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Chapter 1 is the introduction to the book. It explains the book’s central argument, its theoretical orientation, and its relationship to existing accounts of Nauru’s international legal history. Commencing with a critique of dehistoricised accounts of the island’s story as a parable, whether of environmental limits or of political corruption, the chapter then outlines the theories of jurisdiction and bureaucracy that inform the book’s focus on the history of imperial administration, rather than on the conceptual history of international law. It moves to contextualise this approach in the field of international legal history, explaining its intersections and divergences with Marxist and Third World approaches to international law. The chapter concludes with a summary of the subsequent chapters on the protectorate, mandate, trusteeship and state periods, and highlights the particular perspectives on German imperialism, Australian sub-imperialism, and geopolitical competition in the Pacific that emerge through this account.
Chapter 4 traces the accretion of Nauruan administration from 1920 to 1947. According to Article 22 of the League Covenant, C Mandates were to be administered as ‘integral portions’ of the Mandatory’s territory, an ambiguous status that came to pose juridical and diplomatic problems for the League. Australia defended a minimalist interpretation of its obligations in Nauru, as the British Phosphate Commission delivered cheap Nauruan phosphate into the farming sectors of Australia, Britain and New Zealand. For Japan and Germany, however, C Mandate status revealed the hypocrisies of the mandate system. Tensions in the Pacific worsened after their withdrawals from the League in 1933. The chapter revisits Japan’s occupation of Nauru during World War II, the war in the Pacific, and the formation of the UN from 1942. Nauru was re-taken in 1945, and the UN Trusteeship Agreement for Nauru was finalised in 1947, with Australia reappointed as Administering Authority. The chapter concludes that the shift from mandate to trust territory status later proved significant in defining self-government as a trusteeship objective; but that this shift was met with further accretions of imperial form.
Chapter 5 traces the final shift in Nauru’s status from trust territory to sovereign state in 1968. The dissolution of C Mandate status and the expanded trusteeship system placed Australia and South Africa out of step with global decolonisation movements. Their attempts to maintain control over Nauru and South West Africa attracted international criticism. The chapter examines the relationship between the South West Africa Cases and the UN’s embrace of Nauruan independence. Over the 1960s, the Trusteeship Council brokered independence negotiations between Australia and the Nauru Local Government Council. Australia gradually ceded political control and phosphate ownership but refused liability for the island’s rehabilitation. Nauru’s transition from trust territory to state was a profound achievement, but international recognition of Nauruan sovereignty was deeply ironic. The Republic was regarded less as a viable state than as a vehicle through which the Nauruan people could decide for themselves how to respond to the island’s environmental devastation. The chapter concludes that the 1968 Constitution marked a further accretion of an imperial form of established in the 1880s.
Chapter 6 is the conclusion of the book. It provides a brief account of the post-independence trajectory of the republic, focusing on the outcomes of the ‘Certain Phosphate Lands Case’ in the International Court of Justice 1992, and the impact of Australia’s offshore detention regime on the rule of law in Nauru in the 2010s. The chapter argues that the now notorious ‘failures’ of the republic identified by the Constitutional Review Committee in 2007 – ‘failure of institutions’; ‘lack of motivation or incentive to preserve wealth for the future, and account for its management’; ‘absence of machinery for enforcing accountability and transparency’; ‘failure of leaders to learn the lessons of good governance’ – must be understood as fundamentally continuous with imperial administrative practices of the pre-independence era, and not as originating with the Nauruan community itself following independence. Noting the reassertion of new forms of imperial intervention in Nauru, the chapter concludes that questions of decolonisation remain as urgent today as they were in 1968.
Chapter 3 traces the accretion of imperial administration in Nauru from 1888 to 1920. The formal status of Nauru shifted twice, from protectorate to colony to British mandate. From 1888, Nauru was administered as part of the German Marshall Islands, and later subsumed under the direct colonial control of German New Guinea in 1906. The Jaluit Gesellschaft sold its phosphate rights to the British-owned Pacific Phosphate Company, which developed a mining operation under German administration. In 1914 Nauru was occupied by Australia on British request. The chapter retraces the advent of the League of Nations mandate system, arguing that C Mandate status marked an uneasy compromise between advocates of internationalised administration of the occupied territories and the annexationist Dominions of Australia and South Africa. As Nauru’s legal status shifted from protectorate to C Mandate, administrative control was assumed by Australia pursuant to an intra-imperial bargain between Britain, Australia and New Zealand, which established a tripartite phosphate monopoly. The chapter concludes that the basic division of public and private authority established in 1888 survived this shift.
The Prologue begins with the factors the Nauru Constitutional Review Commission Report of 2007 identified as responsible for the Republic’s contemporary economic and political precarity. In a UNDP-funded constitutional referendum in 2010, the Nauruan community overwhelmingly rejected proposed amendments to Nauru’s 1968 Constitution that were designed to address those factors. The Prologue describes the author’s involvement in the referendum campaign, and introduces the history of Australian, British and German imperial interventions in the Pacific region, and Australia’s use of Nauru as a site for offshore processing of asylum seekers who arrive in Australian waters by sea.
Chapter 2 traces Nauru’s incorporation into the arena of European imperial competition, first as a trading outpost of a Hanseatic firm from Hamburg, then as part of the German protectorate of the Marshall Islands. It traces the activity of Hanseatic firms in the Pacific and Africa in the late nineteenth century, and examines the significance of Hanseatic activity to the geography of German protectorates declared around the Berlin Conference in 1884, and the relationship between that activity and the Australasian federation movement. The chapter moves to assess the relationship between the protectorate concept and the actual forms of protectorate that proliferated from the mid-1880s, when the label was applied to diverse imperial forms involving vague and often contradictory assertions of sovereignty, property and territory. It argues that the protectorate concept bore little relation to the actual balance of company and state rule struck between the Reich and the Jaluit Gesellschaft in 1888 in Nauru. It concludes that this distinction between status and form establishes a new perspective from which to retrace the shift from imperial to international administration in the twentieth century.
