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Defective color vision comes in various forms and its frequency varies from population to population. This article is concerned with only the sex-linked form of essential hereditary color blindness. A model of a ‘small’ population is constructed to explore the dynamics of occurrence of color blindness. Different mutation rates are introduced for eggs and sperm. Birth and death rates of affected individuals are assumed to be the same as those in the unaffected. Simulation demonstrates that large changes in frequency occur randomly from the combined effects of mutation, transmission of genes from generation to generation and births and deaths. A reference is made to the hypothesis that observed differences in rates are due to selection in the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer.
n-3 Long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) can improve cardiometabolic blood markers, but studies in children are limited. SNP in the FADS genes, which encode fatty acid desaturases, influence endogenous LCPUFA production. Moreover, SNP in genes that encode PPAR and apoE may modulate the effects of n-3 LCPUFA. We explored whether FADS polymorphisms were associated with blood cholesterol and TAG, insulin and glucose and whether polymorphisms in PPAR and APOE modified associations between FADS or n-3 LCPUFA status and the cardiometabolic blood markers. We measured fasting cholesterol and TAG, insulin, glucose and n-3 LCPUFA in 757 Danish 8–11-year-old children and genotyped SNP in FADS (rs1535 and rs174448), PPARG2 (rs1801282), PPARA (rs1800206) and APOE (rs7412+rs429358). Carriage of two FADS rs174448 major alleles was associated with lower TAG (P = 0·027) and higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·047). Blood n-3 LCPUFA was inversely associated with TAG and insulin in PPARG2 minor allele carriers and positively with LDL-cholesterol in major allele homozygotes (Pn-3 LCPUFA × rs180182 < 0·01). Associations between n-3 LCPUFA and cardiometabolic markers were not modified by APOE genotype (Pn-3 LCPUFA × APOE > 0·11), but interaction between FADS rs1535 and APOE showed that rs1535 major allele homozygotes who also carried APOE2 had higher HDL-cholesterol than all other genotype combinations (Prs1535 × APOE = 0·019, pairwise-P < 0·05). This indicates that FADS genotypes, which increase endogenous LCPUFA production, may beneficially affect children’s cardiometabolic profile in a partly APOE-dependent manner. Also, the degree to which children benefit from higher n-3 LCPUFA intake may depend on their PPARG2 genotype.
Wedges and frames, two much-studied strategies of American political combat, are generally thought to be partisan weapons, meant to manipulate voters into making trade-offs that favor the political actor wielding them. My inquiry here explores whether there exists anything comparably schematic to wedges and frames at work in attempts by American politicians not to polarize but to find consensus, not to cater to extremes but moderate them. Despite the seeming paucity of such efforts in American public discourse, there is one such common and as-yet untheorized scheme, which uses the two issue positions involved in wedges to overcome the ill effects of reframing and the two value dimensions involved in reframing to overcome the ill effects of wedges. I elaborate this discursive structure by examining its presence in a number of American political debates, showing how it differs from other contemporary normative-theoretic frameworks for understanding compromise in American politics.
Recent advances in machine learning (ML) promise far-reaching improvements across medical care, not least within psychiatry. While to date no psychiatric application of ML constitutes standard clinical practice, it seems crucial to get ahead of these developments and address their ethical challenges early on. Following a short general introduction concerning ML in psychiatry, we do so by focusing on schizophrenia as a paradigmatic case. Based on recent research employing ML to further the diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of schizophrenia, we discuss three hypothetical case studies of ML applications with view to their ethical dimensions. Throughout this discussion, we follow the principlist framework by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress to analyse potential problems in detail. In particular, we structure our analysis around their principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy, and justice. We conclude with a call for cautious optimism concerning the implementation of ML in psychiatry if close attention is paid to the particular intricacies of psychiatric disorders and its success evaluated based on tangible clinical benefit for patients.
Open source hardware is hardware whose design is shared online so that anyone can study, modify, distribute, make, and sell it. In spite of the increasing popularity of this alternative IP management approach, the field of OSH remains fragmented of diverse practices seeking for settlement. This challenges providers of groupware solutions to capture the specific needs of open source product development practitioners. This contribution therefore delivers a list of basic requirements and verifies them by comparing offered functions of existing groupware solutions.
