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Identifying cultural patterns of a country that come into play in an intercultural encounter is a key element of any intercultural training. In this chapter, we discuss the issues associated with intercultural training for expatriates who will serve in Brazil. Initially, we provide a view of historical, economic, and socio-political aspects that build up the Brazilian culture. Guided by indigenous studies, Brazilian cultural patterns are also discussed with an emphasis on an informal influence process that seems to be very relevant in that society: the Brazilian jeitinho. Differences in cultural patterns within the regions of Brazil are also suggested. We then dive into aspects that literature suggests as characteristics of the Brazilian culture, such as they relate to: hierarchy and power concentration; the value of personal relationships; paternalism and strong loyalty to one's in-group leader; formalism; posture of spectator; and flexibility. We conclude by discussing some attitudes and behaviors that Brazilian may adopt in cross-cultural encounters as they relate to communication, perception of time, personal relationships, and management and business styles.
This paper presents a 31 GHz integrated power amplifier (PA) in 28 nm Fully Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (FD-SOI CMOS) technology and targeting SoC implementation for 5 G applications. Fine-grain wide range power control with more than 10 dB tuning range is enabled by body biasing feature while the design improves voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) robustness, stability and reverse isolation by using optimized 90° hybrid couplers and capacitive neutralization on both stages. Maximum power gain of 32.6 dB, PAEmax of 25.5% and Psat of 17.9 dBm are measured while robustness to industrial temperature range and process spread is demonstrated. Temperature-induced performance variation compensation, as well as amplitude-to-phase modulation (AM-PM) optimization regarding output power back-off, are achieved through body-bias node. This PA exhibits an International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors figure of merit (ITRS FOM) of 26 925, the highest reported around 30 GHz to authors' knowledge.
The recognition of rivers and related ecosystems as legal persons or subjects is an emerging mechanism in transnational practice available to governments in seeking more effective and collaborative natural resource management, sometimes at the insistence of indigenous peoples. This approach is developing particularly quickly in Colombia, where legal rights for rivers and ecosystems are grasping onto, and evolving out of, constitutional human rights protections. This enables the development of a new type of constitutionalism of nature. Yet legal rights for rivers may obscure the rights of indigenous peoples and their role in resource ownership and governance. We argue that the Colombian river cases serve as a caution to courts and legislatures elsewhere to be mindful, in devising ecosystem rights, of the complex and interrelated rights, interests and tenures of indigenous peoples and local communities.
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of the new software eAT24 used to assess dietary intake in the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF) against urinary biomarkers: N (nitrogen), K (potassium) and Na (sodium).
We conducted a cross-sectional study. Two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were applied, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. We examined differences between estimates from dietary and urine measures, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated and the Bland–Altman plots were drawn. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with the difference between estimates.
Sub-sample from the Portuguese IAN-AF sampling frame.
Ninety-five adults (men and women) aged 18–84 years.
The estimated intake calculated using the dietary recall data was lower than that estimated from urinary excretion for the three biomarkers studied (protein 94·3 v. 100·4 g/d, K 3212 v. 3416 mg/d and Na 3489 v. 4003 mg/d). Considering 2 d of recall, the deattenuated correlation coefficients were 0·33, 0·64 and 0·26 for protein, K and Na, respectively. For protein, differences between dietary and urinary estimates varied according to BMI (β = −1·96, P = 0·017). The energy intake and 24-h urine volume were significantly associated with the difference between estimates for protein (β = 0·03, P < 0·001 and β = −0·02, P = 0·002, respectively), K (β = 0·71, P < 0·001 and β = −0·42, P = 0·040, respectively) and Na (β = 1·55, P < 0·001 and β = −0·81, P = 0·011, respectively).
The new software eAT24 performed well in estimating protein and K intakes, but lesser so in estimating Na intake, using two non-consecutive 24-HDR.
