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This article widens the scope of the history of Hegel's reception in turn-of-the-century French philosophy by thematizing an often neglected moment, namely the years 1897 to 1927. Before the so-called “Hegel renaissance,” in fact, the Hegelian dialectics was generally understood as a “panlogist” doctrine aimed at dissolving the concrete individual in the abstract dimension of the concept or in the all-encompassing realm of Absolute Spirit. However, even at the beginning of the century, attempts were made to provide a more positive assessment of Hegelian philosophy. The author reconstructs this panlogist controversy by analyzing the points of view of some prominent philosophers of the time, namely Charles Renouvier, René Berthelot, Émile Boutroux, Émile Meyerson and Léon Brunschvicg. The aim of the article is to provide a deeper understanding of the historical continuities and discontinuities characterizing Hegel's reception in France.
The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is the main cellular proteolytic system responsible for the degradation of normal and abnormal (e.g. oxidised) proteins. Under catabolic conditions characterised by chronic inflammation, the UPS is activated resulting in proteolysis, muscle wasting and impaired muscle function. Milk proteins provide sulphur-containing amino acid and have been proposed to affect muscle inflammation. However, the response of the UPS to aseptic inflammation and protein supplementation is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how milk protein supplementation affects UPS activity and skeletal muscle function under conditions of aseptic injury induced by intense, eccentric exercise. In a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measures design, eleven men received either placebo (PLA) or milk protein concentrate (PRO, 4×20 g on exercise day and 20 g/d for the following 8 days), following an acute bout of eccentric exercise (twenty sets of fifteen eccentric contractions at 30°/s) on an isokinetic dynamometer. In each trial, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at baseline, as well as at 2 and 8 d post exercise, whereas blood samples were collected before exercise and at 6 h, 1 d, 2 d and 8 d post exercise. Muscle strength and soreness were assessed before exercise, 6 h post exercise and then daily for 8 consecutive days. PRO preserved chymotrypsin-like activity and attenuated the decrease of strength, facilitating its recovery. PRO also prevented the increase of NF-κB phosphorylation and HSP70 expression throughout recovery. We conclude that milk PRO supplementation following exercise-induced muscle trauma preserves proteasome activity and attenuates strength decline during the pro-inflammatory phase.
This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of wideband acoustic absorbance testing in otitis media with effusion.
This prospective study compared middle-ear wideband acoustic absorbance rates in three paediatric patient groups: a healthy group of 34 volunteers; 48 patients diagnosed with otitis media with effusion; and 28 patients with chronic effusion but no sign of effusion during myringotomy. The diagnostic value of absorbance testing was analysed with the receiver operating characteristic test.
The wideband acoustic absorbance rate was significantly lower in the otitis media with effusion group than in both the otitis media and healthy groups at the 0.375–2 kHz averaged mean absorbance (p < 0.017 and p < 0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest diagnostic value for the 0.375–2 kHz averaged mean (area under the curve 0.984), followed by those at 1 and 1.5 kHz (area under the curve: 0.973 and 0.967, respectively).
The wideband acoustic absorbance test is more accurate for detecting middle-ear effusion compared with conventional 226-Hz tympanometry. Its practicality and objectivity suggest that the wideband acoustic absorbance test may be a better alternative for diagnosing otitis media with effusion.
The use of endoscopic techniques is becoming more widespread in otological and neuro-otological surgery. One such procedure, endoscopic tympanoplasty, is used in chronic otitis media treatment. This study aimed to analyse the results of endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty.
Data of tubotympanic chronic otitis media patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty between June 2012 and May 2013 were analysed. The main outcome measures were graft success and hearing improvement.
Graft success rates were 94.3 per cent and 92.5 per cent at post-operative months one and six, respectively. Post-operative air–bone gap values were significantly improved over pre-operative values (p < 0.01).
Transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive, effective and reliable surgical treatment option for chronic otitis media.
