Pain is a psychosomatic occurrence, primarily considering its neurobiological aspects. Chronic pain patients suffer from psychic comorbidities or even psychic diseases as somatoform disorders which often remain mis- and respectively underdiagnosed and consecutive untreated. Psychic comorbidities influence the pain in a neurobiological sense by lowering the pain threshold. Wrong treatments, somatic fixation, operations, chronification, iatrogenic impairment and psychosocial problems are possible consequences. It is fundamental to integrate the trias of pain, stress and affect into the diagnostics and treatments. The neurobiological stress axis, HPA- and LC-NE, is known to be activated by nociceptive- neuropathic input via cytokinins and influence pain. Chronic negative strain of the stress system may have neurobiological consequences as damage of the pain depressant systems, inter alia degeneration of hippocampus.
An interdisciplinary approach is inevitable and broad clinical diagnostics of high importance. Therefore we established a broad network of interdisciplinary liaisons with rheumatology, internal medicine, orthopaedics and dentistry. In our outpatient clinic we analyzed female and male chronic pain patients from different medical departments. They all had a complex and long lasting history of pain.
We applied clinical interviews and different test-parametric methods and figured out that undiscovered psychic comorbidities, wrong medication and specific biographic aspects in a biopsychosocial kind are inter alia the key factors of chronic pain suffering.
Our data demonstrate that an interdisciplinary approach considering pain as multifactor genesis and integrating neurobiological, biographic and psychosocial components is necessary to treat chronic pain patients and prevent further chronification.