The dynamics of rare X-linked recessive traits is explored by simulation. The model follows the prevalence of affected males and carrier females as separate but correlated variables. Different mutation rates and selection coefficients are introduced for males and females. A virtual population based on a published study of hemophilia B in the west of Scotland is followed at weekly intervals over many years. Speculative values of critical parameters to mimic the real population are proposed.
People aging with long-term physical disabilities (PAwLTPD), meaning individuals with onset of disability from birth through midlife, often require long-term support services (LTSS) to remain independence. The LTSS system is fragmented into aging and disability organizations with little communication between them. In addition, there are currently no evidence-based LTSS-type programs listed on the Administration for Community Living website that have been demonstrated to be effective for PAwLTPD. Because of these gaps, we have developed a community-based research network (CBRN), drawing on the practice-based research network model (PBRN), to bring together aging and disability organizations to address the lack of evidence-based programs for PAwLTPD.
Materials and Methods:
Community-based organizations serving PAwLTPD across the state of Missouri were recruited to join the CBRN. A formative process evaluation of the network was conducted after a year to evaluate the effectiveness of the network.
Nine community-based organizations across the state of Missouri joined the CBRN. CBRN members include three centers for independent living (CILs), three area agencies on aging (AAAs), one CIL/AAA hybrid, one non-CIL disability organization, and one non-AAA aging organization. To date, we have held seven meetings, provided educational opportunities for CBRN members, and launched an inaugural research study within the CBRN. Formative evaluation data indicate that CBRN members feel that participation in the CBRN is beneficial.
The PBRN model appears to be a feasible framework for use with community-based organizations to facilitate communication between agencies and to support research aimed at addressing the needs of PAwLTPD.
Patterns of interaction and attitudes in the relationships of 21 young schizophrenic patients, their parents and therapists were explored and compared with each other in this pilot study. The focus was on expressed emotion (EE), which was revealed to have an important impact on the course of the illness. In this study, the EE status of the relatives as well as of the therapists was rated using the five-minute speech sample method. Furthermore, data on the quality of interaction of therapists and parents with the patients were derived from the therapist/relative-patient interaction scale. Results showed that one-third of both the therapists and the parents were rated high on EE. High-EE relatives were rejected and perceived as inscrutable by the patients. The assessment of the therapeutic and familial relationships demonstrated the patients’ need for unequivocal communication. Differences and similarities in the interaction styles, and their implications for research and therapy are discussed.
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of blue light emitting diode units in suppression of melatonin secretion and to evaluate whether a single exposure can improve well being in healthy males and females (20/30) and in 15 women with premenstrual syndrome.
All study participants were of morning-type with a regular sleep schedule. On control day 1, the subjects were kept under dim illumination (< 10 lx) from 19:00 to 22:30. On day 2, after 1.5h in dim light, the subjects were exposed for 60 min to blue light (12.15 μM/cm², TurboLite, Germany) following by 30 min dim light. Blood samples were collected every 30 min for melatonin assay. Zerssen's complaints scale was used to assess mental und physical well-being at 19:00 (pre-test) and at 22:30 (post-test) after dim illumination or blue light exposure. In addition a visual analogue scale (VAS) for sleepiness was applied.
Overall, blue light improved significantly mental and physical complaints from pre-test to post-test (reduction in sum score of the Zerssen's complaints scale by in average 30%) and reduced sleepiness, as measured by the VAS. There were gender-related differences, as well as differences related to the menstrual phase in females. Blue light reduced but not suppressed the gradual increase of melatonin in plasma with time mostly pronounced in the follicular phase.
A single exposition with blue light of low radiant flux density, as applied in our study, seems to be helpful in reducing mental and physical distress.
Schizophrenic patients seem to react sensitively to expressed affect. Expressed emotion research has shown the negative impact of specific family communication styles on the course of illness. Further studies have discussed its relation to gender. This study examines the dyadic aspects of the therapist-patient relationship, the interaction between therapist's ratings and patient's psychopathology, and the predictive value concerning the course of illness. Results show a significant association with gender. Male therapists were inclined to reduce their therapeutic commitment when being confronted with patients who suffered from disturbances Of ego-function, attention, or perception. Female therapists felt rejected by patients with delusions and with formal thought disorders, but perceived themselves as competent when dealing with anergic patients. Furthermore, patients with a less favorable course of illness at the 2-year follow-up could be discriminated by the quality of the therapist-patient relationship at the end of the primary therapeutic intervention.
