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The Nankai Trough, marking the boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, is forecasted to create a tragic earthquake and tsunami within 30 years.
To clarify the gap between medical supplies and demand.
Collected the data of the estimation of injured persons from each prefecture throughout Japan, and also the number of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and High Care Unit (HCU) beds in Japan from the Ministry of Health database. We re-calculated the number of severe cases based on official data. Moreover, we calculated the number of beds of hospitals with the capacity to receive severe patients.
The total number of disaster base hospitals is 723 hospitals with 6556 ICU beds, and 545 hospitals have 5,248 HCU beds throughout Japan. When the Nankai Trough earthquake occurs, 187 disaster base hospitals would be located in the area with seismic intensity 6-upper on the Japanese Seismic Intensity Scale of 0-7, and 79 disaster base hospitals would be located in the tsunami inundation area. The estimated total number of injured persons is 661,604 including 26,857 severe cases, 290,065 moderate cases, and 344,682 minor cases.
Even if all ICU and HCU beds are usable for severe patients, there will be 15,053 more beds needed. The Cabinet Office of Japan assumes that 60% of hospital beds would not be able to be used in an area of the seismic intensity of 6-upper. If 80% of beds are used in the non-disaster time, the number of beds which are usable at the time of a disaster will decrease more. The beds needed for severe patients would be significantly lacking when the Nankai Trough earthquake occurs. It will be necessary to start treatment of the severe patients who are “more likely to be saved more.”
Potentially vulnerable population groups in disasters include the elderly and frail, people who are isolated, and those with chronic diseases, including mental health conditions or mobility issues. The disasters such as the Queensland flood and Great East Japan Disaster in 2011, affected regions of Australia and Japan. This study is followed by two pilot studies in both countries after the disasters. While both countries have different evacuation center procedures for evacuees, the issues regarding the role and responsibility across governments involving planning, setup, and management of evacuation centers demonstrate similarities and differences.
This paper will report the preliminary findings of a pilot study undertaken with local government officials and humanitarian agencies in Australia and Japan concerning their involvement in planning for, setting up, and managing evacuation centers for vulnerable populations in recent natural disasters. The objective is to illuminate the similarities and differences that officials and agencies faced, and to highlight the resolutions and lessons learned in the preparation of evacuation centers through this event.
This is the final stage of the study. After completing an analysis of both phases, a comparative framework to highlight similarities and differences was developed.
Each government’s role in relation to the establishment of evacuation centers is legally defined in both countries. However, the degree of involvement and communication with non-governmental organizations from the planning cycle to the recovery cycle demonstrates different expectations across governments.
While the role of governments is clearly established in both countries based on the legal frameworks, the planning, set-up, and management of evacuation center differs.
Potentially vulnerable population groups in disasters include the elderly and frail, people who are isolated, and those with chronic diseases, including mental health conditions or mobility issues. The 2011 Queensland flood disaster affected central and southeast Queensland, resulting in 2.5 million people being adversely affected. Seventy-two local government areas disaster were activated under the Natural Disaster Relief and Recovery Arrangements, which was more than 99 percent of Queensland. The issues regarding the role and responsibility across governments relating to planning, setup, and management of evacuation centers will be discussed.
This paper will report the preliminary findings of a pilot study undertaken with local government officials and humanitarian agencies in Australia concerning their involvement in planning for, setting up, and managing evacuation centers for vulnerable populations in Australia during the Queensland floods in 2011. The objective is to illuminate the challenges officials faced, and the resolutions and lessons learned in the preparation of evacuation centers through this event.
The study involved interviews with local government and relevant agencies’ officials who have been involved in establishing evacuation centers for vulnerable populations during the 2011 floods. Six officials were recruited from local government areas affected by the disaster in Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured phone interviews were audio-recorded and thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo software.
Three core themes emerged: 1) understanding of the importance of preparation, 2) challenging evacuation center environments, and 3) awareness of good governance principles.
This pilot study demonstrated that communication with stakeholders during the preparation period prior to a disaster is essential to best practice for evacuation center management. Understanding and being aware of good governance is also an important element to establish evacuation centers effectively.
Japan International Cooperation Agency has started the project for strengthening the ASEAN regional capacity on disaster health management (ARCH Project) since 2016. This project conducted the start-up regional collaboration drill in ASEAN. All participants from ASEAN countries realized the need for a standardized assessment tool. Several UN agencies and international organizations launched assessment tools, but there is no standard assessment tool.
To develop an integrated rapid health needs assessment (HNA) tool in the ASEAN region. This paper reports the development process of the HNA tool.