This paper reports a survey on the weed flora and seed bank in an almond orchard sited in Apulia region (Southern Italy), where the following soil management practices have been compared for over 30 yrs: no-tillage, keeping the soil totally weed-free throughout the year by using pre-emergence herbicides to prevent plant emergence or post-emergence herbicides in case of weeds already emerged; no-tillage, with post-emergence herbicides; no-tillage, with mowing of natural weed flora in spring; cover cropping, with faba bean sown in November and green manured in springtime; conventional soil tillage. The different management techniques influenced significantly the weed flora in experimental plots, both in terms of quantity and quality. The seed bank was clearly impoverished after the long-term applications of pre-emergence herbicides, both in terms of richness and of diversity. During the fall period, the plots of conventional tillage or pre-emergence herbicides had less natural ground-flora than the others. During springtime, prior to the sward control practices, the plots treated by foliar herbicides or mowing had the highest total weed cover. We conclude that post-emergence weed control by mowing or using chemical herbicides or the green manure of the cover crop may be proposed to reduce impact to the soil and to promote the growth of abundant and sufficiently diversified and balanced flora. If appropriately managed, this flora can provide potential ecological services, without competing with the orchard, as suggested by the literature. During the autumn, natural flora can uptake soil nitrogen thus preventing leaching in the rainy season. In springtime, after the sward has been destroyed, natural flora can supply a substantial amount of biomass to the soil. Indicator species analysis was also used to find the species characterizing each treatment and some of their combinations. Weeds belonging to the Poaceae botanical family were significantly associated with post-emergence herbicides and mowing treatments. These species produce a substantial amount of biomass and have bunched roots; consequently, they supply beneficial effects by improving porosity and structure of the soil and reducing erosion hazard.
If you are not certain of any fact, you cannot be certain of the meaning of your words either.
(Wittgenstein, 1969–75, §114)
Things are not just as we choose to think them.
(Peirce, 1982: 358)
From its seeming to me – or to everyone – to be so, it doesn't follow that it is so. What we can ask is whether it can make sense to doubt it.
(Wittgenstein, 1969–75: §2)
Luc Boltanski's sociology has been labelled ‘pragmatic’, and the author now uses this label to characterize his research endeavour. What does this designation mean? In this chapter, we shall examine what exactly such a qualification is about, and we shall do so from a pragmatist point of view. Let us say straightaway that we do not see what is truly ‘pragmatic’ in Boltanski's sociology. From a pragmatist perspective, it appears as a continuation of the classical dualisms of European thought, and the critique it proposes seems to make the same mistakes as the wholesale generalizations of social theory. After having recalled why Boltanski deems his sociology ‘pragmatic’, we shall provide an evaluation, which will be divided into three parts. First, we shall show why and how – paradoxically – this kind of ‘pragmatic sociology’ depreciates the domain of practice. Second, we shall argue that a form of ‘disregard of the social’ characterizes Boltanski's approach, resulting from the kind of Hobbesian anthropology on which his theoretical framework is based. And, third, we shall reflect on the need for a ‘critical sociology’, including a theory of domination and emancipation.
1. What Is ‘Pragmatic’ about Boltanski's Sociology?
Boltanski calls his sociology ‘pragmatic’ in reference to linguistic pragmatics, and, more precisely, to the common distinction between semantics (which defines meaning as a relation between a symbol and a denoted object) and pragmatics (which examines the contextual uses of language and meaning's dependence on context). In addition, Boltanski explains that his sociology is ‘pragmatic’ insofar as it analyses social orders from the perspective of action and actors (Boltanski, 2006: 11; 2009: 35).
Glucose metabolism has a significant impact on inner-ear physiology. Therefore, hearing may be affected in gestational diabetes.
A matched case–control study was performed to evaluate 27 patients with gestational diabetes and 31 non-diabetic pregnant women with similar demographic characteristics. A medical history was taken for each participant, and otological inspections and high-frequency audiometry tests were performed.
There were no significant differences in average pure tone air–bone hearing thresholds between the groups (p > 0.05). However, evaluation of high-frequency hearing thresholds indicated significantly increased auditory thresholds at 10 kHz and 12 kHz for right ears and at 8, 10, 12 and 14 kHz for left ears in the gestational diabetes group (p < 0.001).
