion of misreporters has a small impact on the crude energy and nutrient estimates as well as on assessing the contribution of nutrients to total energy intake. However, a moderate impact was observed in the estimation of nutrient inadequacy prevalence.
The presence of a carbonate platform that interfingers towards the west with slope facies allows for the identification of an ancient lower Palaeozoic continental margin in the Western Precordillera of Argentina. The Los Sombreros Formation is essential for the interpretation of the continental slope of the Precordillera, which accreted to Gondwana as part of the Cuyania Terrane in the early Palaeozoic. The age of these slope deposits is controversial; therefore, a precise biostratigraphic scheme is critical to reveal the evolution of the South American continental margin of Gondwana. The study of lithic deposits of two sections of the Los Sombreros Formation, the El Salto and Los Túneles sections, provides important information for further understanding the depositional history of the slope. At El Salto section, the conodonts recovered from an allochthonous block refer to the Cordylodus proavus Zone (upper Furongian). The conodonts recovered from the matrix of a calclithite bed of the Los Sombreros Formation in the Los Túneles section are assigned to the Lenodus variabilis Zone (early Darriwilian), providing a minimum age for this stratigraphic unit. In addition, clasts from this sample yielded conodonts from the Paltodus deltifer − Macerodus dianae zones (upper Tremadocian). The contrasting conodont colour alterations and preservation states from the elements of two latter records, coming from the same sample, argue the reworked clasts originated in the carbonate platform and later transported to the slope during the accretion process of the Precordilleran Terrane to the South American Gondwanan margin during the Middle–Late Ordovician.
Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder, associated with adverse outcomes. Aging causes primary sarcopenia, while secondary causes include chronic kidney disease (CKD), long-term use of glucocorticoids and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate: the prevalence of sarcopenia using guidelines recommended by The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP,2010; EWGSOP2,2018) and the Foundation of the National Institutes of Health (FNIH); and analyse the relationship between sarcopenia and body adiposity in adult renal transplant recipients (RTR) . This was a cross-sectional study in adult RTR (body mass index (BMI) ≥18.5kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by CKD-EPI equation. The prevalence of sarcopenia in adult RTR (n=185; 57% men, 50 years and eGFR 55.80±1.52ml/min.) was 7% (FNIH), 11% (EWGSOP2) and 17% (EWGSOP). Low muscle mass, muscle function, and physical performance affected respectively up to 28%, 46% and 10% of the participants. Body adiposity evaluated by anthropometry and by DXA (% trunk fat) was lower in participants with sarcopenia according to EWGSOP and EWGSOP2. Conversely, according to FNIH criteria, RTR with sarcopenia presented higher waist-to-height-ratio. This study suggests that: adult RTR sarcopenia prevalence varies according to the diagnostic criteria; low muscle mass, low muscle function and low physical performance are common conditions; body adiposity association with sarcopenia depends on the criteria used to define this syndrome; and FNIH criteria detected higher adiposity in individuals with sarcopenia.
The characterization of proteome and peptidome of adolescent mothers’ breast milk brings important information to both mother’s and infant’s health; however, it has not been investigated. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins have numerous functions. The bioactivity of breast milk peptides includes anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and regulation of gastrointestinal function. We aimed to characterize the proteome and peptidome of mature breast milk of adolescent mothers and investigate whether it is affected by lactational period. We used a combination of electrophoretic and nLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS techniques, and bioinformatics to explore the proteome of human skim milk expressed by lactating adolescents in two groups according to postpartum period (up to three, and over five weeks postpartum). This is the first study that analyzed the proteome of adolescent mothers’ breast milk, produced during two periods of lactation using 1D-electrophoresis combined with nLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results showed that the protein composition of adolescent milk varies independently of lactation stage and showed high inter-individual variation. Four hundred and twenty-four proteins were identified in skim milk, of which 137 proteins were common to both groups. Most of the peptides found in adolescents’ breast milk were not derived from major proteins in milk. Association maps showed several interactions between groups of peptides that pointed to the relevance of breast milk peptides to neonatal defensive system.