The objective of this study was to identify attitudes towards the scientific search for extraterrestrial life among students from public and private universities in Peru. This research was inspired by similar studies, realized in Sweden, which used the same instrument adapting it to our reality. The process consisted of a survey of the Peruvian student population by targeting it in different regions of Peru. The sample consisted of 1237 students from different academic areas. The findings show that 92% of the students believe in the existence of life outside our planet, with differences between the subgroups surveyed.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) particularly among chronic consumers of added sugar-rich diets. However, the impact of early consumption of such diets on NAFLD onset and progression is unclear. Thus, this study sought to characterise metabolic factors involved in NAFLD progression in young mice fed with a high-sucrose diet (HSD). Male Swiss mice were fed HSD or regular chow (CTR) from weaning for up to 60 or 90 days. Obesity development, glucose homeostasis and serum biochemical parameters were determined at each time-point. At day 90, mice were euthanised and white adipose tissue (WAT) collected for lipolytic function assessment and liver for histology, gene expression and cytokines quantification. At day 60, HSD mice presented increased body mass, hypertriglyceridemia, peripheral insulin resistance (IR) and simple steatosis. Upon 90 days on diet, WAT from HSD mice displayed impaired insulin sensitivity, which coincided with increased fasting levels of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA), as well as NAFLD progression to NASH. Transcriptional levels of lipogenic genes, particularly stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, were consistently increased, leading to hepatic leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines spillover. Therefore, our dataset supports IR triggering in the WAT as a major factor for dysfunctional release of FFA towards portal circulation and consequent upregulation of lipogenic genes and hepatic inflammatory onset, which decisively concurred for NAFLD-to-NASH progression in young HSD-fed mice. Notwithstanding, this study forewarns against the early introduction of dietary sugars in infant diet, particularly following breastfeeding cessation.
At the end of 2019, an outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It subsequently spread throughout China and elsewhere, becoming a global health emergency. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The objective of this study was to investigate the degree of knowledge of young Italians about COVID-19 and their current attitudes toward the SARS-CoV-2 and to determine if there were prejudices emerging toward Chinese.
An online survey was conducted on February 3, 4, 5, 2020, with the collaboration of Italian website “Skuola.net”. Young people had the opportunity to participate by answering an ad hoc questionnaire created to investigate knowledge and attitudes about the new coronavirus, using a link published on the homepage.
A total of 5234 responses were received, of which 3262 were females and 1972 were males. Most of the participants showed generally moderate knowledge about COVID-19. Male students, middle school students, and those who do not attend school, should increase awareness of the disease; less than half of responders say that their attitudes toward the Chinese population has worsened in the last period.
Global awareness of this emerging infection should be increased, due to its virulence, the significant risk of mortality, and the ability of the virus to spread very quickly within the community.
Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization) to classify youth (N = 756; 9–18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU, respectively) using youth- and parent-reports of parenting behavior. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviors in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.
Each of these chapters contains a case study of a couple from the relevant country. Each includes a description of the everyday life of the couple with respect to the division of housework and childcare, a recounting of the history of their relationship and how it became equal, a discussion of how they balance paid work and family, and an analysis of the factors that facilitate their equality. Those factors include their conviction in gender equality, their rejection of essentialist beliefs, their familism, and their socialization in their families of origin. By showing how and why they undo gender, these couples provide lessons on how equality at home can be achieved.
Improving functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the main objectives in clinical practice. Of the few psychosocial interventions that have been specifically developed to enhance the psychosocial outcome in BD, functional remediation (FR) is one which has demonstrated efficacy. The aim of this study was to examine which variables could predict improved functional outcome following the FR intervention in a sample of euthymic or subsyndromal patients with BD.
A total of 92 euthymic outpatients were included in this longitudinal study, with 62 completers. Partial correlations controlling for the functional outcome at baseline were calculated between demographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables, and functional outcome at endpoint was assessed by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test scale. Next, a multiple regression analysis was run in order to identify potential predictors of functional outcome at 2-year follow-up, using the variables found to be statistically significant in the correlation analysis and other variables related to functioning as identified in the previous scientific literature.
