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Electron fractography has been widely applied to analyze fracture processes and service failures. However, the results obtained by the fractographic method are restricted to information in a topograph of the fracture surface. Therefore, other methods are needed to analyze the fracture. One of the hopeful advanced techniques is thought to be X-ray diffraction, because another type of structure sensitive information would be obtained.
Conventional selected area diffraction patterns as obtained in the TEM present difficulties for identification of materials such as asbestifonn minerals, although diffraction data is considered to be one of the preferred methods for making this identification. The preferred orientation of the fibers in each field of measurement, and the spotty patterns that are obtained, do not readily lend themselves to measurement of the integrated intensity values for each dspacing, and even the d-spacings may be hard to determine precisely because the true center location for the broken rings requires estimation. To overcome these problems, we have implemented an automatic method for diffraction pattern measurement. It automatically locates the center of patterns with high precision, measures the radius of each ring of spots in the pattern, and integrates the density of spots in that ring.
The steady behaviour of a rarefied gas around a rotating sphere is studied numerically on the basis of the linearised ellipsoidal statistical model of the Boltzmann equation, also known as the ES model, and the Maxwell diffuse–specular boundary condition. It is demonstrated numerically that the normal derivative of the circumferential component of the flow velocity and that of the heat flux diverge on the boundary with a rate
is the normal distance from the boundary. Further, it is demonstrated that the diverging term is proportional to the magnitude of the jump discontinuity of the velocity distribution function on the boundary, which originates from the mismatch of the incoming and outgoing data on the boundary. The moment of force exerted on the sphere is also obtained for a wide range of the Knudsen number and for various values of the accommodation coefficient.
Isabelli-García, Bown, Plew & Dewey (forthcoming) presented the ‘state of the art’ in research on language learning abroad. Beginning with Carroll's (1967) claim that ‘time spent abroad is one of the most potent variables’ predicting second language (L2) abilities (p. 137), the scope of study-abroad research has grown multifold in guiding theoretical frameworks, empirical methods, and objects of examination. A half-century of work surveyed in Isabelli-García et al.’s review reveals diverse goals of investigation, ranging from studies focusing on documenting learning outcomes, to studies aiming to unveil the process and nature of learning in a study-abroad context.
In step with advancing globalization, applied linguists are compelled to reconsider established assumptions about language use and learning (Kramsch, 2014). Focusing on English as a lingua franca (ELF), this article illustrates how realities of globalization have challenged our conventional ways of researching and teaching second language (L2) pragmatics. In the context of ELF where English is used as a medium of communication among nonnative speakers as well as between native and nonnative speakers, researchers need to examine pragmatic competence based on how L2 learners can navigate communicative demands by using communication strategies skillfully while negotiating their identities. At the same time, it is tenable for teachers to move away from the sole dependence on idealized native-speaker models of appropriateness, politeness, and formality in their pedagogical practice and instead incorporate a nonessentialist viewpoint into formal instruction. This article discusses these recent trends in researching and teaching pragmatics under the lingua franca framework.
This study is the first to examine contributions of proficiency subskills to pragmatic development. We used the latent growth curve modeling to reveal the causal relationships between proficiency subskills and pragmatic competence in 109 American learners of Chinese across two data points over three months abroad in China. Proficiency was measured by a standardized Chinese proficiency test with separate scores for listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Pragmatic competence was measured by a computerized oral discourse completion task assessing speech acts. Findings showed that pragmatic competence accrued along with increased proficiency. Changes of proficiency explained 54.1% of the variance in changes of pragmatic competence. Listening and speaking contributed more to pragmatic development than reading and writing did, indicating that when pragmatic competence is measured by an online spoken task, speaking and listening have stronger impacts.
Recent development in L2 pragmatics research in a study abroad context has witnessed an emerging line of studies investigating the joint influences of contextual and individual learner factors on second language (L2) pragmatic development. This paper argues for the replication of two representative quantitative studies in this new research direction. Situated within the field's increasing emphasis on explaining the development of L2 pragmatic competence, the first part of this paper makes a case for the necessity of replicating quantitative studies investigating the study abroad context, highlighting why and how the field can benefit from replication research. The second part of this paper presents detailed accounts of the two focus studies and suggests several options for approximate and conceptual replications.
Relativistic electron beam transport through a high-density, magnetized plasma is studied numerically and theoretically. An electron beam injected into a cold plasma excites Weibel and two-stream instabilities that heat the beam and saturate. In the absence of an applied magnetic field, the heated beam continues to propagate. However, when a magnetic field of particular strength is applied along the direction of beam propagation, a secondary instability of off-angle whistler modes is excited. These modes then couple nonlinearly creating a large amplitude parallel-propagating whistler that stops the beam. Here, we will show these phenomena in detail and explain the mechanism of whistler mediated beam stagnation.