Studies have examined associations between depressive symptoms and dietary patterns, however few studies have focussed in older adults. This study examines associations between current and past dietary patterns and depression in a community dwelling adult population aged 55 years and over. Adults (n=4082) were recruited into the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires in 2010 and 2014 including a 111-item food frequency questionnaire, the RAND-36 item survey of health-related quality of life and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale in 2014. Current (2014) and past (2010) dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were assessed using a mixed model analysis with adjustment for covariates. Two similar dietary patterns were identified in men and women (n=2142). In women, a healthy dietary pattern (characterised by frequent intake of vegetables, fruit and fish) was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (current diet: β = -0.260 95% CI: -0.451, -0.070; past diet: β = -0.201 CI: -0.390, -0.013). A current unhealthy dietary pattern in women (characterised by frequent intake of red and processed meat, potatoes, hot chips, cakes, deserts and ice cream) was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 1.367 CI: 0.679, 2.056). No associations were identified in men. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to understand why differences may occur by sex.
With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.
The relationship between epilepsy and the presence of visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis in Mexican children remains uncertain; however, this relationship needs to be elucidated because these parasite larvae can invade the human central nervous system. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine the frequency and specificity of anti-T. canis antibodies in the sera of children with epilepsy to determine the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy. The sera samples of 214 children were examined: 111 children diagnosed with epilepsy and 103 clinically healthy children without neurological disorders. In the sera of each group, the presence and specificity of anti-T. canis and anti-Ascaris lumbricoides antibodies, as well as the cross-reactivity between them, were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. Among the children with epilepsy, 25.2% exhibited seropositivity to T. canis. Cross-reactivity against the A. lumbricoides antigen was present in 46.8% of the children with epilepsy, whereas 11.7% of the children with epilepsy and anti-T. canis antibodies did not exhibit cross-reactivity against this antigen. The Western blotting analysis of the sera from the children with epilepsy demonstrated the presence of T. canis proteins, with molecular weights of 24, 35, 55, 70, 120 and 210 kDa, and A lumbricoides proteins with molecular weights of 70, 80 and 110 kDa. Our results revealed the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in the children with epilepsy; furthermore, cross-reactivity tests with A. lumbricoides showed the importance of the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in revealing the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy in children.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the reliability and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ to assess food group consumption in South American children and adolescents.
The SAYCARE (South American Youth/Child cARdiovascular and Environmental) study is an observational, multicentre, feasibility study performed in a sample of 3- to 18-year-old children and adolescents attending private and public schools from six South American countries. Participants answered the FFQ twice with a two-week interval and three 24-h dietary recalls. Intraclass and Spearman’s correlations, weighted Cohen’s kappa (κw), percentage of agreement and energy-adjusted Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated.
Seven cities in South America (Buenos Aires, Lima, Medelin, Montevideo, Santiago, Sao Paulo and Teresina).
A sample of 200 children and 244 adolescents for reliability analyses and 252 children and 244 adolescents for validity analyses were included.
Depending on the food group, for children and adolescents, reliability analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·47 to 0·73, intraclass correlation coefficients from 0·66 to 0·99, κw coefficients from 0·35 to 0·63, and percentage of agreement between 72·75 and 83·52 %. In the same way, validity analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·37, energy-adjusted Pearson’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·61, κw coefficients from 0·09 to 0·24, and percentages of agreement between 45·79 and 67·06 %.
The SAYCARE FFQ achieved reasonable reliability and slight-moderate validity for almost all food groups intakes. Accordingly, it can be used for the purpose of ranking the intake of individuals within a population.
To assess total sugar (TS), added sugar (AS) and free sugar (FS) intakes, dietary sources, adherence to recommendations and determinants of consumption, in a Portuguese national sample.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was obtained by two food diaries in children aged <10 years and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls for other age groups. TS, AS and FS intakes were estimated by using SPADE software. TS content in food was estimated at the ingredient level. AS content in food was assessed through a systematic methodology and FS was based on the WHO definition.
National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF 2015–2016), Portugal.
Representative sample from the Portuguese population, aged from 3 months to 84 years (n 5811).
