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This article theorizes the colonial problem of peoplehood that Indian anticolonial thinkers grappled with in their attempts to conceptualize self-rule, or swaraj. British colonial rule drew its legitimacy from a developmentalist conception of the colonized people as backward and disunited. The discourse of “underdeveloped” colonial peoplehood rendered the Indian people “unfit” for self-government, suspending their sovereignty to an indefinite future. The concept of swaraj would be born with the rejection of deferred colonial self-government. Yet the persistence of the developmentalist figuration of the people generated a crisis of sovereign authorization. The pre-Gandhian swaraj theorists would be faced with the not-yet claimable figure of the people at the very moment of disavowing the British claim to rule. Recovering this underappreciated pre-Gandhian history of the concept of swaraj and reinterpreting its Gandhian moment, this article offers a new reading of Gandhi's theory of moral self-rule. In so doing, it demonstrates how the history of swaraj helps trace the colonial career of popular sovereignty.
In the present work, mechanical, tribological, and electrochemical behaviors of Al Alloy 6061–(0–10) % B4C–(0.25–1.2) % graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) composites, prepared by a combination of solution mixing and powder metallurgy, were investigated. Properties such as hardness, compressive strength, wear rates, and coefficient of friction (COF) were used to investigate the effects of GNPs on mechanical and self-lubricating tribological behavior. The corrosion resistance of composites was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and EDS mapping were employed to study the distribution, the fracture profile, and wear mechanism. The AA 6061–10% B4C–0.6% GNPs composites exhibited sharp increase in hardness and compressive strength and significant decrease in wear rates and COF. However, for GNPs contents exceeding over 0.6 wt%, mechanical properties and wear performances deteriorated. Pulling out of sheared pultruded GNPs was observed during the fracture of composites. Worn surfaces of GNPs-containing composites showed the smeared graphene layer with some macro-cracks exhibiting delamination wear. It was found that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of GNPs was more pronounced in H3BO3 environment than in NaCl solution.
When do parties respond to their political rivals and when do they ignore them? This article presents a new computational framework to detect, analyze and predict partisan responsiveness by showing when parties on opposite poles of the political spectrum react to each other’s agendas and thereby contribute to polarization. Once spikes in responsiveness are detected and categorized using latent Dirichlet allocation, we utilize the terms that comprise the topics, together with a gradient descent solver, to assess the classifier’s predictive accuracy. Using 10,597 documents from the official websites of radical right and ethnic political parties in Slovakia (2004–2014), the analysis predicts which political issues will elicit partisan reactions, and which will be ignored, with an accuracy of 83% (F-measure) and outperforms both Random Forest and Naive Bayes classifiers. Subject matter experts validate the approach and interpret the results.
Residual right ventricular outflow obstruction during Tetralogy of Fallot repair necessitates peri-operative revision often requiring trans-annular patch with its negative sequels. Bidirectional Glenn shunt in this setting reduces trans-pulmonary gradient to avoid revision.
Bidirectional Glenn shunt was added during Tetralogy repair in patients with significant residual obstruction. A total of 53 patients between January, 2011 and June, 2018 were included. Final follow-up was conducted in July, 2018.
Mean age at operation was 5.63±3.1 years. Right to left ventricular pressure ratio reduced significantly (0.91±0.09 versus 0.68±0.05; p<0.001) after bidirectional Glenn, avoiding revision in all cases. Glenn pressures at ICU admission decreased significantly by the time of ICU discharge (16.7±3.02 versus 13.5±2.19; p<0.001). Pleural drainage ≥ 7 days was seen in 14 (26.4%) patients. No side effects related to bidirectional Glenn-like facial swelling or veno-venous collaterals were noted. Mortality was 3.7%. Discharge echocardiography showed a mean trans-pulmonary gradient of 32.11±5.62 mmHg that decreased significantly to 25.64±5 (p<0.001) at the time of follow-up. Pulmonary insufficiency was none to mild in 45 (88.2%) and moderate in 6 (11.8%). Mean follow-up was 36.12±25.15 months (range 0.5–90). There was no interim intervention or death. At follow-up, all the patients were in NYHA functional class 1 with no increase in severity of pulmonary insufficiency.
Supplementary bidirectional Glenn shunt significantly reduced residual right ventricular outflow obstruction during Tetralogy of Fallot repair avoiding revision with satisfactory early and mid-term results.
