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In the area of electromagnetic metrology, binary coded excitation signals become more and more important and various binary coded sequences are available. The measurement approach is to assess the impulse response function of a device under test by correlating the response signal with the excitation signal. In order to achieve a high measurement reproducibility as well as a high dynamic range, the generated binary coded signals have to provide low-noise. In this contribution, a low-noise signal generator realized with a field programmable gate array is presented. The performance investigation of different kinds of binary coded excitation signals and different correlation concepts have been practically investigated. With a chip rate of 5 Gchip/s, the generator can be utilized for ultra-wideband applications. In order to allow for a low-noise and long-term stable signal generation, a new clock generator concept is presented and results of phase noise measurements are shown. Furthermore, an algorithm to fast and precisely shifting the time lag between two binary coded signals for correlating excitation and response signals with a hardware correlator is presented. Finally, the realized demonstrator system is tested using two commonly used types of binary coded sequences.
Writing has generally been perceived as a solitary activity, completed by the writer working alone. Yet, over the years we have witnessed a growing interest among researchers and educators in Collaborative Writing, an activity that can be simply defined as the involvement of two or more writers in the production of a single text. This interest has been driven by two main factors. The first factor is the nature of workplace writing. Studies (e.g. Ede & Lunsford 1990; Mirel & Spilka 2002) have shown that in a number of workplaces, writing is often completed in teams rather than individually. The second factor is the advent of Web 2.0 applications such as blogs, wikis, and Google Docs, which have transformed literacy practices, making the creation and sharing of texts easier and more readily acceptable (Hyland 2016; Vandergriff 2016). In the field of second language (L2) learning, interest in collaborative writing was also spurred by early research conducted by Swain and her colleagues (e.g. Swain & Lapkin 1995; Swain 1998; see also timeline for additional references) showing the language learning opportunities of communicative tasks which involve joint written output (e.g. Dictogloss).
An Ordovician–Silurian boundary section marked by an uninterrupted, relatively high rate of black shale sedimentation and abundant, diverse graptolites is described from the south-central Pyrenees. The structurally simple Estana section comprises the uppermost part of the quartzite-dominated Bar Formation and overlying black shales of late Hirnantian and early Rhuddanian age, which have been dated by graptolites to the upper Metabolograptus persculptus and lower–middle Akidograptus ascensus–Parakidograptus acuminatus biozones. Due to the absence of M. persculptus, a Metabolograptus parvulus Biozone correlative with the upper part of the persculptus Biozone is recognized below the lowest occurrence of akidograptids, which indicate the base of the Silurian System. The graptolite fauna comprise 27 species including Normalograptus minor, N. lubricus, N. rhizinus, Hirsutograptus, Korenograptus bifurcus, K. bicaudatus, K. lanpherei and Nd. shanchongensis, most of which were formerly considered to be endemic to the low-latitude palaeobiogeographical province of China, Siberia and northern North America. Two new species, N. baridaensis and N. ednae, are described. The succession of graptolite assemblages in the Estana section, and occurrence of several cosmopolitan taxa in its parvulus and lower ascensus–acuminatus biozones that are unknown elsewhere in peri-Gondwanan Europe, suggest that strata immediately surrounding the Ordovician–Silurian boundary may be absent, highly condensed or oxic and barren of graptolites in other sections of northwestern peri-Gondwana. Common graptolite synrhabdosomes and abnormal rhabdosomes may indicate some environmental stress in the parvulus Biozone, although the rather uniform black shale lithology, total organic carbon content and δ13Corg values suggest uninterrupted sedimentation under stable, anoxic conditions.
Using key constructs from sociocultural theory and activity theory, this paper outlines three broad areas of future research on written corrective feedback (WCF) that may be of interest to second language (L2) researchers and practitioners. The first area uses the constructs of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and scaffolding to assess the nature and appropriateness of the feedback provided. The second area uses the construct of tools and considers learners’ responses to the means used to provide WCF, including automated feedback. The third, and perhaps most important area, views WCF as an activity, and examines context-related and individual factors that impact on the provision and response to WCF. The paper provides concrete examples of small-scale longitudinal studies in each of these areas, including recommendations as to the kind of data and measures to employ.
Data on gender-specific profiles of cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are rare and inconsistent, and possible disease-confounding factors have been insufficiently considered.
The LANDSCAPE study on cognition in PD enrolled 656 PD patients (267 without cognitive impairment, 66% male; 292 with mild cognitive impairment, 69% male; 97 with PD dementia, 69% male). Raw values and age-, education-, and gender-corrected Z scores of a neuropsychological test battery (CERAD-Plus) were compared between genders. Motor symptoms, disease duration, l-dopa equivalent daily dose, depression - and additionally age and education for the raw value analysis - were taken as covariates.
Raw-score analysis replicated results of previous studies in that female PD patients were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.03), while men outperformed women in visuoconstruction (p = 0.002) and figural memory (p = 0.005). In contrast, gender-corrected Z scores showed that men were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.02; recognition, p = 0.04), while no difference was found for visuospatial tests. This picture could be observed both in the overall analysis of PD patients as well as in a differentiated group analysis.
