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Antibiotics are widely used in food animal production to treat disease outbreaks, to prevent disease and, in some countries, to improve feed efficiency and enhance animal growth. Due to this complexity, the availability of reliable data on antibiotic use in livestock production is limited, but improving, especially for OECD countries. The highlight intensive animal production systems tend to use more antibiotics than the extensive systems. Over recent decades the adoption of improved biosecurity measures, animal husbandry practices and better farm management have contributed to a reduction in the use of antibiotics in many countries. All pathways of transmission of resistant pathogens between animals, humans and the environment (and vice versa) are not well understood, and this remains a major challenge for researchers and policymakers. With the growing public awareness of the risks associated with AMR, there is increased interest in developing alternative interventions to antibiotics in animal production. While estimating the economic costs and benefits of antibiotic use in production can be reduced without any adverse impact of farmers’ income, animal health and welfare.
Within the framework of the generalised Landau-de Gennes theory, we identify a Q-tensor-based energy that reduces to the four-constant Oseen–Frank energy when it is considered over orientable uniaxial nematic states. Although the commonly considered version of the Landau-de Gennes theory has an elastic contribution that is at most cubic in components of the Q-tensor and their derivatives, the alternative offered here is quartic in these variables. One clear advantage of our approach over the cubic theory is that the associated minimisation problem is well-posed for a significantly wider choice of elastic constants. In particular, this quartic energy can be used to model nematic-to-isotropic phase transitions for highly disparate elastic constants. In addition to proving well-posedness of the proposed version of the Landau-de Gennes theory, we establish a rigorous connection between this theory and its Oseen–Frank counterpart via a Г-convergence argument in the limit of vanishing nematic correlation length. We also prove strong convergence of the associated minimisers.
This chapter presents an augmented theory of successful intelligence. Successful intelligence is (1) the ability to formulate, strive for, and, to the extent possible, achieve one’s goals in life, given one’s sociocultural context, (2) by capitalizing on strengths and correcting or compensating for weaknesses (3) in order to adapt to, shape, and select environments (4) through a combination of analytical, creative, and practical abilities. People who are successfully intelligent figure out what life opportunities are available or they can create, and then proceed to optimize on those opportunities. Successfully intelligent people figure out their strengths and weaknesses and then capitalize on the strengths and correct or compensate for their weaknesses.
In this chapter, I review the history of psychological accounts of intelligence in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. I open with an account of the thinking of Galton and Binet. Although Binet is often viewed as atheoretical, I show this not to be the case at all. I then discuss some of their successors, including Spearman, Thomson, Holzinger, Thurstone, Guilford, Guttman, Burt, Vernon, Cattell, Carroll, and Johnson and Bouchard.