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The large-scale structure of the Universe is dominated by vast voids with galaxies clustered in knots, sheets, and filaments, forming a great 'cosmic web'. In this personal account of the major astronomical developments leading to this discovery, we learn from Laird A. Thompson, a key protagonist, how the first 3D maps of galaxies were created. Using non-mathematical language, he introduces the standard model of cosmology before explaining how and why ideas about cosmic voids evolved, referencing the original maps, reproduced here. His account tells of the competing teams of observers, racing to publish their results, the theorists trying to build or update their models to explain them, and the subsequent large-scale survey efforts that continue to the present day. This is a well-documented account of the birth of a major pillar of modern cosmology, and a useful case study of the trials surrounding how this scientific discovery became accepted.
Limited legal protections for privacy leave minority communities vulnerable to concrete injuries and violence when their information is exposed. In Privacy at the Margins, Scott Skinner-Thompson highlights why privacy is of acute importance for marginalized groups. He explains how privacy can serve as a form of expressive resistance to government and corporate surveillance regimes - furthering equality goals - and demonstrates why efforts undertaken by vulnerable groups (queer folks, women, and racial and religious minorities) to protect their privacy should be entitled to constitutional protection under the First Amendment and related equality provisions. By examining the ways even limited privacy can enrich and enhance our lives at the margins in material ways, this work shows how privacy can be transformed from a liberal affectation to a legal tool of liberation from oppression.
Patent ductus arteriosus closure is traditionally performed by thoracotomy approach. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is a less frequently utilised alternative. We sought to compare elective surgical outcomes between the two methods via a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis.
All patients >3.2 kg undergoing surgical patent ductus arteriosus ligation at a single institution from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Propensity matching for age, weight, diuretic usage, and preterm status was conducted to adjust for differences in baseline patient characteristics. Outcome measures included operative time, hospitalisation duration, post-operative complications, and re-operation.
A total of 173 patients were included, 127 thoracoscopy and 46 thoracotomy. In the unmatched cohorts, no significant difference in closure success was found (94% thoracoscopy versus 100% thoracotomy, p = 0.192). Although median operative time was longer for thoracoscopy (87 versus 56 minutes, p < 0.001), hospitalisation duration was shorter (1.05 versus 2.41 days, p < 0.001), as was ICU stay (0.00 versus 0.75 days, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in re-operation or complication rates, except chest tube placement (11% thoracoscopy versus 50% thoracotomy, p < 0.001). After matching (69 thoracoscopy versus 20 thoracotomy), these differences persisted, including median operative time (81 versus 56 minutes, p = 0.007; thoracoscopy versus thoracotomy), hospitalisation duration (1.25 versus 2.27 days, p < 0.001), and chest tube placement (17% versus 60%, p < 0.001). There remained no significant difference in complications or re-operations.
Thoracoscopic ligation was associated with shorter ICU and hospital stays and less frequent chest tube placement, but longer operative times. Other risks, including bleeding, chylothorax, and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, were similar.
The suffrage and birth control movements are often treated separately in historical scholarship. This essay brings together new research to demonstrate their close connections. Many suffragists became active in the birth control movement just before and after the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. The roots of suffrage arguments were deeply embedded in the same ideas that were foundational to the birth control movement: bodily freedom and notions of what constituted full and participatory citizenship. Beginning in the 1840s, women's rights reformers directly connected the vote to a broad range of economic and political issues, including the concept of self-ownership. Wide-ranging debates about individual autonomy remained present in women's rights rhetoric and were then repeated in the earliest arguments for legalizing birth control. The twentieth-century birth control movement, like the suffrage movement before it (which had largely focused only on achieving the vote for white women), would then grapple with competing goals of restrictive racist and eugenic arguments for contraception alongside the emphasis on achieving emancipation for all women.
