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Classical viscous fingering (VF) instability, the formation of finger-like interfacial patterns, occurs when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous one in porous media in immiscible and fully miscible systems. However, the dynamics in partially miscible fluid pairs, exhibiting a phase separation due to its finite solubility into each other, has not been largely understood so far. This study has succeeded in experimentally changing the solution system from immiscible to fully miscible or partially miscible by varying the compositions of the components in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) while leaving the viscosities relatively unchanged at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Here, we have experimentally discovered a new topological transition of VF instability by performing a Hele-Shaw cell experiment using the partially miscible system. The finger formation in the investigated partially miscible system changes to the generation of spontaneously moving multiple droplets. Through additional experimental investigations, we determine that such anomalous VF dynamics is driven by thermodynamic instability such as phase separation due to spinodal decomposition and Korteweg convection induced by compositional gradient during such phase separation. We perform the numerical simulation by coupling hydrodynamics with such chemical thermodynamics and the spontaneously moving droplet dynamics is obtained, which is in good agreement with the experimental investigations of the ATPS. This numerical result strongly supports our claim that the origin of such anomalous VF dynamics is thermodynamic instability.
The rate of passage (ROP) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) influences the exposure time of food to the digestion and absorption processes. Consequently, ROP affects the efficiency of nutrient utilization and energy from the diet. This study aimed to determine the physiological parameters that characterize the digestive response, such as first appearance time (FAT), ROP, mean retention time (MRT) and transit time (TT) in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), and to evaluate the effects of sex, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) content in the diet and different types of markers on these parameters. In the first trial, we investigated the effects of sex and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diet) on the FAT parameter. Thirty-two male and 32 female Japanese quail were randomly allocated to 8 battery cages and assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 replicates of 4 birds for each treatment. To determine the FAT, ferric oxide (1%) was added to the diet, and the excreta of the quail was monitored until the first appearance of the marker. The results indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) in the FAT between males (100 min) and females (56 min), regardless of the AMEn content. In the second trial, thirty-two 32-week-old female Japanese quail in the laying phase were assigned to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, in which the main independent variables were type of marker (Cr or Ti) and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diets). In order to determine ROP (ET1%), MRT and TT (ET100%), the markers (0.5%: Cr2O3 and 0.5%: TiO2) were added to the diets, and the excreta were collected for 750 min. The excretion times for 1% (ET1%), 25% (ET25%), 50% (ET50%), 75% (ET75%) and 100% (ET100%) were estimated using cumulative excretion curves. No effect was detected for the AMEn level (P > 0.05); however, the effect of different marker types was significant (P < 0.05). This difference increased with time and ET100% was estimated to occur at 59 min. The ROP was estimated to be 68 min. The TT was estimated to be 540 min using Cr and 599 min using Ti, with an average MRT value of 0930 h. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that Japanese quail digestion through the GIT can be dynamic and differ based on sex or marker type.
Nutritionists have been discussing whether the dietary supplementation of cyst(e)ine is required as a part of the dietary methionine (Met) in the total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement to achieve optimum performance in broilers. Part of Met is converted to cysteine (Cys) to meet the Cys requirement, especially for feather growth. The TSAA requirement has been determined by using graded levels of free Met in the diet, without supplementation of free cyst(e)ine. It has also been argued that the Met to Cys ratio (Met : Cys) changes with age and even with different Met sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the two sources of Met, while determining the proportion of Met and Cys in total dietary TSAA that optimize the performance of broilers. A performance assay was carried out in a factorial arrangement (5 × 2) using 1080 broilers from 42 to 56 days of age fed diets having different dietary proportions of Met and Cys (44 : 56, 46 : 54, 48 : 52, 50 : 50 or 52 : 48) while maintaining the same dietary TSAA in the diets. Two synthetic Met sources (dl-Met or l-Met) were used for each of the diets with different dietary Met : Cys ratios. Twenty-one broilers of the same age were fed the diets 44 : 56, 48 : 52 and 52 : 48 by supplementing the diet with L-(15N) Met or L-(15N2) Cystine to study the metabolism of TSAA. No differences were observed between Met sources for feed intake, BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR; P > 0.05); however, FCR was numerically improved at 50 : 50 Met : Cys. Regarding TSAA utilization, the conversion of Met to Cys increased with increase in Met : Cys ratios, but the concentration of Met intermediates decreased. Broiler chickens responded to different dietary proportions of sulfur amino acids by altering their sulfur amino acid metabolism, and diets containing 50 : 50 Met : Cys is recommended for broilers of age 42 to 56 days.