An investigation into cochlear damage in gestational diabetic patients showed significant high-frequency hearing loss. Further studies are needed to validate these findings in different ethnic groups and geographical populations.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult life is a prevalent condition. We systematically reviewed the literature available by searching for meta-analyses assessing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for adults with ADHD.
Using wide-ranging search terms, we retrieved 191 titles from the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Two independent evaluators judged all abstracts. Only meta-analyses about the treatment of adults with ADHD were included. Information from meta-analyses found was systematically extracted by 3 independent evaluators.
Eight meta-analyses were identified. Results from those meta-analyses suggest that stimulants are effective in decreasing ADHD symptoms on a short-term basis with a medium to large effect size (ES). Short-acting stimulants might be superior to long-acting stimulants, but no data on difference in adherence are available for the comparison of these two types of formulation. Bupropion is superior to placebo but less effective than stimulants. No conclusions about the impact of psychosocial interventions can be drawn based on meta-analyses so far.
The efficacy of stimulants in reducing ADHD symptoms for adults is well documented in meta-analyses, but there is a concerning lack of meta-analysis about other treatment interventions.
The available meta-analytic literature does not cover questions of essential clinical relevance for adults with ADHD.
The aim of this study is to investigate whether there were any associations between the T102C and 1438 A/G polymorphisms of the 5-HT2A receptor gene and schizophrenia. We conducted a case–control study of the T102C and 1438 A/G polymorphisms in Turkish patients.
We compared genotypes and allele frequencies of T102C and 1438 A/G polymorphisms of 5-HT2A receptor gene in 102 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed, according to DSM-IV, and 107 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
We found no significant association between schizophrenia and genotypic or allele frequencies of HTR2A gene 102T/C (rs6313) and 1438 A/G (6311) polymorphisms. However, comparison of HTR2A gene 102 T/C and 1438 A/G polymorphisms in terms of genotypic and allele frequencies between the two patient groups, with or without a family history of schizophrenia, shows that T- and A-allele frequencies were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the case group that has a history of schizophrenia in their family.
In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that the T102C and 1438 A/G polymorphisms in the 5-HT2A receptor gene are associated with schizophrenia, but further studies in a larger sample are needed.
The aim of this study was to compare the responses of colistin treatment alone vs. a combination of colistin and rifampicin in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strain. Forty-three patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Although clinical (P = 0·654), laboratory (P = 0·645), radiological (P = 0·290) and microbiological (P = 0·597) response rates were better in the combination group, these differences were not significant. However, time to microbiological clearance (3·1 ± 0·5 days, P = 0·029) was significantly shorter in the combination group. The VAP-related mortality rates were 63·6% (14/22) and 38·1% (8/21) for the colistin and the combination groups (P = 0·171), respectively. Our results suggest that the combination of colistin with rifampicin may improve clinical and microbiological outcomes of VAP patients infected with A. baumannii.
Although the role of excessive efforts to exert mental control over one's unwanted intrusive thoughts has been successfully explained and documented in the cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), individual's beliefs regarding the controllability of events, that is, locus of control (LOC), have been largely ignored in recent cognitive formulations of OCD. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between these two control-related cognitions by comparing their roles in obsessive–compulsive (OC) and depression symptoms. Measures of LOC, obsessive-related beliefs, depression, anxiety and OCD symptoms were administered to a sample of 530 Turkish university students. Results showed that while external LOC was positively associated with depression symptoms, the relation was different for OC symptoms. The interaction of LOC with a high desire for thought control was significantly associated with general OC symptoms, particularly with checking symptoms. The findings suggest that beliefs regarding the controllability of events are critical factors in OC symptomatology, but only when there is also a high desire of thought control.
