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As worldwide interest in international commercial courts grows, questions arise as to whether individual nations can or should seek to compete in the “litigation market” by developing their own cross-border business courts. This essay compares the prospects of the United States and Australia in this regard, focusing on whether it is possible (Section II), probable (Section III), and preferable (Section IV) for one or both of these two federalized, common law nations to develop an international commercial court as part of their national judicial systems. The inquiry is particularly intriguing given that one country (the United States) has had a somewhat uneven relationship with international engagements while the other (Australia) is maintaining or increasing its connections to the rest of the world. Although this discrepancy could be used to explain the relative status of the debate about international commercial courts, which is much more advanced in Australia than in the United States, it is also possible that the distinctions between the United States and Australia are motivated by other factors. While neither country appears poised to create an international commercial court at the moment, the current analysis helps identify the types of factors that policy-makers can and should consider when contemplating reforms of this nature.
It is nearly impossible to commence this chapter without remarking upon the coincidence that Marcel Pagnol's birth in 1895 in Aubagne, Provence, occurred in the same year that his countrymen Auguste and Louis Lumière held the first public screenings of their cinematograph in Paris. Yet Brett Bowles reminds readers that this pleasing accident of chronology was not necessarily ‘a sign that Pagnol’s fate was somehow cosmically intertwined with cinema’ (2012a: 10). Bowles indicates that while Pagnol's family history did not readily suggest a nascent facility for any particular art form, including the newest, what was to prove remarkable was his success across several media and roles. For Pagnol would achieve acclaim as a novelist, playwright, film producer and director, becoming one of France's leading cultural figures of the twentieth century. Unusually for an instance of adaptation, the films examined in this chapter have not followed the familiar trajectory of novel-film, but rather film-novel-film; an adaptive journey that reflects Pagnol's identity as a multimedia author. Responding to Pagnol’s original 1952 film, itself a version edited down significantly from his desired vision of the story, André Bazin wrote that ‘in Manon of the Springs, with his inspiration finally at its peak – he gave Provence its universal epic’ (1995: 204). Hence, even before the novels that gave rise to the adaptations examined here, Pagnol and this story were inextricably associated with Provence. Pagnol later novelised his own Manon into L’eau des collines (The Water of the Hills) in 1962. Finally, in 1986 – eleven years after his death – the constituent stories of L’eau des collines were adapted as the films Jean de Florette and Manon desSources. They achieved both critical and commercial success, nationally and internationally, though it was domestically that they achieved their greatest box office success, running for seventy and fifty-eight weeks respectively, and selling 7.2 and 6.6 million tickets, making them the most popular films of that year (Bowles 2012a: 237). Importantly, the films were also a notable example of a concerted effort on the part of the French government of the time to support and promote cinema that foregrounded French history and culture, especially in the face of competition from anglophone filmmakers.
Cognitive dysfunction is an important aspect of depression that includes problems with thinking, concentration and memory. Research suggests that the cognitive aspect of depression is highly prevalent and has a significant impact on patient functioning. Currently, cognitive dysfunction in depression is largely unrecognised, unmonitored and untreated.
We aim to define cognitive dysfunction in clinical depression (major depressive disorder) and explore its detection and management in the UK, highlighting priority areas to be addressed.
A modified Delphi method was used as the process to gain consensus. A multi-stakeholder steering committee of depression experts (including psychiatrists, psychologists, primary care physicians, and representatives from occupational therapy and a depression charity) provided the key themes and, through round-table discussion, developed draft statements. The main areas of focus were burden, detection and management of cognitive dysfunction in depression. These statements formed a questionnaire to be reviewed by 150–200 health-care professionals with an involvement in the management of depression, with level of agreement noted as ‘strongly disagree’, ‘disagree’, ‘don’t know/uncertain’, ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’. Responses to the questionnaire will be analysed (very high agreement [> 66%] or very low agreement [< 33%]) and the steering committee will revise and finalise the consensus statements, and identify priority areas for future consideration. The steering committee was initiated and supported by the pharmaceutical company Lundbeck Ltd, through an educational grant. Lundbeck Ltd did not influence content.
Results of the questionnaire and the evolution of the final consensus statements will be presented.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Sociocultural and social cognitive theories have begun to make a lasting imprint on English Language Teaching (ELT) and learning as it is undertaken and understood today across a range of contexts (Steffensen and Kramsch ). This chapter reports on a study conducted with English language learners involved in Literature Circles (LCs) over an extended period and centres on an analysis of the discourse generated within these post-reading, group discussions. The chapter begins by contextualising LCs as a vehicle for reader response and collaborative engagement within an ecological perspective to second language (L2) development. Drawing on sociocultural theory (Lantolf, Thorne and Poehner ) and its application to collaborative engagement in a language learning environment, the discourse presented undergoes an ecologically grounded, dialogical analysis. This analysis interprets examples from the group conversations as affordances for language development identified as an emergent phenomenon, co-constructed and mediated by the support of peers, the shared reading experience and relevant scaffolding. The current study suggests that this dynamic combines collaborative interaction and interpersonal communication with ecosocial processes to promote spoken L2 development, where deep processing of shared interpretation, critical evaluation, collective noticing and expression of affect are externalised within the discussions.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
To properly understand the tectonic history of the Grenville Province it is necessary to have a reliable, scientifically based understanding of the present-day three-dimensional (3D) structure of the orogen. Based on detailed Nd isotope mapping of surface boundaries and Lithoprobe seismic sections, this study provides the first detailed visualization of the 3D structure of the Grenville gneiss belt in Ontario using the SketchUp software package. The 3D visualization supports a model in which thrust geometry was imposed from the top downwards, controlled by the NW boundary of the Central Metasedimentary Belt that originated as a failed back-arc rift zone. The Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary controlled the trajectory of the Allochthon Boundary Thrust, its underlying tectonic duplex and, ultimately, the Grenville Front. This process of superimposed thrusting explains the large-scale change in the trajectory of the Grenville Front north of Georgian Bay that has been called the ‘Big Bend’. To assist in visualizing the 3D model, a fly-through animation is provided in the supplementary material.
