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Can private health insurance fill gaps in publicly financed coverage? Does it enhance access to health care or improve efficiency in health service delivery? Will it provide fiscal relief for governments struggling to raise public revenue for health? This book examines the successes, failures and challenges of private health insurance globally through country case studies written by leading national experts. Each case study considers the role of history and politics in shaping private health insurance and determining its impact on health system performance. Despite great diversity in the size and functioning of markets for private health insurance, the book identifies clear patterns across countries, drawing out valuable lessons for policymakers while showing how history and politics have proved a persistent barrier to effective public policy. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Master the art of vibration monitoring of induction motors with this unique guide to on-line condition assessment and fault diagnosis, building on the author's fifty years of investigative expertise.It includes:*Robust techniques for diagnosing of a wide range of common faults, including shaft misalignment and/or soft foot, rolling element bearing faults, sleeve bearing faults, magnetic and vibrational issues, resonance in vertical motor drives, and vibration and acoustic noise from inverters.*Detailed technical coverage of thirty real-world industrial case studies, from initial vibration spectrum analysis through to fault diagnosis and final strip-down. *An introduction to real-world vibration spectrum analysis for fault diagnosis, and practical guidelines to reduce bearing failure through effective grease management. This definitive book is essential reading for industrial end-users, engineers, and technicians working in motor design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring. It will also be of interest to researchers and graduate students working on condition monitoring.
In 2015 people in OECD countries consulted a medical practitioner between two and sixteen times (OECD, 2015). These care-seekers were once expected to go along with whatever the doctor decided was best, but this has been slowly changing since the 1970s. As highlighted in Chapter 2 of this book, growing awareness of the limits of medical interventions and of the lack of control over decisions about one’s own care (Illich, 1975) led to calls for equality between the patient and the health professional towards establishing a partnership for making decisions and determining the direction of care.
The notion of a more participatory approach to informed decision-making was first proposed by Robert Veatch in 1972, who suggested the idea of “sharing of decision-making” (Veatch, 1972). Evidence was accumulating that where doctors and patients agreed on the problem, outcomes were better (Starfield et al., 1979).
Conventional wisdom holds that landed elites oppose democratization. Whether they fear rising wages, labor mobility or land redistribution, landowners have historically repressed agricultural workers and sustained autocracy. What might change landowning elites’ preferences for dictatorship and reduce their opposition to democracy? Change requires reducing landowners’ need to maintain political control over labor. This transition occurs when mechanization reduces the demand for agricultural workers, eliminating the need for labor-repressive policies. We explain how the adoption of labor-saving technology in agriculture alters landowners’ political preferences for different regimes, so that the more mechanized the agricultural sector, the more likely is democracy to emerge and survive. Our theoretical argument offers a parsimonious revision to Moore’s thesis that applies to the global transformation of agriculture since his Social Origins first appeared, and results from our cross-national statistical analyses strongly suggest that a positive relationship between agricultural mechanization and democracy does in fact exist.
Ethical education distinguishes itself from moral education particularly in that the ethical is situated in the relational rather than the moral development of the individuals. From both conceptual and pedagogical perspectives, the first and second parts of the book have made this distinction really clear, highlighting the educative significance of the ethical, not only as part of students’ learning and holistic human development, but also as part of their well-being. Making convincing arguments for an innovative approach to ethical education is one thing, illustrating how it can be applied in the current public educational system is another. The latter would seem to be more difficult especially given the kinds of structural obstacles that education is confronted globally.
Chapter 10 brings the different chapters together and responds to the question: ‘How might a public education system become more ethical?’ In other words, it asks how an education system itself can be conducive to and embody ethical living in relationships, and assumes that such ethical living will require concern for the well-being of persons and will constitute a vital aspect of one’s own well-being. It clarifies that educational system isn’t a collection of schools, but instead, it is the way in which various institutions are interrelated according to the principles that define the way they work together. These institutions include schools, examination boards, teacher training colleges, local authorities, the national curriculum authority, the ministry, national school inspection offices, various institutional employers, a framework of laws, and from there, the wider global economy. To propose ethically oriented systemic transformation, the chapter outlines the nature of an educational system that is centred around the well-being of persons in the four principles, including non-instrumentalisation, whole-person development, well-being and learning as human becoming. It then explores how these principles can be applied to the design of the system, and to key aspects of schooling, such as curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation and learning communities.
