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Turbulent flow over a surface with streamwise-elongated rough and smooth stripes is studied by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS) in a periodic plane open channel with fully resolved roughness. The goal is to understand how the mean height of roughness affects the characteristics of the secondary flow formed above a spanwise heterogeneous rough surface. To this end, while the statistical properties of roughness texture as well as the width and spacing of the rough stripes are kept constant, the elevation of the smooth stripes is systematically varied in different simulation cases. Utilizing this variation, three configurations – representing protruding, recessed and an intermediate type of roughness – are analysed. In all cases, secondary flows are present and the skin friction coefficients calculated for all the heterogeneous rough surfaces are meaningfully larger than what would result from the area-weighted average of those of homogeneous smooth and rough surfaces. This drag increase appears to be linked to the strength of the secondary flow. The rotational direction of the secondary motion is shown to depend on the relative surface elevation. The present results suggest that this rearrangement of the secondary flow is linked to the spatial distribution of the spanwise-wall-normal Reynolds stress component, which carries opposing signs for protruding and recessed roughness.
The Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) survey aims to explore the complex structure of the inner Galaxy and Galactic Bulge, by using the 43 GHz receivers at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the 86 GHz receivers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe SiO maser lines in red giant stars. The goal is to construct a sample of stellar point-mass probes that can be used to test models of the gravitational potential, and the final sample is expected to provide at least 20,000 line-of-sight velocities and positions. A possible bias between the VLA and the ALMA SiO maser lines is explored, and the 86 GHz SiO line-peak velocities agree using either of the four sampled lines. Additionally, the SiO maser velocities agree with the OH maser derived velocities.
The BAaDE (Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution) project is an SiO maser survey of the Galactic Plane. About 19,000 sources have been observed at 43 GHz with the VLA, and the production of spectra for each of these sources is well underway. The primary goal of the project is to collect line-of-sight velocities for all the detected masers in the sample to probe Galactic dynamics. With an expected detection rate of over 60% we should collect over 11,000 velocities to probe the Galactic potential. The survey is also a large sample of infrared sources to explore the different evolved stellar populations within the Milky Way. So far we discern three distinct groups in the BAaDE sample: the main group containing oxygen-rich, evolved stars with a high SiO maser detection rate, a much smaller population of carbon-rich evolved stars, and finally a group of likely young stellar objects with no maser emission. These populations are separated using 2MASS and MSX color-color diagrams, and we find a particularly useful cut between the young and evolved objects using the MSX [D] –[E] color. Identification of these populations will isolate BAaDE’s evolved star sample, and will more tightly define the region in IR color-color diagrams where SiO masers occur yielding a better understanding of these kinematical probes. Using our color-divisions we can also study the distribution of each of the populations within the Galactic Plane.
The Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) survey aims to use circumstellar SiO maser line-of-sight velocities as probes for the Galactic gravitational potential and dynamical structure. The SiO masers are detected at a high rate in specific color-selected MSX infrared sources. Furthermore, the SiO maser properties and line ratios, in combination with infrared spectral energy distributions and location in the Galaxy, will statistically yield detailed information on population and evolution of low- to intermediate-mass evolved stars in the Galaxy.
Secondary flows can develop in turbulent boundary layers that grow over surfaces with spanwise inhomogeneities. In this article, we demonstrate the formation of secondary flows in both experimental and numerical tests and dissect the instantaneous structure and topology of these secondary motions. We show that the formation of secondary flows is not very sensitive to the Reynolds number range investigated, and direct numerical simulations and experiments produce similar results in the mean flow as well as the dispersive and turbulent stress distributions. The numerical methods capture time-resolved features of the instantaneous flow and provide insight into the near-wall flow structures, that were previously obscured in the experimental measurements. Proper orthogonal decomposition was shown to capture the essence of the secondary flows in relatively few modes and to be useful as a filter to analyse the instantaneous flow patterns. The secondary flows are found to create extended regions of high Reynolds stress away from the wall that comprise predominantly sweeps similar to what one would expect to see near the wall and which are comparable in magnitude to the near-wall stress. Analysis of the instantaneous flow patterns reveals that the secondary flows are the result of a non-homogeneous distribution of mid-size vortices.
We report on the Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamic Evolution (BAaDE) survey which has observed 19 000 MSX color selected red giant stars for SiO maser emission at 43 GHz with the VLA and is in the process of observing 9 000 of these stars with ALMA at 86 GHz in the Southern sky. Our setup covers the main maser transitions, as well as those of isotopologues and selected lines of carbon-bearing species. Observations of this set of lines allow a far-reaching catalog of line-of-sight velocities in the dust-obscured regions where optical surveys cannot reach. Our preliminary detection rate is close to 70%, predicting a wealth of new information on the distribution of metal rich stars, their kinematics as function of location in the Galaxy, as well as the occurrence of lines and line ratios between the different transitions in combination with the spectral energy distribution from about 1 to 100 μm. Similar to the OH/IR stars, a clear kinematic signature between disk and bulge stars can be seen. Furthermore, the SiO J = →10 (v=3) line plays a prominent role in the derived maser properties.