Background: Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a syndrome characterized by an isolated impairment of language function at disease onset. The cholinergic system is implicated in language function and cholinergic deficits are seen in the brains of individuals with PPA. One major source of cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex is the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) within which lies the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). This nucleus is postulated to be involved in language function. We compared the abundance of cholinergic neurons in the NBM and NSP of controls and individuals with PPA. Also explored was whether the individuals presenting with PPA, who subsequently developed different clinical and neuropathological profiles, showed similar cholinergic deficits in the NSP. Methods: Cytoarchitecture of the basal forebrain was studied using Nissl staining in control (n = 5) and PPA (n = 5) brains. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemical staining labeled cholinergic neurons were quantified using Neurolucida software. Results: In comparison to matched controls, PPA showed reduction of cholinergic neurons in the NBM (t(8) = 4.04, p = 0.0037; Cohen’s effect size value d = 2.62) and the NSP (t(6) = 4.62, p = 0.0042; Cohen’s d effect size d = 2.92). The average percent of cholinergic neuronal loss was relatively higher in the NSP (64.7%) compared to the NBM (47.7%). Conclusion: Regardless of underlying pathology, all cases presenting with PPA showed a marked loss of cholinergic neurons in the NSP, providing further evidence for the importance of this nucleus in language function.
In 1977, I was invited by Ngũgĩ to join him in the production of Ngaahika Ndeenda at Kamĩrĩĩthũ, his home village. At that time I knew very little about the history of Kenya other than the text book school versions and even less about viewing the history from the point of the majority of Kenyans who are the peasants and workers. Fresh from Europe, I was a starry eyed young man eager to engage with ‘African culture’ and particularly the culture of the ‘grassroots’ ethnicities of Kenya, my place of birth.
I was a junior researcher at the Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi and out in the field a lot working on material culture. It was in the field that my eyes opened up to the atrocities of the Kenyatta regime and the gruesome poverty experienced by many Kenyans. I used to cross over to the Northern Frontier District (NFD) military zone where no journalist was allowed, and I saw places where there were Mau Mau type concentration camps. I witnessed humiliation of the rural citizens by the regime's forces and the administration. I saw that the pogroms against the intellectuals that followed both the performance of Ngaahika Ndeenda and Maitũ Njugĩra and the detentions and exiles were not different from those in the rural north of Kenya and later among the Pokot and Turkana peoples. In the city where I lived, I saw police brutality waged on students and passers-by. This was the reality of the non-elites in everyday Kenya. These sights made a tremendous impact on me and gradually I began to understand what Ngũgĩ was saying, why the regime needed to be confronted, and how he was doing it. Ngũgĩ addressed the peasant farmers, students and workers from around like those from the Bata shoe factory. He addressed them in their own language and music. Poverty was the context and dictatorship the reason for the risk of taking Ngaahika Ndeenda and later Maitũ Njugĩra to the public forum.
Quantity and quality of input affect language development, but input features also depend on the context of language emission. Previous research has described mother-child interactions and their impact on language development according to activity types like mealtimes, book reading, and free play. Nevertheless, few studies have sought to quantify activity types in naturalistic datasets including less-studied languages and cultures. Our research questions are the following: we ask whether regularities emerge in the distribution of activity types across languages and recordings, and whether activities have an impact on mothers' linguistic productions. We analyse input for two children per language, at three developmental levels. We distinguish three activity types: solitary, social and maintenance activities, and measure mothers' linguistic productions within each type. Video-recorded activities differ across families and developmental levels. Linguistic features of child-directed speech (CDS) also vary across activities – notably for measures of diversity and complexity – which points to complex interactions between activity and language.
When patients feel spiritually supported by staff, we find increased use of hospice and reduced use of aggressive treatments at end of life, yet substantial barriers to staff spiritual care provision still exist. We aimed to study these barriers in a new cultural context and analyzed a new subgroup with “unrealized potential” for improved spiritual care provision: those who are positively inclined toward spiritual care yet do not themselves provide it.
We distributed the Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Care Study via the Middle East Cancer Consortium to physicians and nurses caring for advanced cancer patients. Survey items included how often spiritual care should be provided, how often respondents themselves provide it, and perceived barriers to spiritual care provision.