Sample geometry effects on mechanical strengths of gold micro-cantilevers are evaluated by a micro-bending test. Six micro-cantilevers with the same length of 50 μm are prepared, and the width and the thickness are varied to examine individual effects on the yield stress. The yield stress increases from 428 to 519 MPa when the thickness decreases from 11.1 to 6.0 μm. No obvious dependency is observed when varying the width. The results reveal that the thickness and the width each has a different influence on the yield stresses of micro-cantilevers evaluated by the bending test, which is the sample geometry effect.
Mainstream criminology has been mainly developed in the US and other English-speaking countries. With an expansion of criminology outside the English-speaking world, several scholars have started to cast doubts on the applicability of current mainstream criminology in their regions because it has failed to account for cultural differences. This question has led to a call for an “indigenized” criminology, in which knowledge and discourses are derived from or fixed to align with unique cultural contexts in each region. In this vein, Liu (2009, 2016, 2017a, 2017b) has proposed Asian Criminology. While it has significantly contributed to the development of criminology in Asia, we see two challenges in Liu’s Asian Criminology: lack of consideration for cultural diversity within Asia and its focus on the individualism–collectivism continuum. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to developing criminology in Asia, which we call culture-inclusive criminology. It builds on a premise that Asia consists of a variety of cultural zones, and therefore calls for a shift from the Euro-American view on culture towards an understanding of culture in its context. Its goal is to develop indigenized criminologies in each cultural zone of Asia under an umbrella of culture-inclusive criminology.
Japan has been described as ‘the land of cooperatives’. This chapter looks at the long history of agricultural, consumer and medical cooperatives in Japan, and explores the role of cooperatives in Japan’s informal life politics by focusing particularly on the story of one experiment in cooperative medicine: Saku Central Hospital in Nagano Prefecture, founded in 1944. In the first half of the twentieth century, cooperatism in Japan was promoted both by the government, which saw it as a means of combatting political radicalism, and by some left-of-centre activists who saw it as a path to fundamental social reform. During the 1930s, the Christian social reformer Kagawa Toyohiko gained international fame for a social vision (particularly influential in the United States) centred on cooperatives. Building on aspects of these diverse traditions, Saku Central Hospital was the starting point for an innovative postwar program of rural medicine, in whose development the hospital’s second director, Wakatsuki Toshikazu, played a key role. The hospital’s philosophy defined ‘health’ as a social phenomenon whose scope went far beyond the immediate treatment of diseases. This social vision of health care has had widespread influence in Japan and other parts of Asia.
The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 and the ensuing Fukushima nuclear disaster created huge challenges for Japanese society, and led to renewed interest in diverse forms of informal life politics. This chapter examines how communities in Fukushima Prefecture, Hokkaido and elsewhere responded to the crisis by developing citizens’ radiation measurement schemes, organic agriculture projects and projects to support those who sought refuge from areas affected by nuclear radiation. Though some of these responses were short-lived, the longer term impact of the disaster can, I argue, be seen in the rising interest within Japan in Transition Town and grassroots alternative energy schemes, and in forms of social action which combine artistic with political modes of expression. In examining these developments, this chapter also notes how aspects of the new, post-Fukushima grassroots activism links back to themes embraced by earlier generations of Japanese informal life politics.
