Dopamine receptors have been divided into two major types – D1 and D2 – based primarily on pharmacological and biochemical criteria. Recent advances in the molecular biology of the dopamine receptor system have allowed the identification and characterisation of at least five distinct neuronal dopamine receptor genes (D1 to D5). These genes encode dopamine receptors belonging to the D1 receptor family, termed D1 and D5, and three D2-like receptors, termed D2, D3 and D4. These receptors are distinguished on the basis of their primary structure, chromosomal location, mRNA size and tissue distribution, and biochemical and pharmacological differences. Although individually these receptor subtypes may not be directly and exclusively involved in the maintenance or expression of schizophrenia, alterations of any of the receptors may contribute to the perturbation or instability of dopaminergic homeostasis in the brain. What was once thought to be a simple two-receptor system seems to have emerged as an intricate and interactive entity. This review summarises what is currently understood about dopamine receptors, their role in antipsychotic drug action, and their association with psychosis.