We had 770 respondents (40% physicians, 60% nurses) from 14 Middle Eastern countries. The results showed that 82% of respondents think staff should provide spiritual care at least occasionally, but 44% provide spiritual care less often than they think they should. In multivariable analysis of respondents who valued spiritual care yet did not themselves provide it to their most recent patients, predictors included low personal sense of being spiritual (p < 0.001) and not having received training (p = 0.02; only 22% received training). How “developed” a country is negatively predicted spiritual care provision (p < 0.001). Self-perceived barriers were quite similar across cultures.
Significance of results
Despite relatively high levels of spiritual care provision, we see a gap between desirability and actual provision. Seeing oneself as not spiritual or only slightly spiritual is a key factor demonstrably associated with not providing spiritual care. Efforts to increase spiritual care provision should target those in favor of spiritual care provision, promoting training that helps participants consider their own spirituality and the role that it plays in their personal and professional lives.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Preliminary animal studies showed that low-intensity ultrasound (US) coincident with intravascularly administered microbubbles locally disrupts tumor vasculature. This study translates the novel therapy of antivascular ultrasound (AVUS) into an autochthonous model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The differential effects produced by AVUS at low and high doses are evaluated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: HCC was induced in 12 Wistar rats by ingestion of 0.01% diethylnitrosamine in drinking water for 12 weeks. Rats received AVUS treatment at low and high doses. Low dose group (n=6) received 1 W/cm2 US for 1 minute with 0.2 mL microbubbles injected IV. High dose group (n=6) received 2 W/cm2 for 2 minute with 0.7 mL microbubbles IV. Perfusion was measured before and after AVUS with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) and power Doppler (PD-US). Peak enhancement (PE) and perfusion index (PI) were measured from each US mode. Histology after sacrifice or natural death was compared to pre/post US. Analysis of H&E and trichrome sections was evaluated for percent area of hemorrhage and findings of tissue injury and repair including inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After high dose AVUS, PE, and PI of CE-US decreased from baseline by an average of 33.3% and 29.7%, respectively. Histology showed extensive tissue injury (hemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis) in 58% of tumor cross-sectional area. Conversely, low dose AVUS increased PE and PI of CE-US by an average of 39.3% and 67.8%, respectively. Histology showed smaller areas of microhemorrhage Versus large pools of hemorrhage (only 17% area). PD-US changes were similar to CE-US. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In summary, the opposing effects of AVUS observed at 2 doses allows for multiple roles in tumor therapy. Enhanced perfusion at a low dose may improve drug delivery or radiation therapy. Whereas, vascular disruption at high doses of AVUS may allow noninvasive ischemic therapy. Furthermore, AVUS is ripe for translation given the use its component parts clinically: low-intensity long-tone burst for physiotherapy and microbubbles as an US contrast agent. Thus, AVUS should be evaluated for translation of its differential effects into noninvasive therapies for HCC and other tumors.
Measles is an important childhood infection targeted to be eliminated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Virus circulation has not been interrupted in the European Region because high vaccination rates could not be achieved among some countries of the WHO European Region including Turkey. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laboratory findings of measles cases confirmed in the last nine years, to assess the epidemiological data of the cases, to determine the molecular genotyping studies and to emphasise the importance of laboratory-based surveillance in measles. From 2007 to 2010, only 18 imported cases were detected in Turkey. However, this number increased with a local outbreak of 111 cases in 2011, followed by another outbreak in 2012 in Istanbul that spread countrywide in the following two years; a total of 8661 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported from 2012 to 2015. After ELISA detection of a measles IgM-positive result in serum samples of potential measles cases, RT–PCR was performed with urine or nasopharyngeal swab samples of patients, and amplicons were subjected to sequencing. In the samples of 2010 and 2011, D4 and D9 genotypes were mainly detected; as of 2012, the D8 genotype has gained importance. Although D8 was also identified in 2014, in the same year genotype H1 viruses were detected in Turkey for the first time. Therefore, it is important to perform a genotypic analysis of the virus causing the outbreak, analyse epidemiological connections of the contact, determine the source of the outbreak and plan measures based on this information.
