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Thomas Simpson provides an innovative account of how distinctive forms of colonial power and knowledge developed at the territorial fringes of colonial India during the nineteenth century. Through critical interventions in a wide range of theoretical and historiographical fields, he speaks to historians of empire and science, anthropologists, and geographers alike. The Frontier in British India provides the first connected and comparative analysis of frontiers in northwest and northeast India and draws on visual and written materials from an array of archives across the subcontinent and the UK. Colonial interventions in frontier spaces and populations were, it shows, enormously destructive but also prone to confusion and failure on their own terms. British frontier administrators did not merely suffer 'turbulent' frontiers, but actively worked to generate and uphold these regions as spaces of governmental and scientific exception. Accordingly, India's frontiers became crucial spaces of imperial practice and imagination throughout the nineteenth century.
In her article, Graham (2017) concludes ‘that very little of the research regarding the teaching of listening has made it into the classroom in England, not least in a positive way’ (p. 117). She suggests that teachers rarely delve into the process of second language (L2) listening in class; instead, listening comprehension is treated more as a test than a task. She continues that there is an over-application of the widely shared findings that pre-listening tasks aid listening comprehension – particularly tasks which involve predicting the vocabulary which will be heard during the listening task. Given the suggestion that learners find listening tasks difficult has been addressed within schools simply by making such tasks easier, Graham feels a more pedagogically apt approach might be to examine more closely what has made the task difficult and to modify teaching to address this.
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic upended the world. As emergency departments and hospitals across the nation and world braced themselves for the surge of this new disease, the Emergency Department (ED) at Children’s National Hospital (CNH) quickly created a process to address surges in patient visits and follow-ups for coronavirus testing. Within two weeks of the first reported pediatric patient diagnosed with COVID-19 in the DC metropolitan area, CNH ED implemented a new comprehensive follow-up process. This article describes the novel process which ensured timely notification of testing results, enabled patients to speak remotely with ED providers, increased patient and staff safety by reducing unnecessary exposures and suggested a good patient experience. With over 1900 patients discharged pending their COVID results, the program is successful. We anticipate expansion into antibody testing and notification as the pandemic progresses.
To assess the associations between nutrient intake and dietary patterns with different sarcopenia definitions in older men.
Sarcopenia was defined using the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2). Dietary adequacy of fourteen nutrients was assessed by comparing participants’ intakes with the Nutrient Reference Values (NRV). Attainment of NRV for nutrients was incorporated into a variable ‘poor’ (meeting ≤ 9) v. ‘good’ (meeting ≥ 10) using the cut-point method. Also, two different dietary patterns, monounsaturated:saturated fat and n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio and individual nutrients were used as predictor variables.
A total of 794 men aged ≥75 years participated in this study.
The prevalence of sarcopenia by the FNIH, EWGSOP and EWGSOP2 definitions was 12·9 %, 12·9 % and 19·6 %, respectively. With the adjustment, poor nutrient intake was significantly associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia (OR: 2·07 (95 % CI 1·16, 3·67)), but not with EWGSOP and EWGSPOP2 definitions. The lowest and second-lowest quartiles of protein, Mg and Ca and the lowest quartiles of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA intakes were significantly associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia. Each unit decrease in n-6:n-3 ratio was significantly associated with a 9 % increased risk of FNIH-defined sarcopenia (OR: 1·09 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·16)).
Inadequate intakes of nutrients are associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia in older men, but not with the other two sarcopenia definitions. Further studies are required to understand these relationships.
Cognitive reserve, or the extent to which brain can cope with damage, is associated with extended healthy aging and with slow age-related cognitive decline, as well as a lower number of dementia-associated clinical cognitive signs. Thus, understanding how cognitive reserve might affect different cognitive abilities is important. This study aims at investigating the associations between cognitive reserve and linguistic abilities in a group of Spanish older adults with Alzheimer’s disease.
The sample comprised 25 older adults with a clinical diagnostic of AD with mild to moderate dementia, and 25 controls who were residing in care homes from the province of Granada and with ages between 52 and 92 years old (M= 83.40, SD= 7.18). The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Global Deterioration Scale, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire, and the Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia were used to collect data. Correlations and regression analysis were performed.