Using the particle-mesh method with 1283 grids and 643 particles, we have carried out a number of N-body simulations of the large scale structure for the cosmological model proposed by Fukuyama et al.(1996): this model contains the matter(Ω0) as well as a scalar field(Φ) with a finite mass that couples non-minimally with the scalar curvature R through the form of 1/2ηΦ2R, where η(= −80) is the coupling constant.
For simplicity, we have adopted the same values as those employed by Fukuyama et al.(1996) for all the parameters other than Ω0, fo which we have varied from 0.001 to 0.15. In performing our simulation, we further assume that only the density of matter ρ spatially fluctuates. The initial condition is created by perturbing the homogeneous distribution of the particles by means of the random Gaussian Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum.
The two-point correlation function ξ(r) is then compputed for each of the resulting structures to compare with the observational data(Davis and Peebles, 1983). It is interesting to note that the structure formation appears to be achieved rather straightforwardly with the scalar field model. However, in order to yield an agreement between the theoretical and the observational two-point correlation functions, we seem to require the Ω0 value much larger than 0.01 adopted by Fukuyama et al.(1996).
We report estimates for the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the K band (2.2 μm), obtained by the integration of galaxy counts down to K=25 mag in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF, 2′ x 2′). We have obtained deep galaxy count data by using the 8.2m Subaru telescope, with a total integration time of 10 hours and an average seeing of about 0.4 arcsec. The 5-sigma limiting magnitude is K=23.5, and 350 objects are detected brighter than this magnitude. There has been a significant discrepancy between previous K-count observations, probably because of the systematic uncertainties in the completeness correction. To overcome this problem, we have paid special attention to selection effects and completeness corrections, with realistic theoretical galaxy models taken into account consistently. The faint-end slope is significantly flatter than some earlier observations of K counts, and our results suggest that the bulk of the extragalactic light in this band has been resolved as discrete sources. We estimate the value of the EBL flux obtained from the integration of our counts as 9.8 ± 1.0 nWm−2 sr−1.
Despite different epistemologies and assumptions, all theories in second language (L2) acquisition emphasize the centrality of context in understanding L2 acquisition. Under the assumption that language emerges from use in context, the cognitivist approach focuses on distributions and properties of input to infer both learning objects and process of acquisition. The interactionist approach views context more narrowly by analyzing how a particular linguistic item is attended and processed during a task-based interaction, and how it becomes intake as learning outcomes. For socially-oriented theories such as the sociocultural theory and language socialization, learning is fundamentally situated in context. Through mediated participation in learning as social practice, learners come to appropriate linguistic knowledge. Context is also fundamental in the complex, dynamic systems theory, which views learning as a non-linear, adaptive process emerging through an interaction of resources and individuals within a given context. All of these theories give the central power to context to describe and explain L2 learning. Context serves as the site where acquisition is examined. Context also helps explain the process and outcomes of acquisition.
A slow uniform flow of a rarefied gas past a sphere with a uniform temperature is considered. The steady behaviour of the gas is investigated on the basis of the Boltzmann equation by a systematic asymptotic analysis for small Mach numbers in the case where the Knudsen number is finite. Introducing a slowly varying solution whose length scale of variation is much larger than the sphere dimension, the fluid-dynamic-type equations describing the overall behaviour of the gas in the far region are derived. Then, the solution in the near region which varies on the scale of the sphere size, described by the linearised Boltzmann equation, and the solution in the far region, described by the fluid-dynamic-type equations, are sought in the form of a Mach number expansion up to the second order, in a way that they are joined in the intermediate overlapping region. As a result, the drag is derived up to the second order of the Mach number, which formally extends the linear drag obtained by Takata et al. (Phys. Fluids A, vol. 5, 1993, pp. 716–737) to a weakly nonlinear case. Numerical results for the drag on the basis of the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model are also presented.
This paper brings together the research and developments of instructed pragmatics over the past three decades by reporting the synthesis findings of instructional intervention studies in interlanguage pragmatics. Two questions have guided this investigation: (1) is instruction effective in learning pragmatics?; and (2) what methods are most effective in learning pragmatics? Exhaustive electronic bibliographical searches yielded a body of 58 instructional intervention studies for the review. Findings across these studies are compared and explored for common patterns and inconsistencies that emerge among them. The paper concludes with implications for future research based on the survey of the existing practice.
Food and beverages rich in polyphenols have been shown to reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases. The present study estimated polyphenol levels and consumption from food and beverages in Japanese women. Randomly recruited housewives living in the area around Tokyo (n 109; aged 21–56 years; Group 1) recorded all beverages and foods they ingested for 7 d, and the total polyphenol (TP) consumption was estimated based on the TP content of each item measured with a modified Folin–Ciocalteu method. For Group 1, TP was consumed at 841 (sd 403) mg/d (range 113–1759 mg/d), and beverages were a larger source of TP (79 %) than food (21 %). The largest single source of TP was coffee at 47 %, followed by green tea, black tea, chocolate, beer and soya sauce, at 16, 5·7, 3·3, 3·2 and 3·1 %, respectively. In terms of food groups, cereals/noodles, vegetables, fruits, beans and seeds, and seasonings (except for soya sauce) contributed 5·0, 4·0, 1·4, 1·8 and 2·4 %, respectively. Another group of housewives who consumed at least one cup of coffee per d were separately recruited (n 100; Group 2) in the same area. Their consumption of TP was higher at 1187 (sd 371) mg/d (range 440–2435 mg/d) than Group 1 (P < 0·001), and the difference mostly came from the coffee consumption. We conclude that not food but beverages, especially coffee, may be the major contributor to TP consumption in Japanese women.