The project established the project working group (PWG) to developing some tools. PWG consisted of the expert team, project team, Japanese Advisory group and twenty delegates from ten ASEAN member states. PWG established the cycle of the developing process of the HNA tool.
We created a health needs assessment form and a summary form. The assessment form consists of (1) Informant information, (2) Site information, (3) Overall situation of the site, (4) Public health, (5) Health facility damage. The summary form consists of (1) Informant information, (2) Site information, (3) Critical areas for support, (4) Situation of the site.
Frequently, the public health emergency operation center in an affected country is not able to obtain the critical information of an affected area in the acute phase of disasters. This HNA tool would be used in the acute phase by the Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) because the EMT has mobility and workforce for assisting the affected country. We have agreed on the usage of the assessment form as a kind of an “interview guide”. The purpose of this assessment form is to assess a disaster situation. The next step will be to provide more opportunities for the ASEAN member states to use and learn more about this HNA form.
Translational regulation of mRNAs is crucial for promoting various cellular and developmental processes. Pumilio1 (Pum1) has been shown to play key roles in translational regulation of target mRNAs in many systems of diverse organisms. In zebrafish immature oocytes, Pum1 was shown to bind to cyclin B1 mRNA and promote the formation of cyclin B1 RNA granules. This Pum1-mediated RNA granule formation seemed critical to determine the timing of translational activation of cyclin B1 mRNA during oocyte maturation, leading to activation of maturation/M-phase-promoting factor (MPF) at the appropriate timing. Despite its fundamental importance, the mechanisms of translational regulation by Pum1 remain elusive. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation of Pum1 as a first step to understand the mechanisms of Pum1-mediated translation. SDS-PAGE analyses and phosphatase treatments showed that Pum1 was phosphorylated at multiple sites during oocyte maturation. This phosphorylation began in an early period after induction of oocyte maturation, which preceded the polyadenylation of cyclin B1 mRNA. Interestingly, depolymerization of actin filaments in immature oocytes caused phosphorylation of Pum1, disassembly of cyclin B1 RNA granules, and polyadenylation of cyclin B1 mRNA but not translational activation of the mRNA. Overexpression of the Pum1 N-terminus prevented the phosphorylation of Pum1, disassembly of cyclin B1 RNA granules, and translational activation of the mRNA even after induction of oocyte maturation. These results suggest that Pum1 phosphorylation in the early period of oocyte maturation is one of the key processes for promoting the disassembly of cyclin B1 RNA granules and translational activation of target mRNA.
The objective of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with birth weight, weight gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling, yearling height and cow weight in Nelore cattle. Data from 5064 animals participating in the DeltaGen and PAINT breeding programs were used. The animals were genotyped with a panel of 777 962 SNPs (Illumina BovineHD BeadChip) and 412 993 SNPs remained after quality control analysis of the genomic data. A genome-wide association study was performed using a single-step methodology. The analyses were processed with the BLUPF90 family of programs. When applied to a genome-wide association studies, the single-step GBLUP methodology is an iterative process that estimates weights for the SNPs. The weights of SNPs were included in all analyses by iteratively applying the single-step GBLUP methodology and repeated twice so that the effect of the SNP and the effect of the animal were recalculated in order to increase the weight of SNPs with large effects and to reduce the weight of those with small effects. The genome-wide association results are reported based on the proportion of variance explained by windows of 50 adjacent SNPs. Considering the two iterations, only windows with an additive genetic variance >1.5% were presented in the results. Associations were observed with birth weight on BTA 14, with weight gain from birth to weaning on BTA 5 and 29, with weight gain from weaning to yearling on BTA 11, and with yearling height on BTA 8, showing the genes TMEM68 (transmembrane protein 8B) associated with birth weight and yearling height, XKR4 (XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 4) associated with birth weight, NPR2 (natriuretic peptide receptor B) associated with yearling height, and REG3G (regenerating islet-derived 3-gamma) associated with weight gain from weaning to yearling. These genes play an important role in feed intake, weight gain and the regulation of skeletal growth.