The theoretical core of this book, which is the main topic of this first part, centres on three interwoven themes: the nature of relationships, that of ethics and that of education. It culminates in the conclusion that ethical education should be concerned primarily with relationships and with an examination of the educational implications of this conclusion.
The Introduction challenges three limited approaches to ethical education, that is, the teaching of moral values as a subject matter, as the fostering of cognitive moral reasoning, or as the cultivation of virtues or character traits. We argue that ethics does not consist solely in informational propositional knowledge, but instead, it requires cultivating sensitivities that constitute caring in a relationship; ethics is rooted more deeply in the social and emotional aspects of human relationships than in the cognitive reasoning of moral principles, which will not awaken the need nor enliven the ability to appreciate the differences in others; ethics cannot be reduced to a list of virtues. We further argue that these three approaches are limited not only in their capacity to enable young people to overcome challenges in relationships with and feeling for others, but also in these being situated within an instrumentalised conception of education. This conception tends to ignore the importance of living human relationships within a school community as intrinsically valuable, hence missing out a core ingredient in ethics. To overcome these limitations, this book proposes that ethics should be understood primarily in terms of engaging with others in human relationships that consist in caring and mutual appreciation.
One shouldn’t be surprised that the ethical approach advocated in this work has distinctive pedagogical implications. As we saw in the previous part of the book, defining ethics in terms of the qualities of relationships transforms one’s vision of ethical education. At its heart, such education is no longer a lesson or an acquisition, nor a means to something else. The chapters in this part articulate what pedagogy should look like from within a relational vision. They suggest that the core of ethical education is consisted of everyone’s relationships to each other within a school community. Pedagogy is constituted by relationships.
In different ways, the chapters in this second part of the book have articulated some important aspects of the pedagogy of ethical education. First is the central idea that ethical education will involve spaces for encounters and interactions between teachers and students and amongst young people themselves, for dialogue and informal exchanges that have a transformative power in their own right. Here ‘transformative’ means that they shake up the assumptions and transcend the boundaries of a person’s worldview and, through this, allow for new shared meanings. The spaces will enable students to experience and reflect on the qualities of existing relationships in the school community, as well as building new relationships.
This first part of the book has indicated why it is not enough for ethics to be defined in terms of an individual person’s character traits, as many writings in the Aristotelian tradition tend to do (Steutel and Carr, 1999). Aristotle’s ethical theory amounts to the claim that virtues are character traits, the exercise of which forms part of a flourishing life for a person defined in terms of the development of the person’s essential nature. In short, the starting point of a typical Aristotelian theory is the individual person, her flourishing, and her activities rather than the social relations that enable them. This implies that the primary ethical concern is me: How can I become more virtuous? This indicates that, in this tradition, relationships themselves are of derivative ethical concern.
What does it mean for a relationship to be ethical? Chapter 3 will provide two answers to this question and show how they are related. First, an ethical relationship requires that both parties appreciate and treat the other person as a being of equal non-instrumental value. Second, an ethical relationship requires that both parties are disposed to understand each other well in a specific way. This requires overcoming an epistemological asymmetry by reading the intentions of others according to the idea that they primarily will do some good. The two claims are related as follows: an important way of not respecting a person is to fail to understand her by succumbing to the epistemological asymmetry. It will examine this asymmetry in practice by showing how people typically misunderstand each other. Finally, this chapter will briefly explore the implications of these conclusions for relationship-based ethical education within the existing school system. These include creating spaces for sharing in which young people can feel safe, private and not judged, and where the educators can engender an appropriate atmosphere for listening and dialogue.