Results showed that cognitive reserve positively and significantly correlated with naming and with phonological fluency but not with semantic fluency word or sentence repetitions or with the global cognitive functioning and the severity of cognitive impairment. The regression analysis showed that cognitive reserve explained 24.7% of the variance in spontaneous naming (F=3.764, p=.039). On the contrary cognitive reserve did not predict verbal fluency.
People with higher cognitive reserve score obtained higher scores in phonological fluency and in spontaneous naming and in naming after a semantic clue. Thus, cognitive reserve is linked with better linguistic abilities in AD patients and therefore it should be considered when designing speech therapy interventions for these patients.
Several neurodegenerative conditions negatively impact linguistics skills. Despite this, many studies carried out with these kinds of patients either only include participants with initial stages of cognitive impairment either do not contemplate linguistic skills, or they do assess language in clinical or experimental settings. Due to it this study aims at investigating verbal fluency and spontaneous conversation abilities in a group of institutionalized Spanish older adults with and without cognitive impairment.
The sample comprised 50 older adults who were residing in care homes from the province of Granada and with ages between 52 and 92 years old (M= 83.40, SD= 7.18). The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Global Deterioration Scale, and the Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia were used to collect data. In order to analyze the differences in verbal fluency and in spontaneous conversation between participants ANOVA analysis were performed.
Results showed that people without cognitive impairment or with initial stages of Parkinson’s’ disease showed a higher complexity in their spontaneous conversation and obtained higher scores in verbal fluency when compared with patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and with people with cognitive impairment but without a clinical diagnose. No significant differences were found between participants in word or sentence repetitions tasks.
Language impairment in people with cognitive impairment has dramatic consequences, affecting people’s communication and social interaction, their identity and autonomy thus language skills should be assessed in institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment and interventions should be designed to maintain their linguistic abilities.
To examine changes in micronutrient intake over 3 years and identify any associations between socio-economic, health, lifestyle and meal-related factors and these changes in micronutrient intakes among older men.
Dietary adequacy of individual micronutrient was compared to the estimated average requirement of the nutrient reference values (NRV). Attainment of the NRV for twelve micronutrients was incorporated into a dichotomised variable ‘not meeting’ (meeting ≤ 6) or ‘meeting’ (meeting ≥ 7) and categorised into four categories to assess change in micronutrient intake over 3 years. The multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to model predictors of changes in micronutrient intake.
Seven hundred and ninety-four men participated in a detailed diet history interview at the third wave (baseline nutrition) and 718 men participated at the fourth wave (3-year follow-up).
The mean age was 81 years (range 75–99 years). Median intakes of the majority of micronutrients decreased significantly over a 3-year follow-up. Inadequacy of the NRV for thiamine, dietary folate, Zn, Mg, Ca and I were significantly increased at a 3-year follow-up than baseline nutrition. The incidence of inadequate micronutrient intake was 21 % and remained inadequate micronutrient intake was 16·4 % at 3-year follow-up. Changes in micronutrient intakes were significantly associated with participants born in the UK and Italy, low levels of physical activity, having ≥2 medical conditions and used meal services.
Micronutrient intake decreases with age in older men. Our results suggest that strategies to improve some of the suboptimal micronutrient intakes might need to be developed and implemented for older men.
Crime, Deviance and Society: An Introduction to Sociological Criminology offers a comprehensive introduction to criminological theory. The book introduces readers to key sociological theories, such as anomie and strain, and examines how traditional approaches have influenced the ways in which crime and deviance are constructed. It provides a nuanced account of contemporary theories and debates, and includes chapters covering feminist criminology, critical masculinities, cultural criminology, green criminology, and postcolonial theory, among others. Case studies in each chapter demonstrate how sociological theories can manifest within and influence the criminal justice system and social policy. Each chapter also features margin definitions and timelines of contributions to key theories, reflection questions and end-of-chapter questions that prompt students reflection. Written by an expert team of academics from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, Crime, Deviance and Society is a highly engaging and accessible introduction to the field for students of criminology and criminal justice.
