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Transforming Early English shows how historical pragmatics can offer a powerful explanatory framework for the changes medieval English and Older Scots texts undergo, as they are transmitted over time and space. The book argues that formal features such as spelling, script and font, and punctuation – often neglected in critical engagement with past texts -- relate closely to dynamic, shifting socio-cultural processes, imperatives and functions. This theme is illustrated through numerous case-studies in textual recuperation, ranging from the reinvention of Old English poetry and prose in the later medieval and early modern periods, to the eighteenth-century 'vernacular revival' of literature in Older Scots.
If post-mortems of the 2016 US presidential election tell us anything, it's that many voters discriminate on the basis of race, which raises an important question: in a society that outlaws racial discrimination in employment, housing, and jury selections, should voters be permitted to racially discriminate in selecting a candidate for public office? In Whitelash, Terry Smith argues that such racialized decision-making is unlawful and that remedies exist to deter this reactionary behavior. Using evidence of race-based voting in the 2016 presidential election, Smith deploys legal analogies to demonstrate how courts can decipher when groups of voters have been impermissibly influenced by race, and impose appropriate remedies. This groundbreaking work should be read by anyone interested in how the legal system can re-direct American democracy away from the ongoing electoral scourge that many feared 2016 portended.
The 1930s is frequently seen as a unique moment in British literary history, a decade where writing was shaped by an intense series of political events, aesthetic debates, and emerging literary networks. Yet what is contained under the rubric of 1930s writing has been the subject of competing claims, and therefore this Companion offers the reader an incisive survey covering the decade's literature and its status in critical debates. Across the chapters, sustained attention is given to writers of growing scholarly interest, to pivotal authors of the period, such as Auden, Orwell, and Woolf, to the development of key literary forms and themes, and to the relationship between this literature and the decade's pressing social and political contexts. Through this, the reader will gain new insight into 1930s literary history, and an understanding of many of the critical debates that have marked the study of this unique literary era.
This highly accessible introductory textbook carefully explores the main issues that have driven the field of second language acquisition research. Intended for students with little or no background in linguistics or psycholinguistics, it explains important linguistic concepts, and how and why they are relevant to second language acquisition. Topics are presented via a 'key questions' structure that enables the reader to understand how these questions have motivated research in the field, and the problems to which researchers are seeking solutions. It provides a complete package for any introductory course on second language acquisition.
This book examines the environmental and technological complexity of South Carolina inland rice plantations from their inception at the turn of the seventeenth century to the brink of their institutional collapse at the eve of the Civil War. Inland rice cultivation provided a foundation for the South Carolina colonial plantation complex and enabled planters' participation in the Atlantic economy, dependence on enslaved labor, and dramatic alteration of the natural landscape. Moreover, the growing population of enslaved Africans led to a diversely-acculturated landscape unique to the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Despite this significance, Lowcountry inland rice cultivation has had an elusive history. Unlike many historical interpretations that categorize inland rice cultivation in a universal and simplistic manner, this study explains how agricultural systems varied among plantations. By focusing on planters' and slaves' alteration of the inland topography, this book emphasizes how agricultural methods met the demands of the local environment.
This chapter explores a crucial transition in the understanding of infinity during the eighteenth century. Originally a divine attribute, against which the finite is reduced to insignificance (e.g., in Baroque poetry), the infinite becomes a feature to be embraced within the finite world itself. Together with developments in science and mathematics (e.g., the invention of the calculus at the end of the seventeenth century), other cultural spheres played a crucial role in normalizing the ‘anomaly’ (T. S. Kuhn) of the infinite. Chief among them were ‘physico-theology’ and religiously inflected poetry (especially Heinrich Brockes), which celebrated the divine within the grandest and minutest aspects of creation, and Pietism, which explored feelings of the sublime in nature and the soul (especially Friedrich Klopstock).
There is growing concern over a future shortfall in provision of UK otolaryngology consultants. There is a declining rate of applications to otolaryngology specialty training in the UK.