Sperm cryopreservation is a valuable conservation method for endangered fish species. Here we report an easy and efficient cryopreservation method for juvenile whole testis by vitrification and successful sperm production from the vitrified whole testis via in vitro spermatogenesis in the critically endangered cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens). Juvenile testis (approximately 10 mm in length and 1 mm in width), consisting predominantly of spermatogonia, were aseptically dissected out and adherent fatty and non-testicular tissues were subsequently removed. Then, the testes were rapidly cooled on a nylon mesh by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen after serial exposures to pretreatment solution (PS), containing 2 M ethylene glycol (EG) and 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), for 20 or 30 min and vitrification solution (VS), containing 3 M EG, 2 M DMSO, and 0.5 M sucrose, for 5, 10, or 20 min. The highest survival rate of testicular cells (84.0%) was obtained from testes vitrified by immersion in PS for 20 min and in VS for 10 min. Spermatogonia were recovered from the vitrified testis by dissociation and cell culture produced many haploid sperm. Fertility and developmental competence were confirmed by in vitro fertilization assays. These results indicate that the vitrification of juvenile whole testis provides a new strategy to preserve the genetic resources of endangered fishes without affecting their reproductive population.
Little is known about the associations between family satisfaction with end-of-life care and caregiver burden. We conducted a researcher-assisted questionnaire survey to clarify the impact of caregiver burden on family satisfaction and to determine the types of burden that decrease family satisfaction.
Bereaved family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer who received our outreach palliative care service were retrospectively identified. Family satisfaction with the end-of-life care provided by the palliative care service and caregiver burden were quantified using the Japanese versions of the FAMCARE Scale and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), respectively.
Our study subjects included 23 family caregivers. The mean scores on the FAMCARE Scale and the ZBI for the total population were 72.8 ± 11.2 and 22.8 ± 17.3, respectively, indicating moderate-to-high satisfaction and low-to-moderate burden. Caregiver burden had a strong negative correlation to family satisfaction with end-of-life care (Spearman's rho [ρ] = −0.560, p = 0.005), which remained after adjustment for potential confounders (standardized beta [β] = −0.563, p = 0.01). Several burden items—including loss of control, personal time, social engagement with others, feeling angry with the patient, feeling that the patient wants more help than he/she needs, and a wish to leave the care to someone else—were associated with decreased satisfaction. The major cause of dissatisfaction for family members included the information provided regarding prognosis, family conferences with medical professionals, and the method of involvement of family members in care decisions.
Significance of results:
Caregiver burden can be a barrier to family satisfaction with end-of-life care at home. A home care model focused on caregiver burden could improve end-of-life experiences for patients and family caregivers.
Effective conservation of global species diversity requires a clear understanding of spatial scales that support overall diversity across broad scales. Abandonment of semi-natural grasslands has increased their fragmentation and decreased their areal extent. We quantified diversity patterns of plant communities in Japan across hierarchical scales to facilitate the development of an effective nationwide strategy for conserving species diversity in remnant semi-natural grasslands. We applied additive partitioning of plant species diversity, using a nested hierarchical design at three spatial scales (quadrat, grassland, and western and eastern regions of Japan) for three groups of plant species (all species, grassland species and national Red Listed species). We consistently found lower proportions of among-quadrats diversity, and higher proportions of among-grasslands diversity and between-regions diversity in the overall diversity of the entire species complement than would be expected by chance. The high contribution of among-grasslands diversity to overall diversity suggests that each grassland had a unique species content. The second-ranking contributor to overall diversity differed between grassland species and Red Listed species: the second-ranking contributor for grassland species was diversity at the among-quadrats scale but the second-ranking contributor for all species and for Red Listed species was diversity at the between-regions scale. Thus, effective conservation of diversity of the entire species complement in remnant semi-natural grasslands requires preservation of beta diversity in individual grasslands. Our findings highlight the importance of strengthening local preservation and restoration activities within each grassland, and of nationwide strategies for conserving Red Listed species in remnant semi-natural grassland communities.
The preselection of highly developmentally competent oocytes for in vitro maturation (IVM) is crucial for improving assisted reproductive technology. Although several intrinsic markers of oocyte quality are known to be closely related to the onset of nuclear maturation (germinal vesicle break down, GVBD), a direct comparison between GVBD timing and oocyte quality has never been reported. In this study, we established a non-invasive oocyte evaluation method based on GVBD timing for preselecting more developmental competent oocytes in mice. Because the O2 concentration during IVM may affect the nuclear kinetics, all experiments were performed under two distinct O2 concentrations: 20% and 5% O2. First, we determined the time course of changes in nuclear maturation and preimplantation developmental competence of in vitro-matured oocytes to estimate GVBD timing in high developmental competent oocytes. Two-thirds of oocytes that underwent GVBD in early IVM seemed to mainly contribute to the blastocyst yield. To confirm this result, we compared the preimplantation developmental competence of the early and late GVBD oocytes. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of early GVBD oocytes (80.2% and 52.7% under 20% O2, respectively, and 67.6% and 47.3% under 5% O2, respectively) were almost double those of late GVBD oocytes (44.8% and 26.0% under 20% O2, respectively, and 40.4% and 17.9% under 5% O2, respectively). With no observable alterations by checking the timing of GVBD in preimplantation developmental competence, oocyte evaluation based on GVBD timing can be used as an efficient and non-invasive preselection method for high developmental competent oocytes.