In this chapter on strain theory, the influence of positivism continues to be present; however, the focus changes from the level of the community to the broader influence of society and culture on regulation, socialisation and consequences of behaviour. Strain theory proposes that individuals are not solely responsible for their deviant and criminal behaviours; rather their actions are normal responses or adaptations to pressures generated by society’s structure and culture. This chapter will discuss the trajectory of ‘strain’ theory from Emile Durkheim’s concept of ‘anomie’ through to Robert Merton’s ‘structural strain theory’ and Robert Agnew’s ‘general strain theory’. A number of deviant and criminal behaviours will also be discussed to consider how ‘strain’ theories address the interplay between social structures, cultural context and individual responses. First though, Durkheim’s most significant contribution to the discipline of sociology, ‘social facts,’ will be explored. This represented a new approach to understanding the social world, informing Durkheim’s seminal work on anomie and the collective consciousness and later influencing the development of strain theory.
This chapter draws on the works of key labelling theorists Howard Becker, Edward Lemert and Stanley Cohen to explore how individuals come to be labelled as deviant or criminal, the subsequent impact that labelling and stigmatisation can have on behaviour, and the need to carefully consider interventions to social issues that go beyond ‘law and order’ responses. First, the theoretical underpinnings of labelling theory, which are found within the sociological perspectives of social constructionism and symbolic interactionism, are discussed.
The aim of the study was to identify components of the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) model that influences behaviour to modify dietary patterns in 40–55-year-olds living in the UK, in order to influence the risk of cognitive decline in later life.
This is a qualitative study using the COM-B model and theoretical domains framework (TDF) to explore beliefs to adopting the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet.
Twenty-five participants were recruited onto the study to take part in either a focus group or an interview. Participants were men and women aged between 40 and 55 years. Participants were recruited via email, Facebook and face to face.
Content analysis revealed that the main perceived barriers to the adoption of the MIND diet were time, work environment, taste preference and convenience. The main perceived facilitators reported were improved health, memory, planning and organisation, and access to good quality food.
This study provides insight into the personal, social and environmental factors that participants report as barriers and facilitators to the adoption of the MIND diet among middle-aged adults living in the UK. More barriers to healthy dietary change were found than facilitators. Future interventions that increase capability, opportunity and motivation may be beneficial. The results from this study will be used to design a behaviour change intervention using the subsequent steps from the Behaviour Change Wheel.
This chapter provides an overview of qualitative research methods in substance and behavioral addictions research and practice. It discusses the nature and importance of qualitative methodologies in iterating how individual perspectives, social meanings, and lived experiences impact the nature of substance and behavioral addictions. Methods addressed include ethnography, participant and nonparticipant observation, qualitative interviews, focus groups, and participatory action research (PAR), and empirical evidence in the context of addictions is provided. Additionally, a brief summary of each method and generally understood advantages and disadvantages of each are given. Data analysis techniques covered include grounded theory, narrative and discourse analysis, and thematic analysis. Lastly, major contributions to the field of addictions regarding research on hard-to-reach and marginalized populations, evaluating treatment and intervention services, measuring risk behaviors, investigating barriers to treatment programs, conceptualizing motivational and emotional components of addiction, and aiding in the formation of diagnostic criterion are reviewed.
Political security is often viewed as a necessary precondition for rulers to develop property-protecting legal institutions. I argue that because these institutions can build political support and generate revenue, domestically insecure rulers may also invest in them. I test this argument using newly collected 12th-century data on the operation of the nascent English common law system. Leveraging the 1192 shipwreck and subsequent kidnap of Richard I as an exogenous shock to domestic political security, I find that the catastrophe appears to have prompted the English Royal Court's short-term deployment to raise political support in areas vulnerable to rebellion. I present suggestive evidence that this effect in vulnerable areas persisted into the medium-term, and appears to have expanded to the rest of the country. Drawing on this and other evidence of changes in Royal Court funding, activity, and organization between 1184 and 1203, I argue that the shock may have helped to bring about a permanent increase in the Court's capacity and accessibility. These findings are relevant to studies of the common law and the political economy of legal institutions generally.