The presence of bats in caves, attics, ceilings, and roofs is important epidemiologically as they can increase the chance of human acquisition of pathogens, including Histoplasma capsulatum. Brazilian urban areas contain many species of bats, especially insectivorous bats, that are attracted by a wide range of readily available food and shelter. From August 2003 to December 2008, we analysed 2427 bats in the São Paulo State region. Homogenates of the livers and spleens of the bats were plated on specific medium to identify animals infected with H. capsulatum. The fungus was isolated from 87 bats (3·6%). The infected bats were identified as Molossus molossus (74), Nyctinomops macrotis (10), Tadarida brasiliensis (1), Molossus rufus (1) and Eumops glaucinus (1), all insectivorous species. The data presented are a relevant contribution to the epidemiology of H. capsulatum in densely populated urban areas such as in São Paulo State, especially since histoplasmosis is not included in the mandatory disease notification system.