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We isolated and characterized Xenopus tropicalis hb4 flanking DNA and showed that the −3076/+29 sequence was able to drive stage-specific transcription in the developmental process. Transgenic reporter analysis indicated that green fluorescent protein was expressed in the ovaries of female frogs at 3 months of age and in both the ovaries and testis of frogs at 6 months of age. A series of experiments with deletion of the flanking sequence and a subsequent luciferase reporter assay revealed that there were two positive regulatory regions and that the most proximal sequence of the promoter region had a certain level of transcriptional activity in oocytes. Subsequently, we showed that a conserved sequence containing Nobox-binding element (NBE) was essential for transcriptional activation and that Nobox expressed in the ovary had a crucial role in hb4 transcription through the NBE sequence.
Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are one of the critical complications in Fontan patients. However, there are no well-established non-invasive and quantitative techniques for evaluating liver abnormalities in Fontan patients. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging with MRI is a non-invasive and quantitative method to evaluate capillary network perfusion and molecular diffusion. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging in evaluating liver abnormalities in Fontan children.
Materials and Methods:
Five consecutive Fontan patients and four age-matched healthy volunteers were included. Fontan patients were 12.8 ± 1.5 years old at the time of MRI scan. Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging parameters (D, D*, and f values) within the right hepatic lobe were compared. Laboratory test, ultrasonography, and cardiac MRI were also conducted in the Fontan patients. Results of cardiac catheterization conducted within one year of the intravoxel incoherent motion imaging were also examined.
In Fontan patients, laboratory test and liver ultrasonography showed almost normal liver condition. Cardiac catheter and MRI showed good Fontan circulation. Cardiac index was 2.61 ± 0.23 L/min/m2. Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging parameters D, D*, and f values were lower in Fontan patients compared with controls (D: 1.1 ± 0.0 versus 1.3 ± 0.2 × 10−3 mm2/second (p = 0.04), D*: 30.8 ± 24.8 versus 113.2 ± 25.6 × 10−3 mm2/second (p < 0.01), and f: 13.2 ± 3.1 versus 22.4 ± 2.4% (p < 0.01), respectively).
Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging is feasible for evaluating liver abnormalities in children with Fontan circulation.
A procedure to analyze the elemental concentration distribution inside solute clusters after detection of clusters from atom probe tomography data set was proposed. We developed a code which can directly illustrate an average concentration profile inside a cluster even in the case of including various sizes of ellipsoidal clusters. The profile can be with respect to absolute distance and includes errors in each data point. The reliability of the developed code was verified by analyzing an artificial cluster model which has inhomogeneous elemental distribution. It was found that the precise estimation of cluster centroids is important and that the preferable conditions for targeting clusters are a detection efficiency of over 20%, over 30 atoms in a cluster on average, and over 100 atoms for each concentration data point.
Dietary questionnaires for assessing dietary intakes among populations of individuals aged 80 years or older (the very old) are very limited. We examined the relative validity of forty-three nutrients and twenty-seven food groups estimated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) targeting very old Japanese, using semi-weighed dietary records (DR) as a reference.
Between June and August 2012 and between June 2015 and February 2016, a three-day non-consecutive DR (at two-week intervals) and a BDHQ were completed.
Tokyo, the capital prefecture of Japan.
Eighty very old Japanese (thirty-six men and forty-four women) aged 82–94 years.
The median intakes of 40–70 % of the crude and energy-adjusted nutrients estimated by the BDHQ were significantly different from those estimated by the DR. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient of nutrient intakes between the BDHQ and the DR was 0·39–0·46. About half (48–56 %) of the food groups were significantly different in terms of the median intakes estimated by the BDHQ and the DR in crude and energy-adjusted values. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the BDHQ and the DR was 0·45–0·48.
Acceptable Spearman’s correlations (≥0·3) were obtained for many dietary intakes among the very old Japanese population. The BDHQ is a good candidate for epidemiological studies among very old Japanese, although, for some nutrients and food groups, the difficulty of estimating accurate median intakes is one of the limitations for the tool. Further efforts to enhance the validity of the BDHQ for very old populations are needed.
Two radiocarbon (14C) excursions are caused by an increase of incoming cosmic rays on a short time scale found in the Late Holocene (AD 774–775 and AD 993–994), which are widely explained as due to extreme solar proton events (SPE). In addition, a larger event has also been reported at 5480 BC (Miyake et al. 2017a), which is attributed to a special mode of a grand solar minimum, as well as another at 660 BC (Park et al. 2017). Clearly, other events must exist, but could have different causes. In order to detect more such possible events, we have identified periods when the 14C increase rate is rapid and large in the international radiocarbon calibration (IntCal) data (Reimer et al. 2013). In this paper, we follow on from previous studies and identify a possible excursion starting at 814–813 BC, which may be connected to the beginning of a grand solar minimum associated with the beginning of the Hallstatt period, which is characterized by relatively constant 14C ages in the period from 800–400 BC. We compare results of annual 14C measurements from tree rings of sequoia (California) and cedar (Japan), and compare these results to other identified excursions, as well as geomagnetic data. We note that the structure of the increase from 813 BC is similar to the increase at 5480 BC, suggesting a related origin. We also assess whether there are different kinds of events that may be observed and may be consistent with different types of solar phenomena, or other explanations.