The crystallinity of a GaN epitaxial layer on a sapphire substrate after the mechanical ding process was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopic analysis. TEM observation results showed that, the screw dislocations as a threading dislocation were induced by the mechanical dicing process in the limited area up to approximately 1.2 μm from the dicing-line. On the other hand, the crystal strains were up to approximately 7 μm from the dicing-line edge measured by the Raman spectroscopic analysis. The distance difference between the area of the screw dislocations and of the residual strain is caused by the stress relaxation.
The functional consequences of genetic and epigenetic changes that occur during tumor development and progression are mediated through protein alterations, which in turn account for the hallmarks of cancer, including uncontrolled proliferation, and tissue invasion and metastasis. Our current knowledge of the proteome and the spectrum of protein changes that occur in cancer and their functional consequences remain limited (1). We are challenged by the complexity of the proteome stemming from numerous post-translational modifications and the multitude of subcellular compartments in which proteins reside or traffic. As a result, most proteomic investigations have tackled a particular feature or component of the proteome, whether in cells, tissues, or biological fluids (Table 7.1). The emphasis of cancer proteomic studies has been on the identification of diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive markers, the identification of novel therapeutic targets, elucidation of signaling pathways regulated by oncogenes, and other genetic alterations that occur in cancer. Some of the progress made to date and the technologies utilized are highlighted in this chapter.
Proteomic technologies: mass spectrometry
Currently the workhorse for proteomic discovery studies is mass spectrometry, which has evolved from a tool to identify and characterize isolated proteins or for mass peak profiling of more complex protein mixtures, as in the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) to clinical samples, to a high-performance platform for interrogating proteomes by matching mass spectra to sequence databases to derive protein identifications (15). The parallel development of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for protein identification coupled with various pre-fractionation and separation schemes has allowed quantitative analysis of an ever-increasing number of proteins from cells, tissues, and biological fluids. Mass spectrometers currently available have significantly increased sensitivity and scan speed (16). As a result, identification of the major protein form of virtually all proteins translated from expressed genes in a cancer cell population and the comprehensive analysis of the serum and plasma proteome across seven or more logs of protein abundance have become achievable (17). However, such coverage of the proteome using mass spectrometry is achieved with low throughput. The massive amount of data produced necessitate intense informatics and statistical analysis to identify protein alterations associated with a disease state such as cancer.
We have fabricated high-efficiency a-Si/µc-Si tandem solar cells and modules with a very high µc-Si deposition rate using Localized Plasma Confinement CVD to give very high-rate deposition (>2.0 nm/s) of device-grade µc-Si layers. For further progress in productive plasma-CVD techniques, we have studied plasma phenomena by combining newly developed plasma simulation and plasma diagnosis techniques that reveal the importance of non-emissive atomic hydrogen. We also have proposed a model of defective µc-Si formation on highly textured substrates in which the atomic H in plasma is assumed to play an important role. We are also developing a non-vacuum deposition technique that we term “Liquid Si Printing.” A new record conversion efficiency for HIT solar cells of 24.7% has been achieved using a very thin c-Si wafer (Thickness: 98 µm, Area: 102 cm2).
The fabrication of diamond-like carbon (DLC) micro-gear by room temperature curing nanoimprint lithography (RTC-NIL) using glass-like carbon (GC) molds as applications to the DLC-based medical MEMS (Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems) was investigated. The DLC film which has excellent properties similar to chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films was used as the patterning material. We propose GC as mold material because GC has higher etching selectivity than a diamond film. The etching selectivity of polysiloxane film against a GC substrate is about 5 times as high as that of a diamond film. Therefore we fabricated the GC molds that have micro-gear patterns with 30 µm-tip diameter and 500 nm-tooth thickness. We carried out the RTC-NIL process using the GC micro-gear molds under the following optimum conditions. 1 min-time from spin-coating to imprint: t1, 0.5 MPa-imprinting pressure: P and 5 min-holding time: t2, and then the imprinted polysiloxane pattern on DLC film was processed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion shower. However, we were not able to fabricate micro-gear patterns in high accuracy because of a remaining residual layer on the DLC film. Therefore we propose the removing process for the residual layer with trifluoromethane (CHF3) ion shower under the optimum conditions of 300 eV-ion energy and 4 min-etching time. As a result, we succeeded to fabricate concave DLC-based micro-gear patterns in high accuracy which has 30 µm-tip diameter and 1 µm-depth.