The turbulent separated flow through an asymmetric diffuser with and without manipulation of incoming turbulence-driven mean secondary vortices (MSVs) from a rectangular duct is investigated by large-eddy simulations. The simulations carried out for two diffuser geometries reveal that by introducing a small amount of mean-flow kinetic energy via the MSVs into the flow, the complex three-dimensional separation behaviour and pressure recovery can be effectively controlled. Manipulated MSVs were found to enhance cross-sectional transport of high-momentum fluid, which determined the location, shape, and size of the separation bubble. The integral effect was a delay or expedition in the onset of separation. This change strongly affected the conversion of mean-flow kinetic energy to pressure, in particular for the front part of the diffuser. In addition, a substantial reduction in total pressure loss could be achieved. The manipulation of the MSVs is an efficient mechanism for performance enhancement in the cases investigated. The results have important implications for both control and statistical modelling of turbulent separated flow in rectangular diffusers.
The structural, optical and related properties (i.e. photoluminescence, photoconductivity etc.) of some natural three- and lower-dimensional semiconductor systems based on metal halides are briefly reviewed and some new results are reported. A blue shift of the excitonic bands was observed by decreasing the dimensionality or the size of the materials active part. The results are similar to those obtained from conventional semiconductor systems (e.g. GaAs, CdS, PbI2) by decreasing artificially the dimensionality or decreasing the size.
Conducting and superconducting salts based on bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, ehtylenedithioselenatrithiafulvalene, ethylenedioxyethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene, and ethylenedioxyvinylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene were prepared and studied.
A pair of oblique waves at low amplitudes is introduced in a supersonic flat-plate boundary layer at Mach 3. Its downstream development and the concomitant process of laminar to turbulent transition is then investigated numerically using linear-stability theory, parabolized stability equations and direct numerical simulations (DNS). In the present paper, the linear regime is studied first in great detail. The focus of the second part is the early and late nonlinear regimes. It is shown how the disturbance wave spectrum is filled up by nonlinear interactions and which flow structures arise and how these structures locally break down to small scales. Finally, the study answers the question whether a fully developed turbulent boundary layer can be reached by oblique breakdown. It is shown that the skin friction develops such as is typical of transitional and turbulent boundary layers. Initially, the skin friction coefficient increases in the streamwise direction in the transitional region and finally decays when the early turbulent state is reached. Downstream of the maximum in the skin friction, the flow loses its periodicity in time and possesses characteristic mean-flow and spectral properties of a turbulent boundary layer. The DNS data clearly demonstrate that oblique breakdown can lead to a fully developed turbulent boundary layer and therefore it is a relevant mechanism for transition in two-dimensional supersonic boundary layers.
In gene expression analysis, a key step to obtain informative data from reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT qPCR) assay is normalization, that is usually achieved by ratio to correct the abundance of the gene of interest against that of an endogenous reference gene. The finding of such reference genes, ideally expressed in a stable way in multiple tissue samples and in different experimental conditions, is a non-trivial problem. In this work, a set of genes potentially useful as reference for gene expression studies in water buffalo has been identified and evaluated. In the first step, a publicly available Bos taurus expressed sequence tags database has been downloaded from the TIGR Gene Index and mined by some simple frequency algorithms to find out which tentative consensuses are present in a remarkable number of different cDNA libraries and, consequently, are more suitable to be included in a starter set of candidate reference genes. To validate the potential of such candidates for their use as normalizers in buffalo gene expression analysis, an RT qPCR analysis has been carried out, in which the expression stability of these genes has been evaluated on a panel of buffalo tissues and organs. Our results indicate that ribosomal proteins L4 and L5 and Gek protein encoding genes can be useful as normalizers to compare gene expression levels across tissues and organs in buffalo.
This chapter argues that a metric based on Sen's capability approach suggests a more promising, and to a certain extent, more just scheme, than one based on social primary goods. It is divided into two sections. In the first section, the chapter discusses the main elements of the primary goods metric in relation to disability. The second section outlines the capability metric and comparatively considers its merits over the "rival" approach. John Rawls broadly defines social primary goods as those "all-purpose means" and resources that free and equal moral persons need for "carrying out their plans in life". While disabilities caused by social factors receive attention under the social primary goods metric, those resulting from natural causes, such as "any combination of ordinary genetic variations, self-caused factors, and differential luck" are more problematic, and give rise to different and more controversial responses.