We will report the activities of the VERA single-dish observations. We are carrying out single-dish observations with two purposes. The first purpose is the monitoring of known H2O maser sources. At present, we are carrying out monitoring observations for 312 H2O maser sources at intervals of two months. The second purpose is the search for new water maser sources. We selected 901 target sources from the AKARI FIS Bright Source Catalogue. We found 61 new H2O maser sources.
Studies of Galactic LPVs based on astrometric VLBI are presented. We use a VLBI array, “VERA”, to measure parallaxes and calibrate the K-band period luminosity relation (PLR) of the Galactic Miras. Since the PLR offers a distance indicator, its calibration is crucial to reveal their spatial distribution. Parallaxes of dozens of LPVs are presented. For the longer period stars, the mass-loss is high and the stars are obscured and recognized as OH/IR stars. We estimated mid-infrared absolute magnitudes of dozens of OH/IR stars and found that they show a loose concentration around −14 mag at λ of 11.6 μm, indicating an existence of PLR for OH/IR stars. Astrometry of OH/IR stars will also help us to study non-steady spiral arms as proposed from the latest simulation study of the galactic dynamics. We will start astrometric VLBI observation of two OH/IR stars NSV25875 and OH127.8+0.0 at 43 GHz with VERA.
We have conducted astrometric observations toward a 22 GHz water maser source associated with the Sgr B2 complex in the Galactic center region with VERA (VLBI exploration of Radio Astrometry). We measured a trigonometric parallax and absolute proper motion of the Sgr B2 complex with respect to an extra-galactic source by observing the water maser source at 10 epochs from 2014 to 2017. The measured distance was 7.52+3.01−1.67 kpc for the Sgr B2M region.
We also succeeded to measure internal motions of maser spots in Sgr B2M, and N region. The number of spots which we could measure the internal motions is about 400. The distribution of the maser spots shows that the maser spots are associated with envelope of HII region seen in radio continuum image obtained with VLA and ALMA. We discuss relative motions between Sgr B2M, and N by using the internal motion.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
MoS2(1−x)Te2x thin films were fabricated by high-temperature co-sputtering deposition and post-deposition tellurization annealing using novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te for the first time. As a result, high crystal quality MoS2(1−x)Te2x (6.5 nm) were successfully fabricated with the Te concentration x ranging from 0.48 to 0.61 and band gap value from 0.80 to 0.87 eV. From the obtained band gap values of MoS2(1−x)Te2x, the bowing parameter b was determined to be 1.06 eV. When exploited in device use, if the required band gap value is known, the required composition can be calculated with the bowing parameter. We have also shown the compatibility of co-sputtering to alloy fabrication since the composition ratio can be easily controlled just by adjusting the radio frequency (RF) sputter power on different targets. The fabrication method can be applied to different transition metal dichalcogenide materials as well.
Practical use of Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) depends on thorough understanding of the resistive switching (RS) mechanism in polycrystalline metal oxide films. Based on experimental and theoretical results of NiO based ReRAM, we have proposed a grain surface tiling model, in which grain surfaces (i.e. grain boundaries) are composed by insulating and conductive micro surface structures. This paper reports the adequacy of our model to the NiO based ReRAM and universality of surface electronic properties in metal oxides of NiO, CoO and MgO. Experimental results of RS operating modes suggest that the resistance changes in the grain boundaries, supporting our model. First-principles calculation results suggest that our model can be adopted to other metal oxide materials and the RS from a low resistance to a high resistance can be caused at 1000 K, which agrees with previous experimental reports.
The structure changes and lithium intercalation properties in the surface region of Li4Ti5O12 were investigated using epitaxial Li4Ti5O12(111) film model electrodes. The discharge–charge measurements, which were conducted with 1 mol/dm3 LiPF6-containing propylene carbonate, revealed that a 23.8 nm-thick film exhibited a small capacity of 115 mA h/g compared to the theoretical value of 175 mA h/g. In situ neutron reflectometry and ex situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry indicated that an irreversible phase change had occurred in the 10-nm surface region of Li4Ti5O12 during the initial reaction processes. The level of deterioration of the surface structure was significantly reduced by decreasing the LiPF6 concentration; in addition, side reactions of the cell components with the electrolyte species, and their products, may be associated with the deterioration of the Li4Ti5O12 surface. The surface reactions have a significant impact on the capacity of lithium intercalation in nano-sized Li4Ti5O12.
A rapid yearly increase in the radiocarbon content has been detected for the period from AD 993 to 994. However, this event is supported by the 14C measurements of only one cedar tree sample, and verification is necessary to confirm this event more reliably. For this purpose, this study measured the 14C content in Japanese Hinoki tree rings corresponding to the period from AD 988 to 997 using the accelerator mass spectrometry system at Yamagata University (YU-AMS). The result shows a significant 14C increase from AD 993 to 994, and is consistent with the previously measured data for the Japanese cedar tree. This marks the second case detecting an increased 14C level corresponding to the AD 994 event.
