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Maternal depression is a notable concern, yet little evidence exists on its economic burden in low- and middle-income countries.
This study assessed societal costs and economic outcomes across pregnancy to 12 months postpartum comparing women with depression with those without depression. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01977326 (registered on 24 October 2013); Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (www.pactr.org): PACTR201403000676264 (registered on 11 October 2013).
Participants were recruited during the first antenatal visit to primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. In total, 2187 women were screened, and 419 women who were psychologically distressed were retained in the study. Women were interviewed at baseline, 8 months gestation and at 3 and 12 months postpartum; the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to categorise women as having depression or not having depression at each interview. Collected data included sociodemographics; health service costs; user fees; opportunity costs of accessing care; and travelling expenses for the women and their child(ren). Using Markov modelling, the incremental economic burden of maternal depression was estimated across the period.
At 12 months postpartum, women with depression were significantly more likely to be unemployed, to have lower per capita household income, to incur catastrophic costs and to be in a poorer socioeconomic group than those women without depression. Costs were higher for women with depression and their child(ren) at all time points. Modelled provider costs were US$805 among women without depression versus US$1303 in women with depression.
Economic costs and outcomes were worse in perinatal women with depression. The development of interventions to reduce this burden is therefore of significant policy importance.
Poor oral health can have a serious impact on quality of life, social inclusion and self-esteem. There is evidence to suggest that people with serious mental illness have a greater risk of experiencing oral disease and have greater oral treatment needs than the general population. Oral health problems are not well recognized by mental health professionals. We therefore conducted a retrospective study to review oral health care monitoring within the community mental health team.
Aims and objectives
To review the oral health care monitoring for patients accessing the community mental health team.
Audit tool was developed based on oral health care guidelines outlined by the department of health, and literature review. We then retrospectively review medical records of 25 patients against following standards:.
– every client should have the most basic of oral hygiene equipment–toothbrush;
– clients should have basic oral hygiene knowledge, (i.e. brush twice or at least once a day);
– every client should be registered to a dental practitioner;
– every client should have at least one dental check-up per year;
– clients with dentures should have their dentures checked up at least once in five years;
– have a tooth brush less than three months old.
Out of the 25 patients none had met the standards. It could be a reflection of lack of documentation rather than not providing appropriate information.
Oral health care advice should be part of care plan for people accessing mental health service.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We report on our recent progress in the study of single Dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules as single photon sources and nanoscale probes. We consider DBT molecules embedded in thin anthracene films, a system that allows stable single photon emission both at room and at cryogenic temperatures. We investigate the most important optical properties of the DBT:anthracene system as a whole. We then perform a full statistical study of the coupling between single DBT molecules by measuring the lifetimes of DBT both in the coupled and in the uncoupled case. The experimental results are framed into a simple universal scaling model, where the magnitude of coupling depends solely on universal parameters and on the distance d between the single emitter and the graphene monolayer. We apply this model to infer d and provide a proof of principle for a position ruler at the nanoscale .
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