The regression model revealed that only two independent variables significantly contributed to the model (F(6,53): 4.003; p = 0.002), namely verbal memory and inhibitory control. The model accounted for 31.2% of the variance. No other demographic or clinical variable contributed to the model.
Results suggest that patients with better cognitive performance at baseline, especially in terms of verbal memory and executive functions, may present better functional outcomes at long term follow-up after receiving functional remediation.
Climate change can cause geographic displacement of the ecological niche of a species, so that similar species that previously did not coexist could begin to face new interactions. Such geographic displacement and increased competition can also be exacerbated by anthropic intervention. Until less than 100 years ago, Vultur gryphus and Coragyps atratus did not coexist. Nowadays, possibly as a result of climate change, changes in the distributions of both species created areas where they are now sympatric. Through ecological niche modeling, we evaluated the possible effects that future scenarios of climate change and human influence would have on the distribution and sympatry between the two species. Our models predict that the current distribution of V. gryphus will be reduced between 18% and 24% by 2050 and between 21% and 32% by 2070. Additionally, they predict that the distribution of C. atratus will be reduced by 31–52% by the year 2050 and 15–60% by 2070. The two algorithms predict a reduction in the areas of sympatry. However, for the northern Andes the overlap between the two species will increase, reaching up to 70% in the year 2070. The distribution of C. atratus will move towards higher areas in the altitudinal gradient, and this will generate an increase in the current sympatry between both species. No clear trend was observed on the effect of human influences on the areas of overlap between the scenarios evaluated. The possible effects of climate change and anthropic intervention in future scenarios found in this study highlight the need to include these effects in future analyses and conservation programs of V. gryphus and other threatened vultures.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: 1) In this literature review we want to explore the literature on DMHI (Interventions delivered via digital technologies, such as smartphones, websites, or text messaging), specifically designed to treat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and/or to promote positive change & resilience after trauma. 2) We also want to evaluate the literature in terms of the theoretical model used in each DMHI, engagement, effectiveness, & potential harms/challenges. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will review the literature that describes DMHI for PTSD, resilience, & positive change in persons exposed to psychological trauma (Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, as defined by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). We will review the following databases: PsychINFO, EBSCOhost, PubMed, & PsychiatryOnline. The following inclusion criteria will be used: 1) Interventions delivered by computer, smartphones, or online, 2) studies published between 1999-2019. Exclusion criteria will include reviews, opinion, or discussion articles, & unpublished works. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect to find that the most popular therapeutic model for DMHI is cognitive behavioral therapy. We also expect to find a higher number of web-based interventions, as opposed to phone-based interventions, or other types of DMHI. We also expect to find variable drop-out rates, low engagement, & small to moderate effect sizes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We expect our contribution to center on evaluating available DMHI for psychological trauma. This systematic literature review is expected to provide scientific justification for the development (or validation), & implementation of a DMHI that takes into account the results of previous studies. This contribution is expected to be significant because it will help in choosing, or developing an effective future intervention with DMHI. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: There is no conflict of interest in this study.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our preclinical data demonstrate that the principal effects of nilotinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in models of neurodegeneration is clearance of misfolded proteins via autophagy. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of nilotinib on microRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s disease patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected as part of an open label phase I (NCT02281474) (n = 12, 300 mg nilotinib taken orally once daily for 6 months), and a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT02954978) (n = 75, randomized 1:1:1 into placebo, 150 mg or 300 mg nilotinib taken orally once daily for 12 months). RNA was isolated from CSF and Indexed sequencing libraries were prepared from total RNA plus miRNA. Next generation whole-genome sequencing (single-end 1x75 bp, 25 million raw reads per sample) was performed to identify miRNAs significantly differentially expressed (fold-change ≥ 2, Benjamini-Hochberg FDR p-value ≤ 0.05 or Empirical Bayes FDR ≤ 0.05) with treatment compared to baseline. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Next generation whole-genome sequencing of microRNAs in the CSF demonstrated that nilotinib significantly increases microRNAs that specifically regulate expression of autophagy and ubiquitination genes in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. In the open label phase I, samples, 28 microRNAs found to regulate autophagy and ubiquitination genes, were significantly altered with treatment (Benjamini-Hochberg FDR p-value ≤ 0.05). In the phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study samples, we verified several of those 28 candidate microRNAs had been significantly deferentially expressed with treatment (Empirical Bayes FDR p-value ≤ 0.05). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our data provide robust evidence that nilotinib’s effects on misfolded protein clearance is via autophagy and CSF miRNA sequencing is a valid biomarker of nilotinib’s effects in a definitive phase III study to investigate nilotinib in Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Charbel Moussa is listed as an inventor on several Georgetown University patents for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We recently identified a CA-MRSA strain in Brooklyn, New York (USA300-BKV) causing an outbreak of severe skin infections in predominantly healthy children. The evolution of USA300-BKV included acquisition of a novel prophage, and our objective is to identify the prophage-encoded gene(s) and mechanism responsible for increased bacterial virulence. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We deleted candidate genes from a novel mosaic block of phage-encoded genes in USA300-BKV that have been shown to enhance virulence in a murine skin infection model. Deletion mutants and complemented clones will be evaluated in vivo to identify culprit genes and determine the effect of lineage-specific genetic variation on the phenotype. Complementary studies include a comprehensive characterization of phage and bacterial genes expressed during lysogeny in vitro using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and in vivo using a targeted approach focusing on known bacterial virulence and phage lytic pathways as well as candidate genes identified by in vitro studies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Comparison of otherwise isogenic lab strains showed that the mosaic block of phage genes present in USA300-BKV enhance skin abscess size in mice, confirming previous results. As this region of the phage, named mΦ11, does not contain known toxin genes, we hypothesize that mΦ11 modulates expression of bacterial host genes to enhance virulence. Thus, transcriptional profiles of CA-MRSA containing mΦ11 and selected deletion mutants are expected to reveal changes in known or novel virulence factors compared to controls. Candidate regulators specific to the mosaic block include an adenine methyltransferase linked to changes in global gene expression of other bacterial species. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results will broaden scientific understanding of phage-bacterial interactions and determine the mechanisms by which phage impact virulence independent from toxin gene carriage. Identification of phage-encoded gene(s) enhancing CA-MRSA contagion will inform surveillance efforts and identify novel therapeutic targets.
There is a record of the positive effects of astrobiological research for the natural sciences and eventually for their technological use on Earth. However, on the philosophical effects, this is not as visible as the other sciences, which is why it can be assumed that it is a waste of time speculating on astrobioethics or also on the philosophy of astrobiology. This is the reason why this work seeks to identify and sustain the philosophical utility of astrobioethics. To achieve this, this article focuses on three essential aspects: teloempathy, education and astrotheology. Russell's argument about the value of philosophy will be used as a fundamental basis for the usefulness of astrobioethics.
We analyzed the publication productivity supported by the Puerto Rico Consortium for Clinical and Translational Research (PRCTRC) using the structured process of scientometrics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the research and collaborations as presented in publications. Manuscripts published from 2010 to 2018 and that had the PRCTRC award number and a PMCID number were retrieved from the Science Citation Index database. Scientometric indicators included h-index (HI), average citation (AC), collaboration coefficient (CC), collaboration index (CI), and degree of collaboration (DC) analysis, and relative citation ratio (RCR) was done with Web of Science Platform, iCite, and Stata software. Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software was used to calculate the annual percent change (APC). From 2010 to 2018, 341 publications were identified with an average of 38 publications per year and a total of 3569 citations excluding self-citations. A significant growth (APC: 17.76%, P < 0.05) of scientific production was observed. The overall HI was 31, and the AC per item was 11.04. The overall CC was 0.82, the CI was 8.59, and the DC was 99.1%. This study demonstrates a statistically significant increase in the PRCTRC scientific production. Results allow for the assessment of the progress resulting from the provided support and to plan further strategies accordingly.