Thin film CuIn(Ga)Se2 samples were prepared by a two-stage method starting from amorphous or nano-crystalline precursor structures. Deposition of individual Cu+Se and In+Se layers as a function of substrate temperature revealed the onset of detectable crystal structures at Tsub = 100°C and Tsub. ≥200°C, respectively. For the quaternary system the formation of CuInSe2 was observed at 400°C and evidence was found for liquid CuxSe assisted growth.
Further focus was on surface termination schemes with the objective to enhance the opencircuit voltage. Ga+Se, In+Se, Ga+Se/In+Se, and In+Se/Ga+Se terminating layers with varying amounts of Ga and In are addressed. Schemes studied to date have resulted in an increase in Voc at the expense of short-circuit current. The use of Ga containing termination layers resulted in the formation of large voids in the CIGS which could be explained by the volume changes during formation of the quaternary material and a Cu2Se free surface in these instances.