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The causal chain of parasite–host–environment interactions, the so-called ‘dual parasite environment’, makes studying parasites more complicated than other wild organisms. A sample of 65 282 fleas taken from 336 different locations were analysed for changes in the distribution, diversity and compensation of flea communities found on small mammals along an elevational diversity gradient ranging from the Pannonian Plain to the base of the Carpathian summits. The fleas were divided into four groups, which were derived from changes in abundance and occurrence determined from cluster analysis. They are (1) flea species whose range seems unrelated to any change in elevation; (2) species that avoid high altitudes; (3) a group that can be subdivided into two types: (i) host-specific fleas and (ii) mountains species and (4) species opting for high altitudes on the gradient or preferring lower to middle elevations below 1000 m. Our study showed a unimodal pattern of flea diversity along the elevational gradient. It indicated that seasonality significantly conditions changes in biodiversity and patterns of spatial change along the elevational gradient, with specific flea species influenced by their host, while the impact of environmental conditions is more pronounced in opportunistic flea species.
Spatial clustering nature of galaxies has been studied previously through auto correlation function. The same type of cross-correlation function has been used in the present work to investigate parametric clustering nature of galaxies with respect to masses and sizes of galaxies. Here, formation and evolution of several components of nearby massive early type galaxies (M* ≥ 1.3 × 1011 M⊙ have been envisaged through cross-correlations, in the mass-size parametric plane, with high redshift (0.2 ⩽ z ⩽ 7) ETGs. It is found that the inner most components of nearby ETGs have significant correlation (~ 0.5 ± (0.02–0.07)) with ETGs in the highest redshift range (2 ⩽ z ⩽ 7) called ‘red nuggets’ whereas intermediate components are highly correlated (~ 0.65 ± (0.03–0.07)) with ETGs in the redshift range 0.5 ⩽ z ⩽ 0.75. The outermost part has no correlation in any range, suggesting a scenario through in situ accretion. The above formation scenario is consistent with the previous results obtained for NGC5128 and to some extent for nearby elliptical galaxies after considering a sample of ETGs at high redshift with stellar masses greater than or equal to 108.73 M⊙. So the present work indicates a three phase formation instead of two as discussed in previous works.
Impoverished communities often turn to illegal extraction of resources from protected areas to alleviate economic pressures or to make monetary gains. Such practices can cause ecological damage and threaten animal populations. These communities also often face a high disease burden and typically do not have access to affordable health care. Here we argue that these two seemingly separate challenges may have a common solution. In particular, providing health care to communities adjacent to protected areas may be an efficient and effective way to reduce the disease burden while also improving local perceptions about protected areas, potentially reducing illegal extraction. We present a case study of a health centre on the edge of Kibale National Park, Uganda. The centre has provided care to c. 7,200 people since 2008 and its outreach programme extends to c. 4,500 schoolchildren each year. Contrasting the provision of health care to other means of improving community perceptions of protected areas suggests that health clinics have potential as a conservation tool in some situations and should be considered in future efforts to manage protected areas.
On Deaf Ears: The Limits of the Bully Pulpit. By George C.
Edwards, III. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. 320p. $35.00.
The funeral of Ronald Reagan marked a celebration not only of the
president's political accomplishments but also of the idea that
the core of presidential leadership is mastery of the bully pulpit.
Published shortly after Reagan was laid to rest, Bill Clinton's
autobiography also reflects our modern preoccupation with rhetorical
leadership. Clinton credits many of his political victories—most
notably fending off an impeachment charge—to the power of
rhetorical appeals. He also attributes many of his failures to an
inability to communicate effectively. George Edwards thinks that
Reagan, Clinton, and the conventional wisdom they exemplify are just
plain wrong. In a thorough and forcefully articulated study, Edwards
argues that public opinion is never altered by presidential speech.
Efforts to advance a president's political agenda through
rhetorical appeals over the heads of Congress to the people are futile
wastes of time and energy.
A systematic review of the evidence pertaining to methylprednisolone infusion following acute spinal cord injury was conducted in order to address the persistent confusion about the utility of this treatment.
A committee of neurosurgical and orthopedic spine specialists, emergency physicians and physiatrists engaged in active clinical practice conducted an electronic database search for articles about acute spinal cord injuries and steroids, from January 1, 1966 to April 2001, that was supplemented by a manual search of reference lists, requests for unpublished additional information, translations of foreign language references and study protocols from the author of a Cochrane systematic review and Pharmacia Inc. The evidence was graded and recommendations were developed by consensus.
One hundred and fifty-seven citations that specifically addressed spinal cord injuries and methylprednisolone were retrieved and 64 reviewed. Recommendations were based on one Cochrane systematic review, six Level I clinical studies and seven Level II clinical studies that addressed changes in neurological function and complications following methylprednisolone therapy.