Progress in radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) techniques enables much more access to wiggle-matching techniques for high-precision 14C dating with relatively low costs than before. Recently, we have applied wiggle-matching for a number of wood samples where dendrochronology is difficult because of various limitations imposed for dendro-dating. In most cases, wiggle-matching gave rather unambiguous calendar ages, but we found that in some cases the calibrated date was very sensitive to a systematic error of the 14C date. Here, we present a wooden artifact from the Ujishigai archaeological site as a case where the highest wiggle-matched date did not agree with the date given by dendrochronology. An age with lower probability agreed with the tree-ring age of AD 389, which marked the beginning of the production of Sue ware (unglazed stoneware) in Japan. We show that systematic errors must be carefully taken into account while interpreting 14C wiggle-matching results, whether they are due to instrumental errors (statistical) or due to a regional offset from the IntCal04 (Reimer et al. 2004) calibration curve.
We compared 2 archaeological relics of different preservation environments, white substances adhering to a vessel from the Matsusaki site and to earthenware from Hirohata, by measuring their environmental radioactivity, 14C, 228Ra/226Ra, 234U/238U, and 87Sr/86Sr, and major element contents (Ca, Sr, Mg, Fe, and Mn). The results showed that the 2 materials were somewhat different and also reflected differences in their preservation environments. The chemical elements that were more abundant in the Matsusaki sample than in the Hirohata sample, Fe, Mn, 238U, and 232Th (parent of 228Ra), are also abundant in seaweed or seagrass. Contamination by 14C derived from rainwater after atmospheric nuclear tests was clearly observed in the white substance from Hirohata.
In order to investigate the regional atmospheric radiocarbon offset, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C measurements were made on 5-yr increments of a Japanese wood sample dendrochronologically dated to 820–436 BC. The 14C data from the Japanese tree-ring samples were compared with the IntCal04 calibration curve (Reimer et al. 2004). In most parts, the differences between IntCal04 and 14C dates in the Japanese tree-ring samples were within experimental statistical errors. At around 680 BC, however, significant differences of up to 100 14C yr were observed. These differences may indicate either regional offsets in Japan or the short-term fluctuation of a subdecadal timescale in atmospheric 14C variations.
The radiocarbon content of Japanese cedars was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry for decadal tree-ring samples from the period of 240 BC to AD 900. Conventional gas counting was also used for part of the samples. The data were compared with the INTCAL98 calibration curve (Stuiver et al. 1998). The results indicate that the difference in atmospheric 14C between Japan and North America or Europe is negligible at this period, less than 18 14C yr using an average of 50 yr. However, in the period of about AD 100 to about AD 200, we cannot exclude the possibility of a deviation of the order of 30 to 40 14C yr to the older ages.
The Galactic centre region shows outstanding non-circular motion unlike the Galactic disk. As scenarios describing this non-circular motion, resonance orbits formed by the Galactic bar potential or expanding motion by past activity of the central BH are proposed. However, these both scenarios are based on line-of-sight velocities of molecular clouds in this region, and such one-dimension velocity information is insufficient to separate these scenarios.
To reveal dynamics of the Galactic centre region, we conducted astromertic observations of 22 GHz water maser sources toward the Galactic centre direction. We conducted astrometric observations toward water maser source associated with Sgr D HII region. As a result, we succeeded to measure the parallax and proper motion of the maser source. The measured distance was 2.36(+0.58/-0.39) kpc. This result clearly indicates that this source is not associated with the Galactic centre, but located on the Galactic disk.
For practical use of Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM), understanding resistive switching mechanism in transition metal oxides (TMO) is important. Some papers predict its mechanism by using first principles calculation; for example, TMO become conductive by introducing oxygen vacancy in bulk single crystalline TMO. However, most of ReRAM samples have polycrystalline structures. In this paper, we introduced a periodic slab model to depict grain boundary and calculated the surface energy and density of states for surfaces of NiO with various orientations using first-principles calculation to consider the effect of grain boundaries for resistive switching mechanisms of ReRAM. As a results, vacancies can be formed on the side surface of grain more easily than in grain. Moreover, we showed that surface conductivity depends on surface orientation of NiO and the orientation of side surface of grain can change easily by introduction of vacancies, which is the switching mechanism of NiO-ReRAM
It is widely received that resistive switching in electrode (EL)/metal oxide (MO)/EL cell is caused by formation and rupture of a conductive filament (CF) consisting of oxygen vacancies, VO’s. However, driving forces that migrate VO’s are not elucidated yet. Considering an experimental fact that good data endurance more than 106 cycles is often observed, an isotropic driving force that gathers oxygen vacancies and form a CF for set switching is required instead of an electric field drift that is widely received as the driving force of set switching.
In this paper, we reexamined driving forces and succeeded in reproducing pulse response data for wide rise time, trise, range by simulating VO migration assuming Fick and Soret diffusion, without including the electric-field drift. Therefore, it was suggested that controlling T distribution considering the waveforms of write/erase pulses and the thermodynamic parameters of ELs as well as MO is crucial for the optimization of switching speed of ReRAM.