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The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum holds promise for spectroscopic imaging of illicit and hazardous materials, and chemical fingerprinting using moment of inertia vibrational transitions. Passive and active devices operating at THz frequencies are currently a challenge, and a promising emerging technology for such devices is optical metamaterials. In particular, a chem/bio sensing scheme based on the sensitivity of metamaterials to their dielectric environment has been proposed but may be limited due to the large concentration of electric flux in the substrate. In addition, there is an interest in fabricating 3D metamaterials, which is a challenge at these and shorter wavelengths due to fabrication constraints. In order to address both of these problems, we have developed a process to fabricate THz metamaterials on free-standing, 1 micron thick silicon nitride membranes. We will present THz transmission spectra and the corresponding simulation results for these metamaterials, comparing their performance with previously fabricated metamaterials on various thick substrates. Finally, we will present a scheme for implementing a 3D THz metamaterial based on stacking and possibly liftoff of these silicon nitride membranes.
International migration has flowed and ebbed in two long waves over the last two hundred years. The major determinants of international migration have been the economy and the state. The economic forces impinging on migration are demography, technology, the level of wages, and geographical proximity, transportation, and communications. The state is the confluence of social and political forces within countries which define, encourage or curtail, and regulate movement across borders. The lesson of the nineteenth-century migration system is that states created it or allowed it to happen. They also always had the power to end it, and they eventually did. The huge break in the history of migration which accompanied the era of the world wars points to the decisive power of the state to control migration and, by extension, the direction of economic development itself. The present article reviews the major phases of the history of modern migration in order to put the present crossroads in perspective.
Inf-sup conditions are proven for three finite-difference approximations of the Stokes equa-tions. The finite-difference approximations use a staggered-mesh scheme and the schemes resulting from the backward and the forward differencings.
We consider several methods for solving the linear equations arising from finite difference discretizations of the Stokes equations. The two best methods, one presented here for the first time, apparently, and a second, presented by Bramble and Pasciak, are shown to have computational effort that grows slowly with the number of grid points. The methods work with second-order accurate discretizations. Computational results are shown for both the Stokes equations and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations at low Reynolds number.
Having close links with the mutinous tradition in choice of law thinking of the Amsterdam University Law School, Voskuil does not think highly of the traditional choice of law rules. In his address as doctor honoris causa of the University of Zagreb Voskuil submits that the choice of law rules constitute just a choice mechanism, devoid of any philosophical or ideological basis and that they form a defective tool in that they push international cases into a national legal environment and also that they lean heavily on corrective devices that tend to blur the judicatory process.
Although small and consequently often overlooked, Belgium none the less provides historians with an interesting case study for comparing social and economic trends among Western European countries. Belgian society in the nineteenth century was transformed by the same forces as its close neighbours – Britain, France and Germany. Indeed, Belgium was the second country in the world to industrialize and it has long been one of the most heavily urbanized societies as well. Yet urbanization and industrialization affected Belgium in some significantly different ways than they did other Western European countries.
The rise of working-class movements has recently been subjected to a great deal of historical scrutiny. Although this literature treats a variety of topics, much of it is devoted to different aspects of socialism: the radical, reformist, or utopian nature of socialism, the sociological roots of the movement among artisans and industrial workers, and the creation of an alternative, or socialist, subculture. One reason socialism has been investigated so intensively is that historians have assumed that socialism represented the authentic working-class ideology. Implicitly or explicitly, scholars have conveyed the idea that socialism alone promoted class consciousness, that socialism led workers to realize that they formed a distinct group and had to act together to defend their interests. Other movements among workers have been considered to be conservative and, as such, have been discounted as unrepresentative of workers' interests.
The shape of a vertical slender jet of fluid falling steadily under the force of gravity is studied. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear free boundary-value problem for the potential. Surface-tension effects are included and studied. The use of perturbation expansions results in a system of equations that can be solved by an efficient numerical procedure. Computations were made for jets issuing from three different orifice shapes, which were an ellipse, a square, and an equilateral triangle. Computational results are presented illustrating the effects of different values for the surfacetension coefficient on the shape of the jet and the periodic nature of the cross-sectional shapes.
The shape of a vertical slender jet of fluid falling steadily under the force of gravity is studied. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear free boundary-value problem for the potential. Surface tension effects are neglected. The use of perturbation expansions results in a system of equations that can be solved by an efficient numerical procedure. Computations were made for jets issuing from orifices in various shapes including an ellipse, a rectangle, and an equilateral triangle. Computational results are presented illustrating the propagation of discontinuities and the formation of thin sheets of fluid.
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