Nauru is often figured as an anomaly in the international order. This book offers a new account of Nauru's imperial history and examines its significance to the histories of international law. Drawing on theories of jurisdiction and bureaucracy, it reconstructs four shifts in Nauru's status – from German protectorate, to League of Nations C Mandate, to UN Trust Territory, to sovereign state – as a means of redescribing the transition from the nineteenth century imperial order to the twentieth century state system. The book argues that as international status shifts, imperial form accretes: as Nauru's status shifted, what occurred at the local level was a gradual process of bureaucratisation. Two conclusions emerge from this argument. The first is that imperial administration in Nauru produced the Republic's post-independence 'failures'. The second is that international recognition of sovereign status is best understood as marking a beginning, not an end, of the process of decolonisation.
In multilevel marketing companies (MLMs), member-distributors earn income from selling products and recruiting new members. Successful MLMs require a social capital structure where members can access and mobilize both strong and weak social ties. Utah has a disproportionate share of MLM companies located in the state and a disproportionate number of MLM participants. We argue that Utah's dominant religious institutions have led to the emergence of a social capital structure, making MLMs particularly viable. Utah is the most religiously homogeneous state; roughly half its population identifies as members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The LDS Church's institutions foster a social capital structure where (almost all) members have access to and can leverage social capital in all its forms. LDS institutions encourage members to make meaningful social connections characterized by trust and reciprocity with other church members in local neighborhoods and across the world.
Increasingly, economists realize that a deeper understanding of culture can improve their insights into the most important questions in economics. The Austrian school of political economy, which has always taken economics to be a science of meaning, and therefore, a science of culture, offers a unique approach to the study of culture in economic life. We consider three important differences between these Austrian and non-Austrian approaches: the Austrian focus on culture as meaning rather than culture as norms, beliefs, or attitudes; the Austrian emphasis on culture as an interpretative lens rather than as a tool or form of capital; and the Austrian insistence that cultural analysis be a qualitative exercise rather than a quantitative one. We also examine Geertz's description of culture, Gadamer's approach to hermeneutics, and Weber's interpretative sociology, demonstrating their connections to the Austrian approach and offering examples of what Austrian cultural economics can look like.
James Thomas, Professor of Social Research and Policy at the EPPICentre, UCL Institute of Education, London in the UK.,
Anna Noel-Storr, Worked for Cochrane since 2008 as an Information Specialist for the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group based at the University of Oxford in the UK.,
Steve McDonald, Co-Director of Cochrane Australia based at Monash University in Melbourne.
Research is being published at an ever-increasing rate and it is becoming more and more difficult for systematic reviewers to find research in a timely way and keep existing reviews updated as new studies are published (Bastian, Glasziou and Chalmers, 2010). This is a particular problem for organizations which maintain libraries of systematic reviews, such as Cochrane and the Campbell Collabor ation, as the more systematic reviews they publish, the greater the burden of maintenance. It is also a challenge for guideline-producing org - anizations which, for pragmatic reasons, typically invest significant resources and effort in one-off periodic updates without knowing whether the evidence base has changed or has actually changed so rapidly that more frequent updating would have been warranted. Previous work has shown that systematic reviews can date very quickly, with some out of date as soon as they are published (Shojania et al., 2007). It is becoming clear that our current methods of research curation are wasteful of societal investment in research and risk resulting in suboptimal outcomes (MacLeod et al., 2014).
This chapter is concerned with this problem of ‘data deluge’ and the need to establish better surveillance of research in order to keep abreast of new developments. It is thus related to work on living systematic reviews (LSRs), and these are ‘continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available’ (Elliott et al., 2014; Elliott et al., 2017). The chapter outlines developments in automation technologies that are already making the systematic review process more efficient and then focuses on the way that global research curation systems are organised. The chapter suggests that new approaches are needed in order to support the production of evidence syntheses in efficient and timely ways. Case studies 9.1 and 9.2 explain how these new developments are being put into practice to realise these benefits.
New ways of working that integrate and capitalise on automation are necessary to tackle the growing burden of identifying and synthesising research. New technologies – which range from the mundane (such as identifying duplicates in bibliographic records) to full artificial intelligence (AI) systems – are under constant development and are already assisting various aspects of the evidence curation (see Tip below) and discovery process.
Research has begun to take a more ecological view of eating behaviour, examining multiple levels of influence: personal, social and environmental. The food environment is a major influence on eating behaviour, attracting the attention of researchers who have measured it in a number of ways. The present paper examines the short-form version, in comparison to the long-form version, of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS) – an observational food outlet audit tool.
Both the short-form and long-form were examined to qualitatively appraise the dimensions of the food environment assessed by each measure. Data from 135 food outlets in Australia were then used to compare results obtained using the short-form with the results from the long-form method, to consider the utility of the short-form measure.
The retail food environment in Australia.
One hundred and thirty-five food outlets in Australia.
Results indicate that the short-form predominantly assessed availability of healthful foods (one aspect of the food environment). Several critical dimensions of the food environment known to influence eating behaviour were not assessed. For this data set, the short-form produced scores inconsistent with the longer version of the measure, delivering inflated estimates for stores and deflated estimates for restaurants.
Scores between the long-form and short-form versions were not comparable in this Australian study. Further development of food environment measures is recommended and must balance instrument brevity with the need to accurately capture important aspects of the food environment known to influence eating behaviour.