Normative data corrected for gender and other sociodemographic variables are relevant, since they may elucidate a markedly different cognitive profile compared to raw scores. Our study also suggests that verbal memory decline is stronger in women than in men with PD. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings, examine the progression of gender-specific cognitive decline in PD and define different underlying mechanisms of this dysfunction.
The issue of detecting changes beyond the range of natural variability (detection) and of attributing causes to such changes (attribution) are central to any rational debate about anthropogenic climate change. This concept, introduced by Klaus Hasselmann in the late 1970s, is usually not understood by either so-called sceptics or by activist scientists.
Often rigorous detection and attribution analysis is replaced by mere declarations and by naïve applications of methods to determine if certain trends are ‘significant’ or not.
In this talk, the concepts are introduced; the invoked assumptions and the roles of dynamical models and of time-scales are explained. The concept is illustrated with a few examples related to global and regional air temperature and to NE Atlantic storminess.
For global and regional air temperature, the recent variations are found to be beyond the range of natural variability (detection) and the changes are best explained by a dominant contribution by elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. For NE Atlantic storminess recent trends are found to be intermittent and within the historical range of variations. The finding of significant GHG contributions to temperature change and the lack of such for changes in storminess are not contradictions.
This article will explore the interplay between a traditional fête in Devon and Oxfordshire, the celebration of the Fifth of November, and the last significant wave of English food price disturbances in 1867. Both popular culture and collective action mutated, of course, as underlying economic and social structures changed; but even in those regions where the pace of change was rapid, to neglect the factors of persistence and survival would lead to a history written according to a too simplistic formula. To say that culture and collective action changed in the nineteenth century as society and the economy changed can even become a truism, telling little about the processes through which these relationships worked themselves out. Without overdrawing the case, an effort has been made here to focus precisely upon persistence and survival, and to show how, in regions such as the southwest or Oxfordshire—and by implication, many other regions of Britain as well—the pace of nineteenth century cultural, economic, and social change was more leisurely than studies based exclusively on the industrializing north might lead one to conclude.
Besides remaining the celebration of the failure of the Popish Plot of 1605, Guy Fawkes acquired a number of new meanings for those involved in nineteenth century Fifth of November manifestations, and some other novel “uses” as well. Annual celebrations all over the south were frequently organized and mounted by secret or semi-secret societies of “bonfire boys” or “Guys.” Members of the bonfire gangs usually concealed their identities with masks or soot and appeared in uniform or grotesque costumes to preside over the collection of wood and other combustibles, the begging or extortion of money from the wealthy, and the fabrication of suitable effigies to be ritually consumed on the bonfire.
Background: Adherence to self-management in asthma is poor. Aim: To investigate the effect of disease-unspecific motivational training on self-management adherence in addition to asthma-specific patient education. Methods: We randomized patients with partly controlled asthma to asthma education, with or without the Zurich Resource Model (ZRM) training. Main elements of the ZRM training are development of action-oriented personal goals and activation of resources to achieve and practice them in daily life. The primary outcome was adherence to self-monitoring and to a written personal action plan during three months. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported self-efficacy. Results: As control patients (n=30) were younger, mostly male and had better asthma control compared with the intervention group (n=30), we adjusted the analyses for these imbalances. Both groups showed excellent adherence to self-monitoring over three months [27 patients (90.0%) in intervention and 25 patients (83.3%) in control group, adjusted odds ratio: 1.28 (0.24–6.78), P=0.78)]. Patients in the ZRM group tended to adjust their medication more often [median 36% days with action (IQR 11–62%)] than control patients [9% (0–43), P=0.18]. In both groups, actions were rarely in accordance with the action plan [median 20% of actions appropriate (IQR 0–37) in intervention and 11% (IQR 0–56) in control group, P=0.92]. After three months, self-efficacy was significantly better with ZRM (adjusted difference on self-efficacy scale 2.31, 95% CI 0.31–4.31, P=0.02). Conclusion: Unspecific self-management training had no short-term effect on self-management adherence in asthma patients. Self-efficacy improved, but it is uncertain whether this translates into better long-term outcomes.
Background: Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) programs for childhood anxiety are being developed, although research about factors that contribute to implementation of CCBT in community mental health centers (CMHC) is limited. Aim: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore consumers’ and providers’ perceptions of utilizing a CCBT for childhood anxiety in CMHC in an effort to identify factors that may impact implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Method: Focus groups and interviews occurred with 7 parents, 6 children, 3 therapists, 3 project coordinators and 3 administrators who had participated in CCBT for childhood anxiety. Surveys of treatment satisfaction and treatment barriers were administered to consumers. Results: Results suggest that both consumers and providers were highly receptive to participation in and implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Implementation themes included positive receptiveness, factors related to therapists, treatment components, applicability of treatment, treatment content, initial implementation challenges, resources, dedicated staff, support, outreach, opportunities with the CMHC, payment, and treatment availability. Conclusion: As studies continue to demonstrate the effectiveness of CCBT for childhood anxiety, research needs to continue to examine factors that contribute to the successful implementation of such treatments in CMHC.