Objective: Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders in which abnormal lipopigments form lysosomal inclusion bodies in neurons. Kufs disease is rare, and clinical symptoms include seizures, progressive cognitive impairment, and myoclonus. Most cases of Kufs disease are autosomal recessive; however, there have been a few case reports of an autosomal dominant form linked to mutations within the DNAJC5 gene. Methods: We describe a family with Kufs disease in which the proband and three of her four children presented with cognitive impairment, seizures, and myoclonus. Results: Genetic testing of all four children was positive for a c.346_348delCTC(p.L116del) mutation in the DNAJC5 gene. The proband brain had an abundance of neuronal lipofuscin in the cerebral cortex, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. There were no amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the cholinergic neurons and cholinergic projection fibers were spared, but there was a profound loss of choline acetyltransferase within the caudate, putamen, and basal forebrain. This suggests a loss of choline acetyltransferase as opposed to a loss of the neurons. Conclusions: This report describes the clinical history of autosomal dominant Kufs disease, the genetic mutation within the DNAJC5 gene, and the neuropathological findings demonstrating depletion of choline acetyltransferase in the brain.
The need for perineal repair after childbirth affects millions of women worldwide. In the United Kingdom, approximately 85% of women sustain some form of perineal trauma during vaginal delivery, and 69% of these will require stitches.
This article studies corruption in India through an ethnographic elaboration of practices that are colloquially discussed as the ‘eating of money’ (paisa khana) in northern India. It examines both the discourse and practice of eating money in the specific context of the implementation of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (NREGA). The article works through two central paradoxes that emerge in the study of corruption and the state. The first paradox relates to the corruption–transparency dyad. The ethnography presented shows clearly that the difficulties in the implementation of NREGA arose directly out of the transparency requirements of the statute, which were impeding the traditional eating of money. Instead of corruption being the villain it turns out that, in this particular context, it was its categorical Other—transparency—that was to blame. The second and related paradox emerges from an ethnographic examination of the processes and things through which development performance, corruption, and transparency are established and adjudged in the contemporary Indian state. Corrupt state practices and transparent state functioning are authoritatively proclaimed through an assessment of evidence—material proof in the form of paper—that is constructed by the Indian state itself. The push for transparency in India at the moment is not only leading to an excessive focus on the production of these paper truths but, more dangerously, is also deflecting attention away from what is described as the ‘real’ (asli) life of welfare programmes. Ultimately, this article contends that we need to eschew treating corruption as an explanatory trope for the failure of development in India. Instead of devising ever-more punitive auditing regimes to stem the leakages of the Indian state, this work suggests that we need a clearer understanding of what the state really is; how—and through which material substances—it functions and demonstrates evidence of its accomplishments.
There are challenging complexities in analysing both historical trends and contemporary structures in the region now comprising Pakistan. Interrelating both history and the present poses further challenges. With scholarship aligned on either side of the apparent watershed of 1947, analysts have hitherto remained negligent of a pattern of continuity and disjuncture that is explored in this article, which it is hoped will enable a deeper understanding of historical causations and outcomes. Further, we propose here that such multiple and diverse trends, while they might demand distinct empirical analyses, can coalesce within three overarching themes. Analysing these themes and their interstices, enables a more cohesive and integrated understanding of Pakistan's complex realities than has been hitherto forthcoming from the more segmented approaches that dominate discourse on the study of Pakistan's past and present. The author aims to shed light on why and how retardation in Pakistan is so resilient, and hopes that understanding these long-term outcomes will be greatly assisted by an analytical approach predicated on three themes: thwarted nationalism, economic counter-revolutions, and anarcho-vassalage.
The ‘weak’ and ‘flawed’ nature of South Asian institutions has become axiomatic in development discourse, with the persistence of this view outweighed only by its lack of concreteness. The fascination with institutions is noteworthy precisely because the most fundamental questions about them are still under debate: there is little agreement on the definition of institutions beyond generic statements, let alone an established consensus on which institutions engender development. Instead institutionalist explanations float far and wide, netting the blame for various policy failures, with a striking lack of critical inspection. This special issue is an attempt to bring together various perspectives on institutional change and economic development in South Asia in an attempt to problematize the very concept of institutions and their perceived role in fostering economic development. The geographical focus on South Asia furthers a central aim of this collection: to emphasize the contextual nature of institutions. This translates into a need for disaggregating secular institutional theory into its precise constraints and implications for particular spaces, moments, and contexts.