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Nearly 80% of new cases of myopia arise between 9 and 13 years old when puberty development also progresses rapidly. However, little is known about the association between myopia and puberty. We aim to evaluate the association between myopia and menarche, the most important puberty indicator for girls, and to test whether menarche could modify the effects of myopia-related behaviors. The participants came from two consecutive national surveys conducted in 30 provinces in mainland China in 2010 and 2014. We included 102,883 girls (61% had experienced menarche) aged 10–15 years. Risk behaviors for myopia which included sleep duration, homework time, and outdoor activity were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Myopia was defined according to a validated method, and its relationships with menarche status and behaviors were evaluated by robust Poisson regression models based on generalized estimated equation adjusting for cluster effect of school. We found that postmenarche girls were at 13% (95% confidence interval: 11%–16%) higher risk of myopia than premenarche girls, after adjusting for exact age, urban–rural location, survey year, and four behavioral covariates. Short sleep duration (<7 h/d), long homework time (>1 h/d) and low frequency of weekend outdoor activity tended to be stronger (with higher prevalence ratios associated with myopia) risk factors for myopia in postmenarche girls than in premenarche girls, and their interaction with menarche status was all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Overall, our study suggests that menarche onset may be associated with increased risk of myopia among school-aged girls and could also enhance girls’ sensitivity to myopia-related risk behaviors.
The chapter traces the rich legacy of the romantic literature in Ireland, through consideration of the varied influences of key Irish and English writings of the later eighteenth and early nineteenth century on Irish writers of recent decades. It suggests that the reappraisal of romanticism in the 1980s and 1990s has important implications for Irish literary history, in that the plurality and inclusiveness of the ‘romantic period’ and increasing emphasis on historical contexts, locations, colonialism, and gender are especially helpful for approaching leading Irish writers of the time, such as Maria Edgeworth, Edmund Burke, Thomas Moore, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and emerging genres such as national tales, gothic fiction, political prose, and periodical literature. Recognition of the variousness of romantic-period literature also complicates the later twentieth-century legacies, opening lines of inheritance from John Clare to Michael Longley, Maria Edgeworth to William Trevor, Raftery to Derek Mahon. The perhaps better-known engagements of Seamus Heaney with Wordsworth, Paul Muldoon with Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey, or Ciaran Carson with John Keats are thus considered as part of the larger picture of continuing connections between the romantic period and modern Irish literature.
The Preface briefly sets out the contrast between anthropology, psychology and economics as three human science disciplines with overlapping subject matters but very different ways of approaching reality. It touches on the question of human self-education in history and also alludes to the comparison between (notionally communist) China and (capitalist) Taiwan.
takes up the issue of human ‘self-education’ first raised in the Preface. The Marxist theory of self-education is compared with the approach of utilitarians/consequentialists to human agency that underpins (at least to some extent) much of the recent work in the field of economic psychology. It is argued that these two approaches are not as incompatible as is often assumed. More broadly, the author engages with recent work in the psychology of cooperation, which intersects in important ways with both Marxist and consequentialist approaches.
, the Introduction, covers the general relationship between the approaches of anthropologists, psychologists and economists to economic life, noting that anthropologists have been very resistant to both psychological and ‘economistic’ approaches (as they understand these) to studying the human economy.
returns to the question of number and numeracy that was first alluded to in the Introduction and that plays an important part in the psychology of economic life. The author draws attention to the complex way in which a ‘qualitative mathematics’ factors into Chinese understandings of economic life and economic agency.
focuses on economic decision making and the role that cultural-historical artefacts (such as religious beliefs) may play in this everyday aspect of life. It brings together anthropological approaches with studies of decision making in psychology and cognitive science. The main example is of decisions about risky, but potentially profitable, fishing trips made from Taiwan.
examines the politics of cognition – but also the politics of cognitive anthropology. It is noted that anthropologists treat psychological approaches to social life as being somehow apolitical or even politically dubious, but this position is based on a rather strange reading of actual work in cognitive anthropology. The text also engages with the politics of self-education in both Taiwan and China.
focuses on longer-term life planning and the role of learning involved in it, drawing specifically on the work of the macroeconomist Robert Lucas. Taking one ethnographic example from Taiwan, the author asks questions about Lucas’s account of human capital, examining among other things questions about fate in economic life and processes of modernisation in seemingly traditional societies.
is an argument for a ‘substantivist economic psychology’. On the one hand, this position would take seriously cultural-historical artefacts of the kind discussed in , e.g. those related to religious beliefs. Economic psychology to date has not focused very much at all on the role of such artefacts. On the other hand, it would require anthropologists – who already pay attention to culture – to also pay much more attention than they currently do to the findings and theories of psychologists about such things as learning, decision making and planning. As part of this assessment, we need to rethink the idea that human psychology is an intrinsically ‘individual’ phenomenon.
A comparison between electrochemical carbon dioxide conversion and reforestation is presented. By comparing thermodynamic and forestry data, recommendations for technology development can be made.
With the global average temperature steadily increasing due to anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, there has been increasing interest worldwide in new technologies for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). This coincides with the decrease in cost of deployment of intermittent renewable electricity sources, specifically solar energy, necessitating development of new methods for energy storage. Carbon dioxide conversion technologies driven by photovoltaics aim to address both these needs. To adequately contribute to greenhouse gas reduction, the carbon dioxide conversion technology deployed should have a substantially higher rate of carbon dioxide removal than planting an equivalent-sized forest. Using consistent methodologies, we analyze the effectiveness of model photovoltaic-driven carbon dioxide conversion technologies that produce liquid alcohols as compared to planting an equivalent forest. This analysis serves to establish an energy use boundary for carbon dioxide conversion technology, in order to be a viable alternative as a net carbon negative technology.
The evidence for rationalisation, which motivates the target article, is exaggerated. Experimental evidence shows that rationalisation effects are small rather than gross and, I argue, largely silent on the pervasiveness and persistence of the phenomenon. At least some examples taken to show rationalisation also have an interpretation compatible with deliberate, knowing reason-responsiveness on the part of participants.
This chapter reviews scholarship on communication and relational maintenance and introduces a new conceptualization of relational maintenance: maintenance as growth. Communication plays a unique role in the maintenance of relationships, as it serves both as a maintenance mechanism and as the means through which other maintenance mechanisms are made manifest. In order to limit the scope, the focus is upon romantic relationships. A synopsis of the history of the study of communication and relational maintenance is offered by reviewing typologies, motivations, antecedents, and the complex connections among maintenance behaviors and relational features. The four most often invoked definitions of maintenance are reviewed, and a fifth new definition of maintenance is proposed in order to extend our conceptualizations of relational maintenance. This fifth, heretofore unarticulated (at least explicitly), is one wherein maintenance is seen as the process of keeping a relationship growing. Maintenance is defined as the state and process of growth or continuous positive change. How we communicate maintenance in accordance with definitions of relational maintenance is considered. Areas for further research are put forward, including attention to maintenance as a multiplex of behaviors as well as the valence, context, timing, and perceived intent of maintenance behaviors.
This clearly written and engaging book brings together anthropology, psychology and economics to show how these three human science disciplines address fundamental questions related to the psychology of economic life in human societies - questions that matter for people from every society and every background. Based around vivid examples drawn from field research in China and Taiwan, the author encourages anthropologists to take the psychological dimensions of economic life more seriously, but also invites psychologists and economists to pay much more attention than they currently do to cultural and historical variables. In the end, this intrinsically radical book challenges us to step away from disciplinary assumptions and to reflect more deeply on what really matters to us in our collective social and economic life.