Abundance analyses of HgMn stars in these 15 years are compiled to clarify the abundance characteristics. NLTE abundance studies relevant to HgMn stars are also surveyed for the period of these 20 years. Discussions are made on influences of uncertainties in the atmospheric parameters and of NLTE effects upon abundance determinations, and further on establishment of abundances.
The JD 16 was held on August 25, 1997 as one-day session with the title of “Spectroscopy with Large Telescope of Chemically Peculiar Stars”. It was supported by the Division IV and Commissions 14, 27, 29, 36, and 45.
The members of SOC were: G. Alecian, J. Babel, M. Gerbaldi, R. O. Gray, G. Mathys, P. North, M. Takada-Hidai (Chairperson), and J. Zverko (Co-chairperson).
15 talks and 18 contributed posters were presented on six topics of (1) model atmospheres and atomic data, (2) stellar parameters, (3) LTE and NLTE abundance analyses, (4) diffusion processes, (5) magnetic fields, and (6) variabilities. Approximate number of participants amounted to 50 at maximum.
Variability of the light curves of the short-period eclipsing binary system GR Tau (, almost-contact binary) is studied. It is found that GR Tau experienced both the state which is characterized by asymmetric light curves and the state characterized by symmetrical light curves.
Magnetic fields in Vega, ϒ Geminorum, and Sirius are searched by using empirical and theoretical relations of magnetic-field strength to the relative differences between the equivalent widths of each pair of the two Fe II lines near 6150 and 4400 Å. We estimated the possible strengths of their magnetic fields as follows: 0.0 kG or 2.5 – 3.5 kG for Vega, 0 – 2 kG or 2.8 – 3.0 kG for ϒ Gem, and 0.0 kG or ∼ 2(?) – 2.5 kG for Sirius. The empirical relation yields the former value in each star, which is consistent with those determined through polarization measurements, while the theoretical relation the latter with systematically large values.
Quantitative analyses of the Ga abundances in 27 Hg-Mn stars, 11 Si (magnetic) stars, 8 He-weak stars, and 7 normal stars are made with the resonance lines of Ga II at 1414 Å and Ga III at 1495 Å in IUE spectra. The Ga overabundances are confirmed as a genuine anomaly in many peculiar stars. Only upper limits of the Ga abundance can be obtained for some stars. However these upper limits are much lower than those inferred from visual spectra. Among the 27 Hg-Mn stars, 17 stars are distributed in the range of 2.0 – 3.8 dex of overabundances of Ga. Ten other stars show upper limits less than 2.1 dex. Fifteen stars of 20 hotter Hg-Mn stars with Teff > 11000 K show high overabundances in a narrow range of 2.6 – 3.8 dex, while, among 7 cooler Hg-Mn stars, the only star HR 7775 shows the same overabundance as in these 15 stars. Of 11 Si stars, 9 stars have Ga overabundances ranging from 1.9 to 3.2 dex. Gallium is overabundant in 5 out of 8 He-weak stars in the range of 1.7 – 3.2 dex, while in the three other stars the upper limits are less than 1.3 dex. The Ga abundances in normal stars are all upper limits which roughly correspond to the solar value.
We fabricated ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PLZT) capacitors with
Sn:In2O3 (ITO) or Pt top electrodes and investigated
the ferroelectric properties of these PLZT capacitors. The shape of
polarization–voltage hysteresis loops was essentially unchanged and
the decrease in the remnant polarization of the ITO/PLZT/Pt capacitors was
smaller than that of the Pt/PLZT/Pt capacitors after annealing with 3%
D2 (in N2) at 200°C and 1 Torr
(i.e., FGAD). Time of flight
secondary mass spectrometry revealed that the D atoms were incorporated into the
PLZT film of the Pt/PLZT/Pt capacitors after 3% D2 annealing,
resulting in a decrease in the ferroelectric properties. In comparison, no D ion
signal was detected in the PLZT film after FGAD for ITO/PLZT/Pt
The Keck 10-m telescope has begun to produce many new findings in a field of stellar spectroscopy with the help of the High Resolution Spectrograph (HIRES). The other large telescopes such as the Subaru, VLT, and Gemini are now being constructed and expected to perform high-resolution spectroscopy in a near future within several years or so. These highresolution spectroscopic studies will be carried out based on studies which have been made mainly with existing telescopes with aperture smaller than 4 m.