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We investigate the aggregate and distributional effects of banking spreads in an economy with informality. We build a heterogeneous agents model with incomplete markets, credit frictions, and a rich occupational choice setting, in which informality is an option for both employers and workers. The main finding is that reductions in spreads for formal firms increase wages, output, and welfare but have a deleterious impact on unemployment and inequality. Dropping spreads for informal firms lead to reduction in inequality indicators at the expense of consumption and welfare. By calibrating the model for Brazil, we also find that a hypothetical extinction of the informal sector can be harmful for poor agents, but combined with a spread reduction, it can generate strong positive effects on output and welfare.
Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders, mental health literacy has been comparatively neglected. People's symptom-management strategies will be influenced by their mental health literacy. This study sought to determine the feasibility of using the World Health Organization mhGAP-Intervention Guide (IG) as an educational tool for one-on-one contact in a clinical setting to increase literacy on the specified mental disorders.
This study was conducted in 20 health facilities in Makueni County, southeast Kenya which has one of the poorest economies in Kenya. It has no psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. We recruited 3267 participants from a community that had already been exposed to community mental health services. We used Mental Health Knowledge Schedule to measure the changing patterns of mental health knowledge after a period of 3 months, following a training intervention using the WHO mhGAP-IG.
Overall, there was a significant increase in mental health related knowledge [mean range 22.4–23.5 for both post-test and pre-test scores (p < 0.001)]. This increase varied with various socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, marital status, level of education, employment status and wealth index.
mhGAP-IG is a feasible tool to increase mental health literacy in low-resource settings where there are no mental health specialists. Our study lends evidence that the WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 and reduction of the treatment gap may be accelerated by the use of mhGAP-IG through improving knowledge about mental illness and potentially subsequent help seeking for early diagnosis and treatment.
By showing how a number of temporal assumptions shape three mutually exclusive narratives, the article argues for a mediated and reflexive understanding of events, one that is more open and less likely to fall into the pitfalls of a confrontation between different versions of retrospective responsibility. The article begins by looking beyond the agency and structure debate and into the temporal dimension of narrative, mainly for the sake of understanding the relationship between continuity and change. The article covers three potential narratives, focusing on their influence on the study of events, policy, and retrospective responsibility. It then illustrates their impact on mainstream understandings of the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014. Upon describing the problems of positing strict continuity and change, both of which impact accounts of retrospective responsibility, the outline of a more reflexive, mediated approach to events and temporality is introduced, based on Hans-Georg Gadamer’s hermeneutics. In doing so, the article demonstrates the disadvantages of Erlebnis, an approach that unreflexively applies a limited set of temporal assumptions, highlighting instead the advantages of Erfahrung, an approach that strives for a mediated understanding of events.
Stigma can have a negative impact on help-seeking behaviour, treatment adherence and recovery of people with mental disorders. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the WHO Mental Health Treatment Gap Interventions Guidelines (mhGAP-IG) to reduce stigma in face-to-face contacts during interventions for specific DSM-IV/ICD 10 diagnoses over a 6-month period.
This study was conducted in 20 health facilities across Makueni County in southeast Kenya which has one of the poorest economies in the country and has no psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. We recruited 2305 participants from the health facilities catchment areas that had already been exposed to community mental health services. We measured stigma using DISC-12 at baseline, followed by training to the health professionals on intervention using the WHO mhGAP-IG and then conducted a follow-up DISC-12 assessment after 6 months. Proper management of the patients by the trained professionals would contribute to the reduction of stigma in the patients.
There was 59.5% follow-up at 6 months. Overall, there was a significant decline in ‘reported/experienced discrimination’ following the interventions. A multivariate linear mixed model regression indicated that better outcomes of ‘unfair treatment’ scores were associated with: being married, low education, being young, being self-employed, higher wealth index and being diagnosed with depression. For ‘stopping self’ domain, better outcomes were associated with being female, married, employed, young, lower wealth index and a depression diagnosis. In regards to ‘overcoming stigma’ domain; being male, being educated, employed, higher wealth index and being diagnosed with depression was associated with better outcomes.
The statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of discrimination following the interventions by trained health professionals suggest that the mhGAP-IG may be a useful tool for reduction of discrimination in rural settings in low-income countries.
