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The European (Melolontha melolontha L.) and Forest (M. hippocastani F.) cockchafer are widespread pests throughout Central Europe. Both species exhibit a 3–5-year life cycle and occur in temporally shifted populations, which have been monitored and documented for more than 100 years. Visual identification of adults and larvae belonging to these morphologically similar species requires expertise and, particularly in the case of larvae, is challenging and equivocal. The goal of the study was the development of an efficient and fast molecular genetic tool for the identification and discrimination of M. melolontha and M. hippocastani. We established a collection of both species from Switzerland, Austria and Northern Italy in 2016, 2017 and 2018. An approximately 1550 bp long fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) mitochondrial gene was amplified and sequenced in 13 M. melolontha and 13 M. hippocastani beetles. Alignment of the new sequences with reference sequences (NCBI GenBank and BOLDSYSTEMS databases) and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed consistent clustering of the two species. After the identification of M. melolontha and M. hippocastani species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CO1 alignment, we developed an effective SNP tool based on the ABI PRISM® SNaPshot™ Multiplex Kit for the rapid and accurate species discrimination of adults and larvae.
In 2013, a task force was developed to discuss the future of the Canadian pediatric neurology workforce. The consensus was that there was no indication to reduce the number of training positions, but that the issue required continued surveillance. The current study provides a 5-year update on Canadian pediatric neurology workforce data.
Names, practice types, number of weekly outpatient clinics, and dates of certification of all physicians currently practicing pediatric neurology in Canada were obtained. International data were used to compute comparisons between countries. National data sets were used to provide information about the number of residency positions available and the number of Canadian graduates per year. Models for future projections were developed based on published projected population data and trends from the past decade.
The number of pediatric neurologists practicing in Canada has increased 165% since 1994. During this period, wait times have not significantly shortened. There are regional discrepancies in access to child neurologists. The Canadian pediatric neurology workforce available to see outpatient consultations is proportionally less than that of USA. After accounting for retirements and emigrations, the number of child neurologists being added to the workforce each year is 4.9. This will result in an expected 10-year increase in Canadian pediatric neurologists from 151 to 200.
Despite an increase in the number of Canadian child neurologists over the last two decades, we do not predict that there will be problems with underemployment over the next decade.
We examine stock index futures and Treasury futures around the release time of 30 U.S. macroeconomic announcements. Nine of the 20 announcements that move markets show evidence of substantial informed trading before the official release time. Prices begin to move in the “correct” direction approximately 30 minutes before the release time. The preannouncement price drift accounts on average for approximately 40% of the total price adjustment. This implies that some traders have private information about macroeconomic fundamentals. Preannouncement drift might originate from a combination of information leakage and superior forecasting that incorporates proprietary data.
Introduction: Each year about two thirds of U.S. smokers make a quit attempt. Yet, less than 5% remain abstinent three months post-quit date. One factor that may affect abstinence is negative feelings about the self-associated with being a smoker (disequilibrium), particularly if smoking is important to the sense of self and one is trying to quit.
Aims: We evaluated a multivariate structural equation model proposing that smoking's subjective importance to a smoker would influence carbon monoxide verified smoking abstinence at 24 weeks (post-quit date). Further, we assessed whether the relation would be moderated by the smoker's experience of disequilibrium.
Methods: Participants were 440 regular smokers taking part in a clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of different durations of nicotine replacement therapy use. Participants completed the subjective importance of smoking survey at baseline and were assessed for carbon monoxide verified seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks
Results: Using exploratory structural equation modelling, the subjective importance of smoking was associated with point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks, but only for smokers with high disequilibrium.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that experiencing negative feelings about being a smoker could motivate smokers to remain abstinent, despite the importance of smoking to the smoker's sense of self.
This article offers reflections on the scholarship in the special issue. It proposes that the formation of an overall narrative of twentieth-century European recycling is a complex matter, depending on issues of gender, age, class, nationality and representation. It suggests the further complications of writing histories of everyday life, points out the various meanings of ‘recycling’ and interrogates waste as an element of consumer culture.
At a time when the countries of the Far East are rapidly becoming future world powers, when China is surpassing Germany as the most important export nation in the world and India is vying to rise up from the level of a developing country, it is sometimes necessary to remind us of the paucity of information on this part of the world in the not so distant past. And while the travelogue of the Venetian Marco Polo stands out as the one account that became widely known in the Middle Ages as it chronicled the journeys of the members of Marco Polo's family to the Middle Kingdom under Kublai Chan during their two separate voyages from 1260 to 1266 and anew from 1271 to 1295, there were rare earlier official contacts with this empire apart from trade relations that followed the silk routes: Chinese sources report of a Roman ‘mission’ that reached China in 166 A.D. There is a record in the Hou Hanshu (‘History of the Later Han Chinese Dynasty’) that a Roman delegation arrived at the Chinese capital Luoyang in 166 – during the reign of Marc Aurelius (161-180 A.D.) – and was greeted by Emperor Huan of the Han Dynasty.