This chapter sets out the conceptual framework of the book, examining challenges to democracy in Japan and the world, and recent searches for alternative visions of politics. The end of the Cold War in Europe did not, as some had hoped, lead to a global triumph of democracy. Rather, social frictions associated with the global spread of market capitalism created a crisis of democracy symbolised by the rise of new forms of populism. This crisis has inspired new searches for political alternatives, many of them focusing on grassroots forms of informal politics. The chapter introduces the notion of informal life politics, which will be central to the chapters that follow, and highlights the importance of examining the historical as well as the present-day dimensions of informal life politics in Japan and beyond.
In the postwar era, the ideas espoused by the White Birch teachers in the 1910s and 1920s were revived in new forms, and interacted with the new wave of interest in democracy, rural development and social education. This chapter traces the ways in which this confluence of ideas provided the basis for alternative forms of self-help politics which flourished following Japan’s defeat in the Pacific War and into the high-growth era of the 1960s. Focusing on case studies from Nagano Prefecture, it shows how the reformed and reorganized Youth Groups (Seinendan) and the newly created nationwide network of citizens’ halls (kōminkan) provided a basis for experiments in social education and autonomous local activism, and explores links between rural activism and the nationwide social movements of the 1960s, including the protests against the Ampo Treaty with the United States.
The New Village (Atarashiki Mura) was an experiment in rural living created in 1918 by novelist and White Birch founder member Mushanokōji Saneatsu. Mushanokōji envisaged the village as the start of a social movement which would transform Japanese rural life from below. In fact, though, the village (which still exists today) remained tiny. However, I argue in this chapter that it had an influence and significance which cannot simply be measured by its size. The New Village helped to inspire a boom in the creation of experimental rural communities in Japan and China in the 1920s, and its practical influence even extended as far as South America. Despite internal problems, and despite the fact that Mushanokōji expressed enthusiastic support for Japan’s wartime military expansion, the village experienced a postwar period of revival and continued to be seen as a model for some social experiments in the 1970s, when the rise of environmentalism inspired a new interest in the creation of intentional communities.
The prewar activities of the White Birch teachers, and the related postwar activities of rural youth groups and social educators, provided the basis which sustained a new wave of informal life politics from the 1980s onward. As rural areas began to suffer acutely from problems of depopulation and aging, and as schemes to disperse industrial activities to the regions led to environmental conflicts, local communities looked to alternative forms of endogenous development to secure their own futures. This chapter explores examples of the search for ‘development from within’, focusing particularly on the cases of the Shinshū Miyamoto School (Shinshū Miyamoto Juku) in Nagano Prefecture and other environmental, cooperative and alternative currency projects which are linked to the school through a regional network of self-help action.
An examination of historical traditions of informal life politics in Japan, and their links to similar traditions internationally. Though political life in East Asia is often viewed as highly state-centric, I argue that there is a long tradition of East Asian thought – evident in some forms of Daoism, Buddhism and even Confucianism – which emphasises the importance of non-state everyday action in creating the good society. One practical manifestation of these ideas in pre-Meiji Japan was the emergence of mutual aid groups. The chapter also examines how modern Japanese informal life politics drew on various European traditions, many of which had links to non-conformist Christianity or to the late nineteenth century upsurge of interest in Asian religions. The final sections of the chapter discusses the impact on Japan’s informal life politics of the early twentieth century Heiminsha movement, the Ashio pollution incident and the High Treason Incident of 1911.
This chapter explores the activities of a group of young rural teachers who, in the 1910s and 1920s, sought to develop a radically alternative form of lifelong education as a basis for transforming and ‘humanizing’ industrializing Japan. Their chief source of inspiration was the White Birch (Shirakaba) movement, named after the journal Shirakaba, founded in 1910. The White Birch movement’s founders were members of Japan’s social elite, and the movement is often seen as an intellectual coterie removed from the social realities of early twentieth century Japan. I argue, though, that the schoolteachers who took up and tried to practice the group’s ideas had a much greater connection to everyday social problems. The chapter discusses events such as the Togura Incident of 1918, in which actions by White Birch Teachers led to clashes with the authorities, and goes on to highlight the direct and indirect links which were formed between the White Birch activists and like-minded communities overseas, including the Dartington Hall group in Britain and, in India, Rabidranath Tagore’s agrarian and educational communities and the Andretta craft community.