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of cognitive training on healthy older adults and verify the transfer effects of targeted and non-targeted abilities. The design consisted of a semi-randomized clinical controlled trial. The final sample was composed of 80 volunteers recruited from a Brazilian community (mean age = 69.69; SD = 7.44), which were separated into an intervention group (N = 47; mean age = 69.66, SD = 7.51) and a control group (N = 33; mean age = 69.73, SD = 7.45). Intervention was characterized by adaptive cognitive training with 12 individual training sessions of 60 to 90 minutes (once a week). Eight instruments were used to assess effects of cognitive training. Five were used to assess trained abilities (near effects), including: Memorization Tests (List and History), Picture Completion, Digit Span, Digit Symbol-Coding, and Symbol Search (the last four from WAIS-III). Two instruments assessed untrained abilities (far effects): Arithmetic and Matrix Reasoning (WAIS-III). The non-parametric repeated measures ANOVA test revealed a significant interaction between group by time interaction for Picture Completion [F(74) = 14.88, p = .0002, d = 0.90, CLES = 73.69%], Digit Symbol-Coding [F(74) = 5.66, p = .019, d = 0.55, CLES = 65.21%] and Digit Span [F(74) = 5.38, p = .02, d = 0.54, CLES = 64.85%], suggesting an interventional impact on these performance tasks. The results supported near transfer effects, but did not demonstrate a far transfer effects.
The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH–) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition, plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations, and LC-PUFA biosynthesis regulation. Interactions between dietary macronutrients induced modifications in tissue lipid and glycogen content.
This paper investigates patterns of variation in economic growth across and within countries using a time-varying transition matrix Markov-switching approach. The model developed here explains the dynamics of growth based on a collection of different states that countries pass into and out of over time; in addition, these states are characterized by their own submodels and growth patterns. The transition matrix among the different states varies over time—depending on the conditioning variables of each country—with a linear dynamic for each state. We develop a generalization of Diebold's EM algorithm and estimate a sample model in a panel with a transition matrix conditioned on institutional quality and the investment level. We find three states of growth: stable growth, miraculous growth, and stagnation. The results show that institutional quality is an important determinant of long-term growth, whereas the investment level plays a variety of roles: it contributes positively in countries with high-quality institutions but is of little relevance in countries with medium- or low-quality institutions.
The effects of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on gut morphology and hepatic oxidative status were studied in European sea bass juveniles weighing 60 g. Fish were fed diets including fishmeal (FM diets) or plant feedstuffs (PF diets; 30 FM:70 PF) as main protein sources (control diets). Four other diets were formulated similar to the control diets but including 1 % scFOS or 1 % XOS. At the end of the trial, fish fed PF-based diets presented histomorphological alterations in the distal intestine, whereas only transient alterations were observed in the pyloric caeca. Comparatively to fish fed FM-based diets, fish fed PF diets had higher liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lower glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. In fish fed the PF diets, prebiotic supplementation decreased SOD activity and XOS supplementation further decreased CAT activity. In fish fed the FM diets, XOS supplementation promoted a reduction of all antioxidant enzyme activities. Overall, dietary XOS and scFOS supplementation had only minor effects on gut morphology or LPO levels. However, dietary XOS reduced antioxidant enzymatic activity in both PF and FM diets, which indicate a positive effect on reduction of hepatic reactive oxygen species production.
Over the last decade, in a major switch in position, conservatives have embraced the cause of reducing prison populations in the states and, increasingly, at the national level. The long-term crime decline and the increasing antistatism of the Republican Party contributed to this change, but it also has an important cognitive component: Policy makers have become more open to evidence of the damaging effects of mass incarceration. In contrast to previous studies, our case shows that such policy “feedback” only functions politically when a signal about a policy consequence is assigned valence and intensity by policy makers, whose calculations are heavily structured by the demands of party coalitions. On issues in which no core coalition member has a major stake, feedback can be tipped from reinforcing to undermining and vice versa, but this process depends on the efforts of entrepreneurs to change the way information is processed. In a highly polarized environment, opening policy makers to previously ignored evidence requires the cultivation of a reform cadre composed of ideological standard-bearers who can vouch for the orthodoxy of the new position.
The aim of this study was analyzed if the flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, part of the pups was evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control (C60) was fed with control diet. EW was divided in control (EWC60); flaxseed flour (EWFF60); flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Body mass, length and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined. EW21 (v. C21) and EWC60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (P<0.05) mass, length and body composition. EWFO60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (P<0.05) body mass and length, body and trunk lean mass, bone mineral density and content and bone area. Flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to recovery of body composition after early weaning.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid source and carbohydrate content on the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. For that purpose, four diets were formulated with fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) as the lipid source and with 20 or 0 % gelatinised starch as the carbohydrate source, in a 2×2 factorial design. Liver and intestine antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)), hepatic and intestinal lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as hepatic oxidative stress index (OSI), were measured in fish fed the experimental diets for 73 d (n 9 fish/diet). Carbohydrate-rich diets promoted a decrease in hepatic LPO and OSI, whereas the lipid source induced no changes. Inversely, dietary lipid source, but not dietary carbohydrate concentration, affected LPO in the intestine. Lower intestinal LPO was observed in VO groups. Enzymes responsive to dietary treatments were GR, G6PD and CAT in the liver and GR and GPX in the intestine. Dietary carbohydrate induced GR and G6PD activities and depressed CAT activity in the liver. GPX and GR activities were increased in the intestine of fish fed VO diets. Overall, effects of diet composition on oxidative status were tissue-related: the liver and intestine were strongly responsive to dietary carbohydrates and lipid sources, respectively. Furthermore, different metabolic routes were more active to deal with the oxidative stress in the two organs studied.
Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH–) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme – lipogenesis-related enzymes – increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.
The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form of cardiomyopathy in the paediatric population and an important cause of heart transplantation in children. The clinical profile and course of dilated cardiomyopathy in children have been poorly characterised. A retrospective review of 61 patients (37 female; 24 male) diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy from January, 2005 to June, 2012 at a single institution was performed. The median age at diagnosis was 15 months. Heart failure was present in 83.6% of patients and 44.3% required intensive care. The most prevalent causes were idiopathic (47.5%), viral myocarditis (18.0%) and inherited metabolic diseases (11.5%). In viral myocarditis, Parvovirus B19 was the most common identified agent, in concurrence with the increasing incidence documented recently. Inherited metabolic diseases were responsible for 11.5% of dilated cardiomyopathy cases compared with the 4–6% described in the literature, which reinforces the importance of considering this aetiology in differential diagnosis of paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy. The overall mortality rate was 16.1% and five patients underwent heart transplantation. In our series, age at diagnosis and aetiology were the most important prognosis factors. We report no mortality in the five patients who underwent heart transplantation, after 2 years of follow-up.
The Neotropics house two guilds of large arboreal vertebrate seed predators: parrots and the pitheciin primates. Both have diets dominated by immature fruits. The possibility of members of the Pitheciinae (genera Cacajao, Chiropotes and Pithecia) acting as occasional seed dispersers has been mooted, but not experimentally shown. We combined primate behavioural data and seed germination data from three separate field studies in the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Pará to analyse patterns of post-consumption seed survivorship for seeds discarded by three pitheciin species (Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary, Chiropotes chiropotes and Chiropotes albinasus). We then calculated the frequency of dispersal events for four species eaten by C. m. ouakary. All three primate species dropped intact seeds while feeding, and 30.7% of 674 dropped seeds germinated ex situ. Undamaged seeds from unripe and ripe samples germinated (29.3% and 42.7%, respectively), and all three primate species carried some fruits up to 20 m from the parent tree before consuming them. Potential seed-dispersal events varied from 1 (Macrolobium acaciifolium) per fruiting cycle to more than 6500 (Duroia velutina), suggesting that there are differences in dispersal potential. In summary, although they are highly specialized seed predators, these primates may also act as important dispersers for some plant species, and effective dispersal is not restricted to ripe fruits, as immature fruits removed from a tree may continue to mature and the seeds later germinate, a much-neglected aspect of dispersal ecology. The possibility that similar events occur in parrots should be experimentally investigated.
Free radicals are continuously generated during an organism's lifetime. In order to understand the involvement in the oxidative status of fish, methionine and white tea were assayed as antioxidant supplements in diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). For the purpose of this study, four isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain 45 % of protein and 18 % lipid and 0·3 % methionine (Met diet), 2·9 % white tea dry leaves (Tea diet) and 2·9 % of white tea dry leaves+0·3 % methionine (Tea+Met diet). An unsupplemented diet was used as the control. Key enzymatic antioxidant defences, superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzyme profile, total, reduced and oxidised glutathione and oxidative damage markers were determined. The results showed that dietary methionine supplementation increased liver SOD activity, while white tea induced higher hepatic catalase activity. Dietary white tea induced a notable increase in Mn-SOD isoenzyme. This is the first study to provide evidence that dietary tea inclusion in fish feeding could be an important source of Mn with metabolic repercussions on antioxidant mechanisms.
This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of cooperation in productive ventures, conceived of as collective action endeavours that require cooperation rather than mere coordination. It is argued that cooperative behaviour is grounded on three kinds of ‘common goods’, defined as goods that are shared and recognized as beneficial by the workers. These comprise common goals, relational satisfaction, and moral norms and values. The commonly held goods are associated with motives and behavioural rules which constitute both the reasons for cooperating and the means through which the dilemmatic nature of cooperation is overcome. It is further argued that the binding character of these rules is closely linked to humans’ ability and opportunity to communicate. Normative guidelines relative to management practices and directions for future research are also derived.
Previous work in law and political development has emphasized the role that a “support structure” in civil society plays in translating electoral success into legal outcomes. In this paper, I claim that legal change can also work in the other direction—political appointees in government can use their power to assist their allies in civil society. Drawing on in-depth interviews and archival materials, I show how—especially under Attorney General Meese—the Reagan Department of Justice invested in the ideas (through its support of originalism), organizations (especially the Federalist Society), and personnel of the conservative legal movement and reorganized itself to give these longer-term objectives more importance in the department. These investments add up to a case of “transformative bureaucracy”: the use of bureaucratic power to transform the conditions of future political conflict.