In an analysis that focuses on the impact on the European humanities of early reports from missionaries in the Far East, there is one discovery that more than anything else strengthened the resolve of the Catholic Church to pursue its mission: In 1625 a stele was unearthed that miraculously documented the presence of early Christian congregations in China. It chronicled that in 635 Alopen (or Aluoben), a Syrian monk and a group of other religious men from Persia were officially escorted from the Western outposts to the court of the T’ang dynasty at its capital, Ch’ang-an (= Xi’an) on the Yellow River. Alopen and his fellow travellers were Nestorian Christians, members of a religious group that the Roman church considered heretic until Pope John Paul II readmitted them in 1994. They came to a court that was surprisingly open to foreign influences as the Chinese empire enjoyed a period of peace that is now called the Buddhist Golden Age.
Ionic liquids (ILs) are highly suitable to act as precursors for nitrogen-doped carbon materials. Therefore two structural requirements must be fulfilled: On the one hand, the cation should carry nitrogen in a preferably aromatic environment, on the other hand nitrile groups are essential that can be e.g. incorporated by dicyanamide anions. Thermolysis of such ILs yields highly conductive nitrogen doped carbon exhibiting a graphitic microstructure. Furthermore, various nanomorphologies can be induced via hard-templating. The material has been shown to sufficiently suppress growth and agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles upon their electrocatalytic performance, when applied as a thin coating on the Pt host material. This novel concept of reactivity could further be applied in other fields of materials synthesis, paving the way for the one-pot synthesis of mesoporous carbon/silica composites and in-situ metal doping thereof.
We consider generalisations of the so-called Euler adic and investigate dynamical properties like ergodicity and total ergodicity. We prove the existence of a unique fully-supported ergodic measure for these generalisations. We also investigate the structure of non-fully-supported ergodic measures and in addition show that each of these measures (fully- and non-fully-supported) is also totally ergodic. In order to determine these dynamical properties we find closed-form expressions for the generalised Eulerian numbers. Additionally we extend a result given by Frick and Petersen to a wider class of adic transformations.
Carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios are commonly used to correlate shallow- and deep-marine successions. Carbon- and oxygen-isotope analyses were performed on bulk-carbonate samples from two Kimmeridgian sections of the Swiss Jura platform in order to correlate them with biostratigraphically well-dated coeval sections in the adjacent basin. On the platform, a general decrease in δ13C and δ18O values from the base to the top of the studied interval is measured, whereas time-equivalent pelagic–hemipelagic carbonates record an increase in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. Moreover, the measured δ13C and δ18O values are generally lower than those indicated for the Kimmeridgian open ocean and show high-frequency variations superimposed on the general trend. Samples were screened for diagenetic alteration using optical and cathodoluminescence petrography and coupled carbon- and oxygen-isotope and trace-element analyses. Some observations favour a role for diagenetic alteration, but isotopic and elemental trends as well as sedimentological evidence suggest that the more negative values of δ13C and δ18O relative to Kimmeridgian seawater are also due to local environmental conditions. High-frequency changes in δ18O and δ13C values most likely result from variations in salinity and carbonate production and accumulation rates. These variations were produced by different water masses that were isolated from the open ocean and developed their own geochemical signatures. Repeated isolation was induced by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations and helped by irregular platform morphology. Consequently, carbon- and oxygen-isotope records in shallow-marine carbonates can be used for stratigraphic correlation only if their origin is well known.
An experimental study on mid-infrared intersubband absorption in InGaAs/GaAsSb multiple quantum wells grown lattice-matched to InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. Intersubband absorption in a broad wavelength region (5.8 - 11.6 μm) is observed in multiple quantum well samples with well widths ranging between 4.5 and 12 nm. A conduction band offset at the InGaAs/GaAsSb heterointerface of 360 meV gives an excellent agreement between the theoretically calculated ISB transition energies and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements over the whole range of well widths under investigation. Two kinds of intersubband devices based on the InGaAs/GaAsSb material system are presented: a quantum well infrared photodetector operating at a wavelength of 5.6μm and an aluminum-free quantum cascade laser. The presented quantum cascade laser emits at a wavelength of 11.3 μm, with a threshold current density of 1.7 kA/cm2 at 78 K.
We present x-ray diffraction based methods to quantitatively determine the wurtzite content of nanowire ensembles and to investigate the effect of twinning. An increased lattice constant in growth direction is found for all investigated InAs and InP nanowire samples. This increase is independent of the wurtzite content. Using x-ray pole figures we find that twinning is present in GaAs/Si branched nanowires, which leads to 60° rotations of the lattice.
An overview on current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation is given. This report is based on the results of the “Second International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation” held in Potsdam/Germany in September 2007. The properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering are presented for the compensation of phase distortions in combination with novel laser technology like ceramics materials but also for e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, and slow light. Photorefractive nonlinear mirrors and resonant refractive index gratings are addressed as phase conjugating mirrors in addition.