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The purpose of the study examined in this article was to understand how non-physician health care professionals working in Canadian primary health care settings facilitate older persons’ access to community support services (CSSs). The use of CSSs has positive impacts for clients, yet they are underused from lack of awareness. Using a qualitative description approach, we interviewed 20 health care professionals from various disciplines and primary health care models about the processes they use to link older patients to CSSs. Participants collaborated extensively with interprofessional colleagues within and outside their organizations to find relevant CSSs. They actively engaged patients and families in making these linkages and ensured follow-up. It was troubling to find that they relied on out-of-date resources and inefficient search strategies to find CSSs. Our findings can be used to develop resources and approaches to better support primary health care providers in linking older adults to relevant CSSs.
Like many of the social sciences, sociology is a multi-paradigm science (Ritzer, 1975). Different approaches explain social phenomena at different scales (from the individual to the world system) and focus on different aspects of social reality (e.g. the distinction between the objective world and the subjective world). Another distinction is between descriptive and normative analysis. Descriptive analyses focus on explanation and understanding cause and effect relationships. Normative analyses focus on moral dimensions of issues and what we ‘ought to do’. While sociological approaches often entail elements of both of these approaches, most work tends to emphasise one or the other. Also, there is a distinction between sociological work that has further theoretical explanation as a primary goal and work that is more applied – that is, work that applies past theory and research to practical empirical problems.
In sociology, there are a variety of views about conflict, and the orientation of any given analysis depends upon the theoretical framework and objectives of the researcher. Thus, the approach that a sociologist might take regarding conflict depends on where her work is situated with regard to these different considerations. Some sociologists might focus primarily on explaining social conflict, such as someone studying the causes of a revolution, while others might focus on trying to resolve it, such as those supporting a land management planning process. In some instances sociologists might actually be interested in facilitating conflict, such as those who work to mobilise collective action among members of an oppressed group. Some sociologists might focus on the mechanisms that generate conflict (descriptive analysis) – such as the factors that might underlie a conflict over clear-cut logging, while others might focus primarily on the moral dimensions of conflict (e.g. how can gender inequality be reduced in forest-dependent communities). Some sociologists might focus primarily on ‘objective’ indicators of conflict (e.g. the size of a social protest, and its political outcomes), while others might focus on subjective dimensions, such as how conflict is socially constructed (e.g. such as perceptions about the social values that underlie the conflict).
Recent work in argumentation theory has emphasized the nature of arguers and arguments along with various theoretical perspectives. Less attention has been given to the third feature of any argumentative situation - the audience. This book fills that gap by studying audience reception to argumentation and the problems that come to light as a result of this shift in focus. Christopher W. Tindale advances the tacit theories of several earlier thinkers by addressing the central problems connected with audience considerations in argumentation, problems that earlier philosophical theories overlook or inadequately accommodate. The main tools employed in exploring the central issues are drawn from contemporary philosophical research on meaning, testimony, emotion and agency. These are then combined with some of the major insights of recent rhetorical work in argumentation to advance our understanding of audiences and suggest avenues for further research.