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In October 1600 Lord Deputy Mountjoy attempted to lead his army into Ulster via the Moyry Pass, a route strongly fortified and defended by the troops of Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone. According to the Annals of the Four Masters, O'Neill sent forth
fierce and energetic bands of soldiers against him, like unto swarms of bees issuing from the hollows of bee-hives. They proceeded to wound, pierce, hew, and hack them, so that they were compelled to return back […] to the camp, after the killing of countless numbers of their gentlemen, officers, recruits, and attendants.
In sixteenth-century Ireland, few soldiers and commanders who served for any length of time escaped being wounded; neither could they escape wounding others. Those snatches of combat that are recorded in the Irish annals, State Papers and other sources routinely tell of flesh-piercing, bone-crunching encounters.
The late Elizabethan Irish wars generated a growing level of violence between soldiers and towards civilians. Casualty levels were increased by mindsets that characterised enemies as ‘Irish rebels’ or ‘English churls’, and that legitimised atrocity as a means of dealing with opposition cheaply and definitively. Advances in tactics and weapons had a significant impact on the means of killing and wounding by the end of the sixteenth century: the large numbers of gunshot wounds reported in the State Papers in the 1590s provides one indication of how warfare in Ireland had been affected by the spread of the ‘military revolution’. James O'Neill's research on the Nine Years War demonstrates how Tyrone had modernised his army, creating a ‘hybrid force that combined the advantages of modern firepower-oriented infantry with the flexible and highly mobile nature of Irish warfare’. Though more were in possession of firearms, soldiers still also relied on standard weapons like pikes, swords and the ‘horseman's staff’, a wooden staff that might be tipped with metal. The Irish also fought with javelins (‘darts’), bows and their long knives known as scians.
The paper reviews the state of the art of natural language engineering (NLE) around 1995, when this journal first appeared, and makes a critical comparison with the current state of the art in 2018, as we prepare the 25th Volume. Specifically the then state of the art in parsing, information extraction, chatbots, and dialogue systems, speech processing and machine translation are briefly reviewed. The emergence in the 1980s and 1990s of machine learning (ML) and statistical methods (SM) is noted. Important trends and areas of progress in the subsequent years are identified. In particular, the move to the use of n-grams or skip grams and/or chunking with part of speech tagging and away from whole sentence parsing is noted, as is the increasing dominance of SM and ML. Some outstanding issues which merit further research are briefly pointed out, including metaphor processing and the ethical implications of NLE.
The Flat Rocks locality in the Wonthaggi Formation (Strzelecki Group) of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia, hosts fossils of a late Barremian vertebrate fauna that inhabited the ancient rift between Australia and Antarctica. Known from its dentary, Qantassaurus intrepidus Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1999 has been the only dinosaur named from this locality. However, the plethora of vertebrate fossils collected from Flat Rocks suggests that further dinosaurs await discovery. From this locality, we name a new small-bodied ornithopod, Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. from craniodental remains. Five ornithopodan genera are now named from Victoria. Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. is known from five maxillae, from which the first description of jaw growth in an Australian dinosaur is provided. The holotype of Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. is the most complete dinosaur maxilla known from Victoria. Micro-CT imagery of the holotype reveals the complex internal anatomy of the neurovascular tract and antorbital fossa. We confirm that Q. intrepidus is uniquely characterized by a deep foreshortened dentary. Two dentaries originally referred to Q. intrepidus are reassigned to Q. ?intrepidus and a further maxilla is referred to cf. Atlascopcosaurus loadsi Rich and Rich, 1989. A further ornithopod dentary morphotype is identified, more elongate than those of Q. intrepidus and Q. ?intrepidus and with three more tooth positions. This dentary might pertain to Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. Phylogenetic analysis recovered Cretaceous Victorian and Argentinian nonstyracosternan ornithopods within the exclusively Gondwanan clade Elasmaria. However, the large-bodied taxon Muttaburrasaurus langdoni Bartholomai and Molnar, 1981 is hypothesised as a basal iguanodontian with closer affinities to dryomorphans than to rhabdodontids.
Natural Language Engineering really came about from a meeting between Roberto Garigliano (then of Durham University) and myself in his office in late 1992 or early 1993. I had returned to academia the previous year after a spell doing a variety of jobs in industry, and had become aware of Roberto and the Natural Language Group at Durham (just about 15 miles from the University of Sunderland where I was working). Roberto and I discussed several possible avenues of cooperation, including sponsorship by Durham of students on existing Sunderland masters degrees, a joint Durham/Sunderland specialist Masters in Language Engineering (which came to nothing) and a new journal focused on practical, engineering work in the language domain. Incidentally, one of the sponsored master’s students was Siobhan Devlin, now Head of Computing at Sunderland.