This study aimed to systematically review the literature to establish what factors influence medical students’ and junior doctors’ decision to pursue a career in otolaryngology.
Medline, Embase and PubMed databases were searched in January 2019. Additional manual reference checks of identified literature were performed.
Eleven articles were included in the review. Common factors that positively influenced the decision to pursue a career in otolaryngology were exposure to the specialty, positive role models and a good work-life balance. Lack of exposure was a consistent deterrent from pursuing a career in otolaryngology.
This review reiterates the need for greater exposure to otolaryngology in the undergraduate curriculum. In addition, mentorship for students with an interest in otolaryngology should be a priority.
Lifeboats are essential life-saving equipment for all types of water-going vessels and offshore platforms. Lifeboat simulators have been created specifically for offshore personnel to practice in conditions that are normally too risky for live training. As simulation training is a relatively new alternative, there is a need to assess how training performed with a simulator compares with conventional training. This study was performed to evaluate how skills acquired with different training approaches transferred to an emergency scenario. Over a period of one year, participants received quarterly training in one of three ways: using live boats, computer-based training or a simulator. Following training, participants were evaluated on their ability to launch and manoeuvre a lifeboat in a plausible emergency. The study results suggest a benefit to performing training with realistic lifeboat controls and practicing using representative emergency scenarios. Insights are provided on how training can be modified to increase competence.
Childhood abuse is a risk factor for poorer illness course in bipolar disorder, but the reasons why are unclear. Trait-like features such as affective instability and impulsivity could be part of the explanation. We aimed to examine whether childhood abuse was associated with clinical features of bipolar disorder, and whether associations were mediated by affective instability or impulsivity.
We analysed data from 923 people with bipolar I disorder recruited by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Adjusted associations between childhood abuse, affective instability and impulsivity and eight clinical variables were analysed. A path analysis examined the direct and indirect links between childhood abuse and clinical features with affective instability and impulsivity as mediators.
Affective instability significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and earlier age of onset [effect estimate (θ)/standard error (SE): 2.49], number of depressive (θ/SE: 2.08) and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.32), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.98) and rapid cycling (θ/SE: 2.25). Impulsivity significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.79), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.59), rapid cycling (θ/SE: 1.809), suicidal behaviour (θ/SE: 2.12) and substance misuse (θ/SE: 3.09). Measures of path analysis fit indicated an excellent fit to the data.
Affective instability and impulsivity are likely part of the mechanism of why childhood abuse increases risk of poorer clinical course in bipolar disorder, with each showing some selectivity in pathways. They are potential novel targets for intervention to improve outcome in bipolar disorder.
This article presents a timely and relevant critical examination of the customary international law principles of distinction and proportionality, and the doctrine of military necessity and the extent to which they can be better interpreted to protect the environment during the conduct of hostilities in non-international armed conflict. In so doing, this article contributes new perspectives to the ongoing debate on how environmental protection ought to be enhanced during non-international armed conflict. The article also suggests ways in which the International Law Commission (ILC) might approach the development of draft principles based on these customary principles as part of their current programme of work.
The 72nd in the annual series of volumes devoted to Shakespeare study and production. The articles are drawn from the programme of the International Shakespeare Conference held in Stratford-upon-Avon in the summer of 2018. The theme is 'Shakespeare and War'.
Dividing this review into two sections for the first time this year made painfully evident just how much Shakespearian performance goes on in the capital. With Paul Prescott taking on reviewing duties for productions outside of London, and me confining myself to those performed within the bounds of the M25, we split the usual length of the Survey review equally between us. The smorgasbord of Shakespeare on offer within my geographical remit, combined with a particularly Shakespeare-heavy summer season at Shakespeare’s Globe, meant that I ended up having to forgo a number of London-based productions: revivals were out, so I missed Filter’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream at the Lyric Hammersmith, and Jonathan Munby’s King Lear in the West End; I was unable to attend a number of shows with shorter runs, such as Max Webster’s As You Like It at Regent’s Park and Paper Cinema’s Macbeth at Battersea Arts Centre.