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The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibility for morphologically controlled polydiacetylene (PDA) nanocrystals (NCs) and PDA nanofibers (NFs) have been determined for the first time by the experimental combination of transient pump-probe spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The figure of the merit of PDA NFs was much superior to PDA NCs and/or PDA bulk crystals, and the excitonic relaxation time was of order of sub-pico second. Namely, this is the first case to reveal the morphological effect on NLO response. PDA NFs having the long effective π-conjugation length are one of the most promising organic third-order NLO nanomaterials toward the photonic device application.
To design interactive behaviours for their products designers/makers have to use high fidelity tools like ‘electronic prototyping kits’, involving sensors and programming to incorporate interactions in their products and are dependent on availability of hardware. Not every designer is comfortable using such tools to ideate and test their concept ideas, eventually slowing them down in the process. Thus, there is a need for a design tool that reduces dependence on complex components of such tools while exploring new concepts for product design at an early stage. In this work, we propose a Mixed Reality system that we developed to simulate interactive behaviours of products using designed visual interaction blocks. The system is implemented in three stages: idea generation, creating interactions and revision of interactive behaviours. The implemented virtual scenario showed to elicit high motivation and appeal among users resulting in inventive and creative design experience at the same time. As a result, designers will be able to create and revise their interaction-behavioural design concepts virtually with relative ease, resulting in higher concept generation and their validation.
In medical practice, a patient’s loss of competency is a major obstacle when choosing a treatment and a starting treatment program smoothly. A large number of studies have revealed the lack of medical competency in patients with dementia. However, there have been only a few reports focusing on the capacity of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to make a medical choice.
In this study, we evaluated the competency of 40 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 33 normal subjects to make a medical choice using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T). We compared the judgement of a team conference using the recorded semi-structured interview with the clinical judgement of a chief clinician.
A team conference concluded that 12 aMCI patients had no competency, and the clinical judgement, without any special interview, judged that five aMCI patients had no competency. All subjects in the control groups were judged to be competent to consent to treatment by both clinicians and the team conference.
Without supplementary tools such as explanatory documents, not a few patients with aMCI were judged by a team conference to have no competency to consent to therapy even in a relatively simple and easy case. In contrast, clinical physicians tended to evaluate the competency of aMCI patients in a generous manner.
Major earthquakes with a magnitude of 8-9 are anticipated to occur in the next 30 years at a 60 percent chance on the southern coast of Japan. Since the most part of our Prefecture is likely to be damaged by tsunami and landslides, residents are expected to take a self-reliant approach on the initial several days after the earthquakes and tsunami.
To improve the resilience of the local communities we have developed and applied an educational program of disaster response.
An active learning program was designed on roles of rescuers and sufferers, and conducted two-hour sessions for high school students using a scenario in which they encountered an earthquake during a field trip. Half of the participants were assigned to play students on a field trip and asked to discuss options as a small group to survive and secure their safety in an isolated situation after an earthquake. They exchanged ideas to stay alive, cooperate with local residents and request disaster assistance using very short radio messages to the appropriate counterpart. The other half of the participants were assigned to be school administrations and asked to estimate the situation of sufferers. Their task as a small group was to organize assistance based on the best assumption from the limited information of the isolated students and local villagers.
After the sessions, the participants expressed their discovery in the discrepancy of situational recognition between the two groups and they learned about assumption-based planning as well as good information sharing.
Through this program, the participants experienced simulated situations and learned perspectives from both sides; providing relief as rescuers and receiving aid as sufferers. The participants were motivated to share and utilize their knowledge and skills to make their community resilient to disasters.
We provide a mathematical category theory account of the size and location of the authors' Functional View Field (FVF). Category theory explains systematic cognitive ability via universal construction, that is, a necessary and sufficient condition for composition of cognitive processes. Similarly, FVF size and location is derived from a (universal) construction called a fibre (pullback) bundle.