There is insufficient evidence to support the use of high-dose methylprednisolone within eight hours following an acute closed spinal cord injury as a treatment standard or as a guideline for treatment. Methylprednisolone, prescribed as a bolus intravenous infusion of 30 mg per kilogram of body weight over fifteen minutes within eight hours of closed spinal cord injury, followed 45 minutes later by an infusion of 5.4 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per hour for 23 hours, is only a treatment option for which there is weak clinical evidence (Level I- to II-1). There is insufficient evidence to support extending methylprednisolone infusion beyond 23 hours if chosen as a treatment option.
The lingulae of both sides of 165 dry adult human mandibles, 131 males and 34 females of Indian origin,
were classified by their shape into 4 types: 1, triangular; 2, truncated; 3, nodular; and 4, assimilated.
Triangular lingulae were found in 226 (68.5%) sides, truncated in 52 (15.8%), nodular in 36 (10.9%) and
assimilated in 16 (4.8%) sides. Triangular lingulae were found bilaterally in 110, truncated in 23, nodular in
17 and assimilated in 7 mandibles. Of the remaining 8 mandibles with different appearances on the 2 sides, 6
had a combination of triangular and truncated and 2 had nodular and assimilated. The incidence of
triangular and assimilated types in the male and female mandibles are almost equal. In the truncated type it
was double in the male mandibles while the nodular type was a little less than double in the female
Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a rare pathologic entity involving the cerebellum. The fundamental nature of the entity and its pathogenesis remain unknown, and considerable debate has centered on whether it represents a neoplastic, malformative or hamartomatous lesion. The cell or cells of origin remain incompletely defined. Previous reports of cases in the English literature have dealt predominantly with the clinical and pathological aspects yet few address issues of treatment.
A case of Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) in a 54-year-old female leading to local compressive symptoms and obstructive hydrocephalus is presented. A craniectomy, in addition to a CI laminectomy followed by a decompressive duroplasty (using autologous fascia lata graft) was performed.
The patient clinically improved and follow-up MRI 11 months post-operatively revealed improvement in hydrocephalus.
The histological and immunohistochemical features of the lesion are described, emphasizing the role of an abnormal dysplastic granule cell layer. The evidence in favor of each of the major theories of pathogenesis, malformative and neoplastic is discussed. Based on these facts a form of surgical intervention involving decompressive duroplasty is proposed.
Although there is an enormous literature on presidential leadership, only a handful of books on the subject shape the terms of debate regarding the place of the presidency in the American political order. Edward Corwin's classic, The President: Office and Powers, written during the New Deal, and Arthur Schlesinger Jr.'s Imperial Presidency, written during the Watergate era, are examples of such constitutive texts. Each reconceptualized the understanding of presidential leadership and connected that understanding to problems in the political order as a whole: they were synoptic, as well as constitutive texts.
Over the past decade, William Riker has written a series of articles that reinterpret the founding of American politics in light of insights gleaned from theories of rational choice. In the course of these efforts, he has invented a new subject, “heresthetics,” having “to do with the manipulation of the structure of tastes and alternatives within which decisions are made.” With Evelyn C. Fink, for example, he has shown more systematically than previous analyses how the federalists structured the the ratification process by attaching an informal promise of future amendment to a formally unconditional ratification. In the present essay, Riker moves from heresthetics to rhetoric: “Rhetoric and heresthetic are both techniques of winning. But they are different kinds of techniques. Rhetoric is persuasion.… With heresthetic, on the other hand, conviction is at best secondary or not involved at all.” Riker describes federalist and antifederalist ratification rhetoric in an effort to display the persuasiveness of “negative” campaign appeals for those who wish to attract the support of marginal voters.
The technology leading to very large aperture telescopes and their optics has progressed well in the period since 1984 and plans for many new large aperture telescopes have been made. Focal plane instrumentation continues to become more sophisticated or more efficient: multi-object capabilities, automatic instrument control and operation, and increasing use of CCDs are examples of areas to which this applies. The proportion of time devoted to observations using two-dimensional photoelectronic detectors has grown substantially at many observatories, particularly with telescopes of moderate aperture; and the use of high quantum efficiency array detectors is now being extended into the infrared spectral region. Important advances have also been made in instrumentation and techniques for ground-based high angular resolution interferometry.
Electron beam glazed surfaces on a circular bar are of sufficiently good quality either for direct use or after light mechanical grinding. The technique may be applied for reconstituting plasma deposited layers thereby eliminating porosity and obtaining a highly homogeneous refined microstructure. By this treatment it was found that the microhardness of a plasma deposited layer of chromium carbide in molybdenum binder increased from 525 V.H.N. to 750 V.H.N.
In anaerobic glyoolysis lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the terminative enzyme in the sequence of reactions that promote the breakdown of sugars to lactate. The LDH activity of cattle semen and seminal plasma together with its relationship with various characteristics of semen have been reported (Stallcup & Hayden, 1960; Roussel & Stallcup, 1965). Such work in respect of buffalo semen is not available, although there are some reports on LDH activity of spermatozoa and seminal plasma (Singh & Sadhu, 1972; Chauhan & Srivastava, 1973). The present investigation was undertaken to determine the LDH activity of buffalo whole semen as well as of seminal plasma and to find correlations with some physical characteristics of semen.
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