Mean daily intake and contribution to total energy intake (E%) were 84·3 g/d (18·5 E%) for TS, 32·1 g/d (6·8 E%) for AS and 35·3 g/d (7·5 E%) for FS. Of the population, 76 % adhered to the FS recommendation (FS < 10 E%). The lowest adherence was in children (51·6 %) and adolescents (51·3 %). The main dietary source of TS was fruit across all ages, except in adolescents which was soft drinks. In children, the main dietary sources of FS were yoghurts and sweets, soft drinks in adolescents and table sugar in adults/elderly. FS intake was lower in children with more educated parents and in adults who practised physical activity regularly, and higher among smokers.
Interventions ought to be planned towards decreasing intakes of added and free sugars considering population-specific characteristics.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic baits and attractants for fruit flies on the biology of its parasitoid Fopius arisanus. We tested two food-based attractants; hydrolysed corn protein (Biofruit® 3%) and sugarcane molasses (7%), their mixtures with spinosad and malathion-based insecticides, and a ready-to-use commercial bait (Success 0.02 CB®). Malathion-based lures were used as references for mortality (i.e., positive control), while negative control was honey. The formulations Biofruit® + malathion (T1), molasses + malathion (T2), and spinosad + molasses (T3) were toxic to F. arisanus, being classified as harmful (class 4). In addition, toxic baits composed of Biofruit + spinosad (T4) reduced parasitism by 97.99%, being rated as moderately harmful (class 3). Yet, Success 0.02 CB® (T7) was considered slightly toxic (class 2), causing a 64.55% reduction in parasitism. Regarding the biological parameters of F. arisanus, offspring number and parasitoid longevity were significantly reduced by using hydrolysed protein attractants when compared to the control (honey). However, sugarcane molasses improved parasitoid reproduction and longevity, as did the honey. Lastly, ingestion tests showed the major role of attractants in toxic-bait formulations against F. arisanus.
Hurricane Maria caused catastrophic damage in Puerto Rico, increasing the risk for morbidity and mortality in the post-impact period. We aimed to establish a syndromic surveillance system to describe the number and type of visits at 2 emergency health-care settings in the same hospital system in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
We implemented a hurricane surveillance system by interviewing patients with a short questionnaire about the reason for visit at a hospital emergency department and associated urgent care clinic in the 6 mo after Hurricane Maria. We then evaluated the system by comparing findings with data from the electronic medical record (EMR) system for the same time period.
The hurricane surveillance system captured information from 5116 participants across the 2 sites, representing 17% of all visits captured in the EMR for the same period. Most visits were associated with acute illness/symptoms (79%), followed by injury (11%). The hurricane surveillance and EMR data were similar, proportionally, by sex, age, and visit category.
The hurricane surveillance system provided timely and representative data about the number and type of visits at 2 sites. This system, or an adapted version using available electronic data, should be considered in future disaster settings.
This study assessed the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of methanol and acetone:water leaf extracts from Annona squamosa, A. muricata and A. reticulata against Haemonchus contortus eggs. The egg hatch test was used to determine the effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% of eggs hatching (EC50). The role of polyphenols on AH activity was measured through bioassays with and without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Methanolic extracts mainly caused the death of eggs at the morula stage (ovicidal activity). Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts caused egg-hatching failure of developed larvae (larvae failing eclosion (LFE) activity). The lowest EC50 values against H. contortus eggs were observed for the methanolic extracts from A. reticulata and A. muricata (274.2 and 382.9 µg/ml, respectively). From the six extracts evaluated, the methanolic extracts of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed the highest ovicidal activity, resulting in 98.9%, 92.8% and 95.1% egg mortality, respectively. When the methanolic extract of A. squamosa was incubated with PVPP, its AH activity increased. Similarly, when acetone:water extracts of A. muriata and A. reticulata were incubated with PVPP, their LFE activity increased. Alkaloids were only evident in methanolic extracts, irrespective of PVPP incubation. The presence of acetogenins was not observed. In conclusion, methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed ovicidal activity affecting the morula of H. contortus eggs, with minor LFE activity. Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts showed mostly LFE activity, with a lower proportion of ovicidal activity.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.