Needle thoracostomy (NT) is a common prehospital intervention for patients in extremis or cardiac arrest due to trauma. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes, efficacy, and complications after a change in policy related to NT in a four-county Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system with a catchment area of greater than 1.6 million people.
This is a before and after observational study of all patients who had NT performed in the Central California (USA) EMS system. The before, anterior midclavicular line (MCL) group consisted of all patients who underwent NT from May 7, 2007 through February 28, 2013. The after, midaxillary line (MAL) axillary group consisted of all patients who underwent NT from March 1, 2013 through January 30, 2016, after policy revisions changed the timing, needle size, and placement location for NT. All prehospital and hospital records where NT was performed were queried for demographics, mechanism of injury, initial status and post-NT clinical change, reported complications, and final outcome. The trauma registry was accessed to obtain Injury Severity Scores (ISS). Information was manually abstracted by study investigators and examined utilizing univariate and multivariate analyses.
Three-hundred and five trauma patients treated with NT were included in this study, of which, 169 patients (the MCL group) were treated with a 14-guage intravenous (IV) catheter at least 5.0-cm long at the second intercostal space (ICS), MCL after being placed in the ambulance; and 136 patients (the MAL group) were treated with a 10-guage IV catheter at least 9.5-cm long at the fifth ICS, MAL on scene. The mean ISS was lower in the MAL cohort (64.5 versus 69.2; P=.007). The mortality rate was 79% in both groups. The multivariate model with regard to survival supported that a lower ISS (P<.001) and reported clinical change after NT (P=.003) were significant indicators of survival. No complications from NT were reported.
Changing the timing, length of needle, and location of placement did not change mortality in patients requiring NT. Needle thoracostomy was used more frequently after the change in policy, and the MAL cohort was less injured. No increase in reported complications was noted.
WeichenthalLA, OwenS, StrohG, RamosJ. Needle Thoracostomy: Does Changing Needle Length and Location Change Patient Outcome?Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):237–244.
We study several kinds of subschemes of mixed characteristic models of Shimura varieties which admit good (partial) toroidal and minimal compactifications, with familiar boundary stratifications and formal local structures, as if they were Shimura varieties in characteristic zero. We also generalize Koecher’s principle and the relative vanishing of subcanonical extensions for coherent sheaves, and Pink’s and Morel’s formulas for étale sheaves, to the context of such subschemes.
We show that the automorphic étale cohomology of a (possibly noncompact) PEL-type or Hodge-type Shimura variety in characteristic zero is canonically isomorphic to the cohomology of the associated nearby cycles over most of their mixed characteristics models constructed in the literature.
Using quasi-simultaneous observations of 86 stars with known SiO maser emission, we searched for systematic differences between the strengths of the 43 and 86 GHz v=1 maser lines. Although for individual stars there is wide scatter between the line strengths spanning nearly an order of magnitude, there is no evidence of a systematic difference between these line strengths for the entire sample.
Amorphous ferromagnetic alloy with the composition Fe56Co24Nb4B13Si2Cu1 was obtained by rapid quenching from the melt. Samples cut from the ribbons were annealed at 450, 550, 650 and 750 °C in a vacuum furnace. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to identify the phases formed based on the refined values of the hyperfine parameters. The as-quenched specimen was analyzed with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution and corresponded to an in-plane orientation of the magnetic moment directions. The sample annealed at 450 °C was found to be in a nanocrystalline state due to observation of the (FeCo)-Si alloy with the DO3 structure. The balance of the composition was represented by a metalloid-enriched amorphous grain boundary phase. In contradistinction to this, the samples annealed at 550-750 °C were totally crystallized and the new phases formed were α-(FeCo), (FeCo)2(BSi) and (FeCo)3(BSi). These findings suggest that nanocrystallization is obtained only at select processing temperatures. A new set of Mössbauer spectra was obtained by recording simultaneously the intensity transmitted by a sandwich of the sample with the stainless steel etalon, based on the dual absorber method recently introduced by us. The values of the recoilless fraction can be derived from the relative spectral areas. The f factor value dropped from 0.6 to 0.37 for the sample annealed at 450 °C, consistent with the onset of nanocrystallization in the system. For the completely crystallized specimens, the f factor maintained values close to 0.5. This indicates that the presence of quenched-in stresses may play a role in the ability of samples to undergo recoilless emission and absorption of gamma rays.
An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28·5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.