This article argues that the politics of extraterritorial jurisdiction in the 1920s reshaped relations between ethnicity and territorial sovereignty in Ethiopia's eastern borderlands. A 1925 criminal trial involving Gadabursi Somalis began as what Britons deemed a ‘tribal matter’ to be settled through customary means, but became a struggle for Ethiopia's regent, Ras Tafari, to assert Ethiopia's territorial authority and imperial sovereignty. British claims of extraterritorial jurisdiction over Somalis amidst 1920s global geopolitical shifts disrupted existing practices of governance in Ethiopia's eastern borderlands and created a dilemma for Ethiopian authorities. In order to uphold international obligations, Ethiopian officials effectively had to revoke their sovereignty over some Somalis indigenous to Ethiopia. Yet Britons’ practical application of extraterritoriality to Somalis was predicated on assumed racial differences between Somalis and highland Ethiopians (‘Abyssinians’). Thus, Ethiopia's recognition of British extraterritorial jurisdiction would lend legitimacy to claims exempting Somalis from Ethiopian sovereignty due to differences in identity. The case reveals how assertions about race, nationality and ‘tribal’ identity articulated to subordinate Ethiopian rule to British interests and, in the longer term, to delegitimize Ethiopian governance over Somalis.
Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon (14C) dates in North American archaeology is increasing, especially among archaeologists working in deeper time. However, historical archaeologists have been slow to embrace these new techniques, and there have been only a few examples of the incorporation of calendar dates as informative priors in Bayesian models in such work in the United States. To illustrate the value of Bayesian approaches to sites with both substantial earlier Native American occupations as well as a historic era European presence, we present the results of our Bayesian analysis of 14C dates from the earlier Guale village and the Mission period contexts from the Sapelo Shell Ring Complex (9MC23) in southern Georgia. Jefferies and Moore have explored the Spanish Mission period deposits at this site to better understand the Native American interactions with the Spanish during the 16th and 17th centuries along the Georgia Coast. Given the results of our Bayesian modeling, we can say with some degree of confidence that the deposits thus far excavated and sampled contain important information dating to the 17th-century mission on Sapelo Island. In addition, our modeling of new dates suggests the range of the pre-Mission era Guale village. Based on these new dates, we can now say with some degree of certainty which of the deposits sampled likely contain information that dates to one of the critical periods of Mission period research, the AD 1660–1684 period that ushered in the close of mission efforts on the Georgia Coast.
Volcanoes cause a wide range of hazardous phenomena. Close to volcanic vents, hazards can be highly dangerous and destructive and include pyroclastic flows and surges, ballistic projectiles, lava flows, lahars, thick ashfalls, and gas and aerosol emissions. Direct health impacts include trauma, burns, and exacerbation of respiratory diseases. Far-reaching volcanic hazards include volcanic ashfalls, gas and aerosol dispersion, and lahars. Within Oceania, the island arc countries of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Tonga, and New Zealand are the most at-risk from volcanic activity. Since 1500ad, approximately 10,000 lives have been lost due to volcanic activity across Oceania, with 39 lives lost since 2000. While volcano monitoring and surveillance save lives, residual risks remain from small, sudden, unheralded eruptions, such as the December 9, 2019 eruption of Whakaari/White Island volcano, New Zealand which has a death toll of 21 at the time of writing. Widespread volcanic ashfalls can affect the habitability of downwind communities by contaminating water supplies, damaging crops and buildings, and degrading indoor and outdoor air quality, as well as disrupting transport and communication networks and access to health services. While the fatality rate due to volcanic eruptions may be low, far greater numbers of people may be affected by volcanic activity with approximately 100,000 people in PNG and Vanuatu displaced since 2000. It is challenging to manage health impacts for displaced people, particularly in low-income countries where events such as eruptions occur against a background of low, variable vaccination rates, high prevalence of infectious diseases, poor sanitation infrastructure, and poor nutritional status. As a case study, the 2017-2018 eruption of Ambae volcano, Vanuatu caused no casualties but triggered two separate mandatory off-island evacuations of the entire population of approximately 11,700 people. On the neighboring island of Santo, a health disaster response was coordinated by local government and provided acute care when evacuees arrived. Involving primary care clinicians in this setting enhanced local capacity for health care provision and allowed for an improved understanding of the impact of displacement on evacuee communities.