The physical culture movement, prominent during the second half of the nineteenth century, had far-reaching effects on rejuvenation in Britain. This chapter considers how regimes of exercise came to be seen as essential components in maintaining a state of youth and beauty (particularly for women). The cosmetics pioneer Elizabeth Arden attempted to capitalise on the popularity of the mass exercise movement by opening an ‘exercise salon’ at her exclusive Bond Street beauty parlour during the early 1930s. At the same time, the Women’s League for Health and Beauty advocated group exercise which included dance, callisthenics and remedial, slimming and rhythmical exercise to music. These mass-participation franchises brought an affordable alternative to expensive personal training for the working classes. The expansion of organised exercise, fuelled by a vibrant youth culture, led to the youthful body becoming an object of celebration. The ideal physique – youthful, lithe and strong – was now held up as an attainable goal for all. Indeed, it was seen as a true expression of the natural instinct of the body, drawing inspiration from naturalistic movements in politics and culture.
This chapter argues that the increasingly close relationship identified by historians between electricity and the body continued into the twentieth century. The development of neurology as a medical specialty in the latter part of the nineteenth century further enhanced the perception of the body as an electrical machine. As the electrical wiring of the nervous system became viewed as the prime seat of bodily control and sensation, so electricity itself was implicated in the ageing process. Medical scientists and entrepreneurs came into conflict over who was entitled to use electrotherapy as a form of treatment, and numerous devices, including electric belts, UV lamps and products based around radium, flooded the market. In contrast to a hormone-based understanding of the body, which emphasised hormonal differences as indicative of males and females, electrical explanations of matter and the body led to a more universal view of life; the same balance of electrical forces was required to preserve youth and vitality in both sexes.
This chapter highlights commonalities and differences between the forms of rejuvenation practice. Whilst much rejuvenation activity was dismissed as quackery, this chapter instead identifies a strong scientific underpinning to many of the methods reputed to produce rejuvenating effects. Medical entrepreneurs were highly skilled in exploiting the cultural attraction of rejuvenation, particularly in the immediate aftermath of World War One, when anxieties about the fitness of (particular male) populations came to the fore. Ultimately, this chapter argues that the products which we decide to use on, in and around our bodies to preserve a state of youthfulness reveal a great deal about our views not just on ageing but also medicine, sexuality, gender, and our place in society. In an era before widespread cosmetic surgery, research into regenerative medicine and the emergence of aesthetic medicine as an organised discipline, attempts to stave off the effects of ageing were already deeply bound up in commercial activity.
Some of the most outward signs of ageing are mediated through the skin. This chapter concentrates on how skin care products chimed with understandings of what could be achieved by way of rejuvenation. Using a diverse range of sources, including advertising material which appeared in household magazines and newspapers, the company records of Boots, market research surveys, and ephemera relating to the products themselves, this chapter triangulates the myriad claims about what skin care products could achieve against prevailing social concerns with ageing, knowledge about the skin and conceptions of beauty. The principal argument is that through the twentieth century youthful skin became deeply entwined with a particular form of beauty: the two became inseparable and skincare preparations appealed to those who sought to increase both their attractiveness and youthfulness.
This chapter introduces the concept of rejuvenation as both a literal reversing of the ageing process and an attempt to appear younger. It demarcates rejuvenation from longevity – the former pertaining to a state of youth, the latter simply to extended lifespan – and identifies the relevant themes in the secondary literature of historical and sociological research. The search for rejuvenation – whether the mythical elixir of life to achieve eternal youth or everyday creams designed to keep the features looking young – was not an exclusively twentieth-century phenomenon, yet a combination of social, medical, cultural and economic factors resulted in an explosion of interest in anti-ageing in the period immediately following World War One. The first global conflict gave new impetus to efforts promoting strength and vitality in men, and fertility and attractiveness in women. Keeping the population healthy and economically productive was an essential feature of post–World War One western society.