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In 2013, a task force was developed to discuss the future of the Canadian pediatric neurology workforce. The consensus was that there was no indication to reduce the number of training positions, but that the issue required continued surveillance. The current study provides a 5-year update on Canadian pediatric neurology workforce data.
Names, practice types, number of weekly outpatient clinics, and dates of certification of all physicians currently practicing pediatric neurology in Canada were obtained. International data were used to compute comparisons between countries. National data sets were used to provide information about the number of residency positions available and the number of Canadian graduates per year. Models for future projections were developed based on published projected population data and trends from the past decade.
The number of pediatric neurologists practicing in Canada has increased 165% since 1994. During this period, wait times have not significantly shortened. There are regional discrepancies in access to child neurologists. The Canadian pediatric neurology workforce available to see outpatient consultations is proportionally less than that of USA. After accounting for retirements and emigrations, the number of child neurologists being added to the workforce each year is 4.9. This will result in an expected 10-year increase in Canadian pediatric neurologists from 151 to 200.
Despite an increase in the number of Canadian child neurologists over the last two decades, we do not predict that there will be problems with underemployment over the next decade.
We examine stock index futures and Treasury futures around the release time of 30 U.S. macroeconomic announcements. Nine of the 20 announcements that move markets show evidence of substantial informed trading before the official release time. Prices begin to move in the “correct” direction approximately 30 minutes before the release time. The preannouncement price drift accounts on average for approximately 40% of the total price adjustment. This implies that some traders have private information about macroeconomic fundamentals. Preannouncement drift might originate from a combination of information leakage and superior forecasting that incorporates proprietary data.
Introduction: Each year about two thirds of U.S. smokers make a quit attempt. Yet, less than 5% remain abstinent three months post-quit date. One factor that may affect abstinence is negative feelings about the self-associated with being a smoker (disequilibrium), particularly if smoking is important to the sense of self and one is trying to quit.
Aims: We evaluated a multivariate structural equation model proposing that smoking's subjective importance to a smoker would influence carbon monoxide verified smoking abstinence at 24 weeks (post-quit date). Further, we assessed whether the relation would be moderated by the smoker's experience of disequilibrium.
Methods: Participants were 440 regular smokers taking part in a clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of different durations of nicotine replacement therapy use. Participants completed the subjective importance of smoking survey at baseline and were assessed for carbon monoxide verified seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks
Results: Using exploratory structural equation modelling, the subjective importance of smoking was associated with point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks, but only for smokers with high disequilibrium.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that experiencing negative feelings about being a smoker could motivate smokers to remain abstinent, despite the importance of smoking to the smoker's sense of self.
This article offers reflections on the scholarship in the special issue. It proposes that the formation of an overall narrative of twentieth-century European recycling is a complex matter, depending on issues of gender, age, class, nationality and representation. It suggests the further complications of writing histories of everyday life, points out the various meanings of ‘recycling’ and interrogates waste as an element of consumer culture.
Ionic liquids (ILs) are highly suitable to act as precursors for nitrogen-doped carbon materials. Therefore two structural requirements must be fulfilled: On the one hand, the cation should carry nitrogen in a preferably aromatic environment, on the other hand nitrile groups are essential that can be e.g. incorporated by dicyanamide anions. Thermolysis of such ILs yields highly conductive nitrogen doped carbon exhibiting a graphitic microstructure. Furthermore, various nanomorphologies can be induced via hard-templating. The material has been shown to sufficiently suppress growth and agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles upon their electrocatalytic performance, when applied as a thin coating on the Pt host material. This novel concept of reactivity could further be applied in other fields of materials synthesis, paving the way for the one-pot synthesis of mesoporous carbon/silica composites and in-situ metal doping thereof.
We consider generalisations of the so-called Euler adic and investigate dynamical properties like ergodicity and total ergodicity. We prove the existence of a unique fully-supported ergodic measure for these generalisations. We also investigate the structure of non-fully-supported ergodic measures and in addition show that each of these measures (fully- and non-fully-supported) is also totally ergodic. In order to determine these dynamical properties we find closed-form expressions for the generalised Eulerian numbers. Additionally we extend a result given by Frick and Petersen to a wider class of adic transformations.
Carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios are commonly used to correlate shallow- and deep-marine successions. Carbon- and oxygen-isotope analyses were performed on bulk-carbonate samples from two Kimmeridgian sections of the Swiss Jura platform in order to correlate them with biostratigraphically well-dated coeval sections in the adjacent basin. On the platform, a general decrease in δ13C and δ18O values from the base to the top of the studied interval is measured, whereas time-equivalent pelagic–hemipelagic carbonates record an increase in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. Moreover, the measured δ13C and δ18O values are generally lower than those indicated for the Kimmeridgian open ocean and show high-frequency variations superimposed on the general trend. Samples were screened for diagenetic alteration using optical and cathodoluminescence petrography and coupled carbon- and oxygen-isotope and trace-element analyses. Some observations favour a role for diagenetic alteration, but isotopic and elemental trends as well as sedimentological evidence suggest that the more negative values of δ13C and δ18O relative to Kimmeridgian seawater are also due to local environmental conditions. High-frequency changes in δ18O and δ13C values most likely result from variations in salinity and carbonate production and accumulation rates. These variations were produced by different water masses that were isolated from the open ocean and developed their own geochemical signatures. Repeated isolation was induced by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations and helped by irregular platform morphology. Consequently, carbon- and oxygen-isotope records in shallow-marine carbonates can be used for stratigraphic correlation only if their origin is well known.
An experimental study on mid-infrared intersubband absorption in InGaAs/GaAsSb multiple quantum wells grown lattice-matched to InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. Intersubband absorption in a broad wavelength region (5.8 - 11.6 μm) is observed in multiple quantum well samples with well widths ranging between 4.5 and 12 nm. A conduction band offset at the InGaAs/GaAsSb heterointerface of 360 meV gives an excellent agreement between the theoretically calculated ISB transition energies and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements over the whole range of well widths under investigation. Two kinds of intersubband devices based on the InGaAs/GaAsSb material system are presented: a quantum well infrared photodetector operating at a wavelength of 5.6μm and an aluminum-free quantum cascade laser. The presented quantum cascade laser emits at a wavelength of 11.3 μm, with a threshold current density of 1.7 kA/cm2 at 78 K.
We present x-ray diffraction based methods to quantitatively determine the wurtzite content of nanowire ensembles and to investigate the effect of twinning. An increased lattice constant in growth direction is found for all investigated InAs and InP nanowire samples. This increase is independent of the wurtzite content. Using x-ray pole figures we find that twinning is present in GaAs/Si branched nanowires, which leads to 60° rotations of the lattice.
An overview on current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation is given. This report is based on the results of the “Second International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation” held in Potsdam/Germany in September 2007. The properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering are presented for the compensation of phase distortions in combination with novel laser technology like ceramics materials but also for e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, and slow light. Photorefractive nonlinear mirrors and resonant refractive index gratings are addressed as phase conjugating mirrors in addition.
H. Strasser, Institute of Microbiology University of Innsbruck Technikerstrasse 25 A-6020 Innsbruck Austria,
S. H. M. Hutwimmer, Institute of Microbiology University of Innsbruck Technikerstrasse 25 A-6020 Innsbruck Austria,
R. Zelger, The Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry Laimburg I-39051 Pfatten/Auer Italy
Traditional crops are under increasing threat from a number of subterranean pests that have been proven particularly difficult to control. In Europe, these include the larvae of Scarabaeidae (examples include Melolontha melolontha, Amphimallon solstitialis, A. majale, Phyllopertha horticola, Hoplia philanthus), a number of different larvae of Elateridae (for example, Agriotes lineatus, A. obscurus, Limonius spp.) and Curculionidae (Bothynoderes punctiventris, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, for example), Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Phylloxeridae), as well as the new exotic pest Diabrotica virgifera (Chrysomelidae). Such pests are difficult to control not only because of their hidden niches, but also because of the inherent difficulties of penetrating their habitat with appropriate control agents. In most of the agricultural systems affected in Europe, the application of chemical insecticides is undesirable or impossible. Currently, the use of virulent and ecologically competent strains of insect-pathogenic fungi appears to be the best approach. Fungal pathogens are endemic in pest populations, and they also fulfil the key criteria for biological control agents: effectiveness, auto-dissemination and persistence. In this article, examples of successful use of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria spp. and Metarhizium anisopliae as preventive control approaches in the subterranean pest control in European agriculture are discussed.
Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, Curculionidae, Phylloxeridae, Chrysomelidae and other subterranean pests are of increasing importance in Europe. These pests – especially in their larval stages – cause damage of several billion euros annually to a wide range of economically important crops throughout Europe (Keller & Zimmermann, 2005).
This essay deals with the hagiographic afterlife of Catarina de San Juan, the seventeenth-century slave from Asia who became a renowned mystic in colonial Mexico, in writings by German Jesuits, notably Joseph Stöcklein’s popular Welt-Bott. Why and how was Catarina de San Juan’s story told for a German-speaking audience in Central Europe? The specific German appropriations of her vita suggest that missionary writings could serve as a transmission belt for ‘colonial fantasies’, linking the early modern period when the Holy Roman Empire did not have colonies to the modern period when the German Nation acquired colonial holdings in the Pacific.