We report the sputter deposition of Cu-7V and Cu-27V (at.%) alloy films in an attempt to yield a “clean” alloy to investigate nanocrystalline stability. Films grown in high vacuum chambers can mitigate processing contaminates which convolute the identification of nanocrystalline stability mechanism(s). The initial films were very clean with carbon and oxygen contents ranging between ~0.01 and 0.38 at.%. Annealing at 400 °C/1 h facilitated the clustering of vanadium at high-angle grain boundary triple junctions. At 800 °C/1 h annealing, the Cu-7V film lost its nanocrystalline grain sizes with the vanadium partitioned to the free surface; the Cu-27V retained its nanocrystalline grains with vanadium clusters in the matrix, but surface solute segregation was present. Though the initial alloy and vacuum annealing retained the low contamination levels sought, the high surface area-to-volume ratio of the film, coupled with high segregation tendencies, enabled this system to phase separate in such a manner that the stability mechanisms that were to be studied were lost at high temperatures. This illustrates obstacles in using thin films to address nanocrystalline stability.
Hernando de Soto's expedition through the southeastern United States between 1539 and 1543 is often regarded as a watershed moment for the collapse of Indigenous societies across the region. Historical narratives have proposed that extreme depopulation as a result of early contact destabilized Indigenous economies, politics, networks, and traditions. Although processes of depopulation and transformation were certainly set in motion by this and earlier colonial encounters, the timing, temporality, and heterogeneous rhythms of postcontact Indigenous histories remain unclear. Through the integration of radiocarbon and archaeological data from the Mississippian earthen platform mound at Dyar (9GE5) in central Georgia, we present a case of Indigenous endurance and resilience in the Oconee Valley that has long been obfuscated by materially based chronologies and typologies. Bayesian chronological modeling suggests that Indigenous Mississippian traditions persisted for up to 130 years beyond contact with European colonizers. We argue that advances in modeling radiocarbon dates, along with meaningful consultation/collaboration with descendant communities, can contribute to efforts that move us beyond a reliance on materially based chronologies that can distort and erase Indigenous histories.
To describe the pattern of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during 2 nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 with regard to the possibility of airborne transmission.
Contact investigations with active case finding were used to assess the pattern of spread from 2 COVID-19 index patients.
A community hospital and university medical center in the United States, in February and March, 2020, early in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Two index patients and 421 exposed health care workers.
Exposed staff were identified by analyzing the EMR and conducting active case finding in combination with structured interviews. Staff were tested for COVID-19 by obtaining oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens, with RT-PCR testing to detect SARS-CoV-2.
Two separate index patients were admitted in February and March 2020, without initial suspicion for COVID-19 and without contact or droplet precautions in place; both patients underwent several aerosol generating procedures in this context. A total of 421 health care workers were exposed in total, and the results of the case contact investigations identified 8 secondary infections in health care workers. In all 8 cases, the staff had close contact with the index patients without sufficient personal protective equipment. Importantly, despite multiple aerosol generating procedures, there was no evidence of airborne transmission.
These observations suggest that, at least in a healthcare setting, a majority of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission.
Older adults’ mental health problems are a growing public health concern, especially because their rate of mental health service use is particularly low. Decades of mental health service utilisation models have been developed, yet key assumptions from these models focus primarily on factors that facilitate or inhibit access into the treatment system without taking into considering the dynamics of how individuals respond to their mental health problems and engage in service utilisation. More recently, dynamic models like the Network Episode Model (NEM-II) have been developed to challenge the underlying, rational choice assumption of traditional utilisation models. Given the multifaceted and complex nature of older adults’ mental health problems, the objective of this study was to examine whether the NEM-II is a helpful and appropriate model for understanding the dynamic process of how older adults navigate the mental health system, including factors that advanced and delayed help-seeking. Our qualitative analyses from 15 interviews with older adults revealed that their backgrounds, social supports and treatment systems influence, and are influenced by, their illness careers. Factors that delayed help-seeking included: a lack of support, ‘inappropriate’ referrals/advice from treatment professionals and poor mental health literacy. This research suggests the NEM-II is a helpful and appropriate theory for understanding older adults’ pathways to treatment, and has implications to enhance older adults’ access to psychological services.