Study of the lower Silurian black shale succession of the Prague Synform has enabled detailed insight into graptolite faunal dynamics and diversity trends from the mid-Aeronian diversity maximum through to the late Aeronian crisis. Graptolite diversity decreased from 33 taxa in the Lituigraptus convolutus Biozone to 17 taxa in the upper part of the Stimulograptus sedgwickii Biozone and newly erected Lituigraptus rastrum Biozone. The graptolite assemblages of the latter biozones exhibit low species richness along with high dominance. Many graptolite species that became extinct in the early part of the sedgwickii Zone were promptly replaced by new forms. In the later part of the sedgwickii Zone, however, replacement of extinct species by new forms considerably decelerated. The increased rate of graptolite extinction recorded in the convolutus–sedgwickii biozone boundary beds coincided with subtle changes in black shale lithologies and a positive shift in δ13Corg (of 2.2 ‰) compared to baseline values. Sea-level drawdown can be inferred from siltstones and/or temporary nondeposition in the middle sedgwickii Zone. This level also sees total organic carbon (TOC) fluctuations and a strong positive δ13Corg excursion with a peak shift of at least 7 ‰. The sedgwickii Event exhibits substantial reorganization of the graptolite fauna, its taxonomic impoverishment and concomitant increase in species dominance rather than a sudden collapse of the pre-extinction assemblage. Associated changes in lithology, TOC and the pronounced δ13Corg excursion suggest a relatively extended and probably multi-phase period of stressed conditions that affected the pelagic realm inhabited by graptolites in the course of the late Aeronian interval.
Portugal's encounter with the world has in many respects already been the subject of academic research. However, relatively little research has yet been done on Portugal's musical influence as a result of the development of, for instance, its Southeast Asian centres in Goa, Malacca, Macao and Timor. Until today, there have been only few studies of musical life in these centres in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. From the time of its first encounter with Portugal through Vasco da Gama's arrival in 1498, Southeast Asia faced a persistent European attempt to control, to dominate and to proselytize in the countries between India and the Philippines. Portuguese and other European cultural and musical influences necessarily accompanied the political and religious conquests from the very beginning.
This study is part of a post-doctoral project that seeks to summarize the hitherto existing research on this subject, prior to a comprehensive study of Portuguese musical culture in its Southeast Asian urban centres in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The aim of this chapter is to examine how a musical culture was established, how it interacted with local music traditions, and how both Portuguese and local cultures influenced each other over the long term. It will also try to show what kind of role music played at the intersection of missionary work, urban entertainment and imperial representation, being a means for both cultural exchange and political segregation.
“WE COME IN SEARCH OF CHRISTIANS AND SPICES”: THE BEGINNINGS OF MUSICAL INFLUENCE IN CALICUT AND GOA, INDIA
Whether or not the quotation above represents the truth, it nonetheless defines what Vasco da Gama and his companions were looking to achieve when they entered Calicut on 20 May 1498: the spread of Christianity and trade. According to A.J.R. Russell-Wood, “the half century after Vasco da Gama's arrival in Calicut (May 1498) was characterised by trade and missionary activities rather than exploration per se in the East.”
Over 600 Middle Eocene bat specimens have been excavated from the Messel pit
(Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany), and seven species have been described
thus far. Many of the fossils are preserved as complete skeletons, often with
soft body outlines and gut contents. Six of the bat species represent three
extinct families, whereas Tachypteron franzeni can be assigned
to the extant family Emballonuridae (Storch et al., 2002).
T. franzeni is known only from two specimens; however,
these are extraordinarily well preserved, including the shoulder joints and
inner ears, so this had already been recognized in the original description of
T. franzeni, and these close resemblances to extant
emballonurids led to the conclusion that T. franzeni had
already evolved similar bioacoustic specializations and a similar flight style
to modern taxa.
The shoulder joints of bats are sophisticated structures showing remarkable
morphological variation. Miller's (1907) investigations on the differentiations
of the shoulder within the Microchiroptera were continued by the studies of
other authors (Vaughan, 1970; Strickler, 1978; Hermanson and Altenbach,
Three different types of shoulder joint can be distinguished within the
Chiroptera: the primitive morphology of the shoulder joint with a globular
humeral head and corresponding glenoid cavity, as seen in Megachiroptera and
Rhinopomatidae; a derived shoulder joint with an oblong humeral head and a
single trough-like articular surface on the scapula, found in members of the
superfamilies Emballonuroidea, Rhinolophoidea and Noctilionoidea; a derived
shoulder joint with a secondary articulation between the tuberculum majus and a
secondary articular facet on the dorsal side of the scapula, as seen in the
remaining families. Their distribution within the order gives evidence of
parallel evolution of the derived types (Schlosser-Sturm and Schliemann, 1995).
The morphological modifications of the derived joints are interpreted as a
functional response to a biomechanical demand connected with flight (Norberg,
2002), i.e., to limit pronation of the humerus during the downstroke of the wing
beat cycle, realized in two different mechanical ways (Schlosser-Sturm, 1982;
Altenbach, 1987; Schliemann and Schlosser-Sturm, 1999). Because movement
restriction was described for the primitive type as well (Bergemann, 2003),
functional interpretations are still a matter of controversy.