A numerical investigation of two locally applied drag-reducing control schemes is carried out in the configuration of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL). One control is designed to damp near-wall turbulence and the other induces constant mass flux in the wall-normal direction. Both control schemes yield similar local drag reduction rates within the control region. However, the flow development downstream of the control significantly differs: persistent drag reduction is found for the uniform blowing case, whereas drag increase is found for the turbulence damping case. In order to account for this difference, the formulation of a global drag reduction rate is suggested. It represents the reduction of the streamwise force exerted by the fluid on a plate of finite length. Furthermore, it is shown that the far-downstream development of the TBL after the control region can be described by a single quantity, namely a streamwise shift of the uncontrolled boundary layer, i.e. a changed virtual origin. Based on this result, a simple model is developed that allows the local drag reduction rate to be related to the global one without the need to conduct expensive simulations or measurements far downstream of the control region.
We investigate the effects of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) carrying streamwise grooves on the flow dynamics and the resultant drag reduction in a fully developed turbulent channel flow. The SHS is modelled as a flat boundary with alternating no-slip and free-slip conditions, and a series of direct numerical simulations is performed with systematically changing the spanwise periodicity of the streamwise grooves. In all computations, a constant pressure gradient condition is employed, so that the drag reduction effect is manifested by an increase of the bulk mean velocity. To capture the flow properties that are induced by the non-homogeneous boundary conditions the instantaneous turbulent flow is decomposed into the spatial-mean, coherent and random components. It is observed that the alternating no-slip and free-slip boundary conditions lead to the generation of Prandtl’s second kind of secondary flow characterized by coherent streamwise vortices. A mathematical relationship between the bulk mean velocity and different dynamical contributions, i.e. the effective slip length and additional turbulent losses over slip surfaces, reveals that the increase of the bulk mean velocity is mainly governed by the effective slip length. For a small spanwise periodicity of the streamwise grooves, the effective slip length in a turbulent flow agrees well with the analytical solution for laminar flows. Once the spanwise width of the free-slip area becomes larger than approximately 20 wall units, however, the effective slip length is significantly reduced from the laminar value due to the mixing caused by the underlying turbulence and secondary flow. Based on these results, we develop a simple model that allows estimating the gain due to a SHS in turbulent flows at practically high Reynolds numbers.
Establishing baseline data on the abundance of threatened shark species is critical for monitoring site- and region-specific population tends over time. This is of particular importance for monitoring sharks at remote locations or in regions where there are no reliable data on shark numbers, fishing effort and current population status. Through establishing a standardized recreational SCUBA diver observation programme, this study examined the number, size and sex-composition of grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, on a remote coral reef system off the Red Sea coast of Sudan. In addition, placard tags were attached to individual sharks to examine coarse scale residency and movement patterns and to determine the effectiveness of this technique. Over a 4.5 month period (December 2007–April 2008), a mean (±SE) of 5.9 ± 0.3 grey reef sharks were observed per diving day with peak numbers of sharks associated with temperatures of 26–26.9°C and strong currents. Estimated mean (±SE) total length of observed sharks was 1.9 ± 0.03 m identifying that most animals were mature. Female sharks were dominant on the site and pregnant females were recorded. Placard tagged sharks (N = 4) were observed by recreational SCUBA divers throughout the study period (23.1%, 20.0%, 16.9% and 3.1% of total observation diving days) indicating sporadic site attachment. The placard tags remained intact and were free of fouling for a total of 175 days. The numbers of grey reef sharks seen on this Red Sea coral complex suggest a healthy, relatively unexploited population. This study demonstrates that the recreational diver community, which forms a large pool of skilled volunteers, can generate baseline data on shark numbers at regularly dived sites and provide insights into the ecology of the observed species. Modification of placard tags, including attachment to the dorsal fin and time corrodible release systems may provide an inexpensive and accepted tool for monitoring individual shark residency and movement patterns. Engaging the recreational SCUBA diver community in a standardized scientific monitoring programme has the potential to monitor trends in shark populations over large spatial and temporal scales.
Neonatal tetanus (NT) elimination, <1 case per 1000 live births (LB), was assessed at district level in Zimbabwe using a combined lot quality assurance–cluster sampling survey (LQA–CS). Three of the highest risk districts were selected. NT was considered eliminated if fewer than a specified number of NT deaths (proxy for NT cases) were found in the sample determined using operating characteristic curves and tables. TT2+ vaccine coverage was measured in mothers who gave birth 1–13 months before the survey and women aged 15–49 years. NT was considered as eliminated, TT2+ coverage was 78% (95% CI 71–82%) in women aged 15–49 and 83% (95% CI 76–89%) in mothers. The survey cost US$ 30000 excluding costs of consultants. NT incidence was below the elimination threshold (<1/1000 LB) in the surveyed districts and probably in all districts. LQA–CS is a practical, relatively cost effective field method which can be applied in an African setting to assess NT elimination status.