Over the years, the practice of medicine has evolved from authority-based to experience-based to evidence-based with the introduction of the scientific process, clinical trials, and outcomes-based data analysis (Tebala GD. Int J Med Sci. 2018;15(12):1397-1405). The time required to perform the necessary randomized controlled trials, a systematic literature review, and meta-analysis of these trials to then create, accept, promulgate, and educate the practicing clinicians to use the evidence-based clinical guidelines is typically measured in years. When the severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 (SARS-nCoV-2) pandemic commenced in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019, there were few available clinical guidelines to deploy, let alone adapt and adopt to treat the surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of this study is to first explain how clinical guidelines, on which bedside clinicians have grown accustomed, can be created in the midst of a pandemic, with an evolving scientific understanding of the pathophysiology of the hypercoagulable state. The second is to adapt and adopt current venous thromboembolism diagnostic and treatment guidelines, while relying on the limited available observational reporting of COVID-19 patients to create a comprehensive clinical guideline to treat COVID-19 patients.
Design & Manufacture Knowledge Mapping is a critical activity in medium-to-large organisations supporting many organisational activities. However, techniques for effective mapping of knowledge often employ interviews, consultations and appraisals. Although invaluable in providing expert insight, the application of such methods is inherently intrusive and resource intensive. This paper presents word co-occurrence graphs as a means to automatically generate knowledge maps from technical documents and validates against expert generated knowledge maps.
This article examines provincial policy influence on long-term care (LTC) professionals’ advice-seeking networks in Canada’s Maritime provinces. The effects of facility ownership, geography, and region-specific political landscapes on LTC best-practice dissemination are examined. We used sociometric statistics and network sociograms, calculated from surveys with 169 senior leaders in LTC facilities, to identify advice-seeking network structures and to select 11 follow-up interview participants. Network structures were distinguished by density, sub-group number, opinion leader, and boundary spanner distribution. Network structure was affected by ownership model in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, and by regional geography in New Brunswick. Political instability within each province’s LTC system negatively affected network actors’ capabilities to enact innovation. Moreover, provincial policy variations influence advice-seeking network structures, facilitating and constraining relationship development and networking. Consequently, local policy context is essential to informing dissemination strategy design or implementation.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common childhood rheumatologic disease childhood and a cause of pain and potential disability. JIA has a strong genetic component and no known cure. The goal of this study is to evaluate allele-dependent effects of a novel JIA risk variant at 1q24.3. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: JIA patients meeting criteria for the two most common disease subtypes (oligoarticular and RF neg polyarthritis) were genotyped using the Immunochip, an Illumina array with dense coverage of the HLA region and 186 other loci previously reported in autoimmune diseases. Phase I association findings (Hinks, 2013) and Phase II analysis (unpublished) of an expanded cohort (4,271 JIA and 14,390 controls) identified new risk loci, including rs78037977 at 1q24.3. We prioritized rs78037977 and predicted possible impacted mechanisms based on Bayesian predictions of attributable risk, the surrounding chromatin landscape, and transcription factor binding data. A luciferase reporter assay was used to assess allele-dependent enhancer activity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: rs78037977 is located between FASLG and TNFSF18 at chromosome 1q24.3 is associated with JIA (p = 6.3x10−09), and explains 94% of the posterior probability at this locus; no other SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.6). The chromatin landscape around rs78037977 contains H3K4Me1 and H3K27Ac marks, which are indicative of enhancer activity. Further, >160 transcription factors have chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) peaks overlapping rs78037977 in various cellular contexts. In luciferase reporter assays, the region around rs78037977 containing the reference A allele had ~2-fold increased enhancer activity compared to the non-reference allele. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work provides in vitro evidence to support allele-dependent enhancer activity of a novel JIA-risk variant at 1q24.3. Our ongoing work investigates the effect of the DNA-containing region of rs78037977 on gene expression and differential transcription factor binding at rs78037977.