There are some regions where it is difficult to exclude the possibility of appearance of new volcanic activity on the site even if the geological disposal site is located far from existing volcanos in Japan. In order to identify the influence of volcanic eruption at the site to the public if it occurs, public exposure doses were evaluated based on the two scenarios considering types of eruption at new volcanic activity in Japan. One is the exposure by volcanic ash widespread by Strombolian eruption and deposited on the ground surface, including radionuclides from vitrified waste forms after a volcanic conduit penetrated the repository. The other is that by waste forms appeared at the ground surface by Merapi type pyroclastic flow. Exposure doses of the residents living on the volcanic ash do not exceed 1mSv/y even when the eruption occurs at 1,000 years after closure of disposal site. Exposure dose rate for the volcanic researchers temporarily approaching naked waste forms without realizing radioactive wastes is 0.8mSv/h when the eruption occurs 100,000 years after. It indicated that attention should be paid to the influence by Merapi type pyroclastic flow on researchers approaching waste forms appeared rather than that by Strombolian eruption on residents living on the volcanic ash widespread.
A disposal measure for fuel debris generated at the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has been studied so far. However, physical and chemical properties of the fuel debris located in reactor containment vessels have not yet been obtained. In order to investigate the safety function of barriers required for disposal of fuel debris, sensitivity analysis for radionuclide migration was carried out, considering with uncertainty of the properties. As a result, it is indicated that it was important for evaluation of fuel debris disposal to obtain the physical and chemical properties of 14C and 129I during release to groundwater, in addition to 238U.
Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia is often difficult in patients after surgery for CHD. In patients with a ventricular septal defect patch, it is necessary to decide which ventricular side is appropriate for catheter ablation. In this article, we report a case of successful point catheter ablation of re-entrant ventricular tachycardia. Identification of the ventricular septal defect patch using intra-cardiac echocardiography was useful.
We performed N-body simulations of dense particulate disks and quantitatively analyzed angular momentum transfer processes therein. Angular momentum transfer is dominated by both gravitational torque and particles' collective motion associated with the structure. These processes depend on surface density, and do not depend on particle size or number if the structure is resolved enough.
It is important to provide formula-fed infants with a bifidobacteria-enriched gut microbiota similar to those of breastfed infants to ensure intestinal health. Prebiotics, such as certain oligosaccharides, are a useful solution to this problem, but the combinational benefits of these oligosaccharides have not been evaluated. This study investigated the benefits of oligosaccharide combinations and screened for an optimal combination of oligosaccharides to promote healthy gut microbiota of formula-fed infants. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to assess the bifidogenic effects of lactulose (LAC) alone and LAC combined with raffinose (RAF) and/or galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), using a mixed culture model and neonatal mice orally administered with these oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve. In the in vitro culture model, the combination of the three oligosaccharides (LAC–RAF–GOS) significantly increased cell numbers of B. breve and Bifidobacterium longum (P<0·05) compared with either LAC alone or the combination of two oligosaccharides, and resulted in the production of SCFA under anaerobic conditions. In the in vivo experiment, the LAC–RAF–GOS combination significantly increased cell numbers of B. breve and Bacteroidetes in the large intestinal content (P<0·05) and increased acetate concentrations in the caecal content and serum of neonatal mice. Genes related to metabolism and immune responses were differentially expressed in the liver and large intestine of mice administered with LAC–RAF–GOS. These results indicate a synergistic effect of the LAC–RAF–GOS combination on the growth of bifidobacteria and reveal possible benefits of this combination to the gut microbiota and health of infants.
Non–LTE effect and formation of the Balmer line Hα in the optically thick nova wind expected from the radiation–pressure–driven continuous ejection model (cf. Bath and Shaviv, 1976; Ruggles and Bath, 1979) was investigated by use of the pure–hydrogen spherical model atmosphere, in which constant radial expansion velocity, inverse square law of density distribution, and planar grey temperature distribution were assumed. The coupled equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium on the four levels plus continuum model atom (in which Hα line and Balmer–, Paschen–, and Brackett– continua are explicitly treated) were solved by the complete linearization procedure based on the comoving frame method (cf. Mihalas and Kunasz, 1978). We calculated four models as results of the combination of the surface density ρsurf (at ᵀRos = 10−13) (10−12 g/cm3, 10−13 g/cm3) and the expansion velocity Vexp (0 km/sec, 1000 km/sec). We assumed 1012 cm for the photospheric radius rph (at ᵀRos = 1), 10000 K for the effective temperature appearing in the temperature formula, and 100 km/sec for the microturbulent parameter. The low density models have larger extension (rsurf/rph ≃4.1) than the high density ones (rsurf/rph ≃1.7).