In 2017, in the wake of allegations of sexual assault against movie mogul Harvey Weinstein, women, trans-and gender diverse persons1 across the creative industries (and beyond) have come forward to shed light on the prevalence of sexual assault and violence in these areas. The #MeToo hashtag, which was used extensively on social media from late 2017 when stories were being shared online as a way of demonstrating the widespread nature of sexual assault and abuse, has become emblematic of this moment. As part of this, women have been taking collective action to draw attention to the pervasiveness of this type of abuse in the music industries. For example, over 2,000 people in Sweden (Dagens Nyheter 2017) and over 1,000 in Australia (The Industry Observer n.d.) have signed open letters detailing the types of abuse they have been subjected to, and calling for change and an end to such behaviour. The Swedish letter stated that:
In the music industry we work 24/ 7, often with insecure contracts and temporary employment. Being accommodating and not making a fuss is important in order to not be replaced. This makes women in the music industries targets of power demonstrations, often with a sexual nature. In our existence laws on consent are far away, we are objectified and sexual assault and harassment are more rule than exception. (Dagens Nyheter 2017)
Reading the stories shared in these open letters gives powerful insight into how the culture of the industry encourages mistreatment of women and minimizes their experiences. For example, one contributor noted:
When a competent male musician rapes you, you lose a lot of friends. ‘What he did was wrong. But he is an asset to the music industry so we don't want to lose him. I hope you can understand and respect that.’ One example of what friends have said when I've told them what happened. (Dagens Nyheter 2017)
The stories in these letters, and others that emerged during this time through social media and other forums, have made it clear that abuse is often normalized in the music industries. This new –but not new –knowledge raises questions about the extent to which such behaviours have always been part of popular music, and how histories of this music are often written so as to ignore, excuse or even valorize such misdeeds.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Anxiety is prevalent in early childhood and, when left untreated, increases children’s risk for chronic anxiety and depression later in life. Maternal risk factors (e.g. income and marital status) have also been shown to heighten their children’s risk for the development of the aforementioned psychopathology. Sleep plays a critical role in behavior regulation, is affected in depression, and is influenced by a wide range of demographic and psychological variables. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal sleep and the presence in their children of reported symptoms relating to anxiety, depression, and behavior regulation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Children (n=59, aged: 4-9 years (M = 6.069, SD = 1.006, 59.3% female) and their mothers were sampled from clinic and community settings and were administered questionnaires. Maternal sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which captures both numeric and self-reported categories relating to an individual’s perception of their sleep. Child anxiety and depression were assessed via parent-reported Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Maternal depression symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Associations between these measures were analyzed by ANOVA with post-hoc analysis and linear regression as appropriate. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean child CBCL scores when children were sub-set into maternal categories of self-reported days of dysfunction due to sleepiness over the past month. Mean child CBCL T-score domains with statistically significant differences were: attention problems (F = 4.935, p = 0.004), depression problems (F = 3.073, p = 0.035), ADHD (F = 4.422, p = 0.007), oppositional defiant (F = 2.865, p = 0.045), and total t-score (F = 3.073, p = 0.035). Maternal mean DBI scores were also statistically significantly different when grouped by days of maternal dysfunction due to sleepiness (F = 9.791, p < 0.001). There was no relation between these CBCL categories and maternal DBI scores. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Maternal self-reported days of dysfunction due to sleepiness may potentially increase risk for their children to develop further psychopathology independent of mothers’ depression symptomatology. These findings highlight the need for broader assessment clinically of children’s environments with additional focus on maternal function given the potential impact on their children’s functional outcomes.
The prevention of malnutrition in children under two approach (PM2A), women’s empowerment and agricultural interventions have not been widely evaluated in relation to child diet and nutrition outcomes. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of PM2A, women’s empowerment groups (WEG), farmer field schools (FFS) and farmer-to-farmer training (F2F).
Community-matched quasi-experimental design; outcome measures included children’s dietary diversity, stunting and underweight.
Communities in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
A total of 1312 children from 1113 households.
Achievement of minimum dietary diversity ranged from 22·9 to 39·7 % and was significantly greater in the PM2A and FFS groups (P<0·05 for both comparisons). Fewer than 7·6 and 5·8 % of children in any group met minimum meal frequency and acceptable diet targets; only the PM2A group differed significantly from controls (P<0·05 for both comparisons). The endline stunting prevalence ranged from 54·7 % (PM2A) to 69·1 % (F2F) and underweight prevalence from 22·3 % (FFS) to 34·4 % (F2F). No significant differences were found between intervention groups and controls for nutrition measures; however, lower prevalences of stunting (PM2A, −4 %) and underweight (PM2A and FFS, −7 %) suggest potential impact on nutrition outcomes.
Children in the PM2A and FFS groups had better child diet measures and nutrition outcomes with the best results among PM2A beneficiaries. Interventions that address multiple aspects nutrition education, health, ration provision and income generation may be more effective in improving child diet and nutrition in resource-poor settings than stand-alone approaches.