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We collected monthly reports on gastrointestinal illness (GII) episodes among 2348 adults in a 1-year cohort in South West Sweden. The GII episodes were collected by SMS (Short Message System) and validated by telephone interviews among the cohort participants and nationwide. The annual incidence was 0.64 and 0.43 cases per person-year for 28-day self-defined GII (any symptom) and acute GII (vomiting and/or ≥3 episodes of diarrhoea), respectively. The incidence was about 20% higher for the 14-day recall, compared with 28-day recall. The duration of illness was on average 2.3 days. We observed a unimodal seasonal distribution of GII, with the highest prevalence during winter. Responses collected by SMS highly correlated with responses collected by telephone. SMS survey was an efficient tool for the collection of repeated estimates of GII.
In a primary health-care centre (PHCC) situated in a segregated area with low socio-economic status, ‘primary care triage’ has increased efficiency and accessibility. In the primary-care triage, the nurse sorts the patient to the appropriate PHCC profession according to described symptoms.
The aim of this study was to examine the patients’ experience of being triaged directly to a psychologist for assessment.
Interviews were conducted with 20 patients and then analysed using qualitative content analysis.
The results show that patients contacting the PHCC for mental health issues often are active agents with their own intent to see a psychologist, not a doctor, as a first-hand choice when contacting the PHCC. Seeking help for mental health issues is described as a sensitive issue that demands building up strength before contacting. The quick access to the preferred health-care professional is appreciated. The nurse was perceived as a caring facilitator rather than a decision maker. It is the patient's wish rather than the symptoms that directs the sorting. The patients’ expectations when meeting the psychologist were wide and diverse. The structured assessment sometimes collided and sometimes united with these expectations, yielding different outcome satisfaction. The results could be seen in line with the present goal to increase patients’ choice in the health-care system. The improved accessibility to the psychologist seems to meet community expectations. The results also indicate a need for providing more prior information about the assessment and potential outcomes.
We have investigated the dissociative recombination (DR) of the
ions using the CRYRING heavy-ion storage ring at Stockholm University, Sweden. The
dissociative recombination branching ratios were determined at minimal collision energy,
showing that the DR of both ions was dominated by pathways keeping the carbon atoms
together in one product. The absolute reaction cross sections for the titular ions are
best fitted by σ(Ecm [eV]) = 1.3 ± 0.4 × 10-15
(Ecm [eV])−1.19 ± 0.02 cm2
and σ(Ecm [eV]) = 1.1 ± 0.3 ×
10-15(Ecm [eV])−1.33 ± 0.02 cm2
in the intervals 3-300 meV and 3-200 meV respectively. The thermal rate constants of the
titular reactions are best described by:
k(T) = 1.3 ± 0.4 × 10-6(T/300)−0.69 ± 0.02
cm3s-1 for C6D6+
and k(T) = 2.0 ± 0.6 × 10-6 (T/300)−0.83 ± 0.02
cm3s-1 for C6D7+.
These expressions correlates well with earlier flowing afterglow studies on the same
A novel cryogenic electrostatic storage device consisting of two ion-beam storage rings with a common straight section for studies of interactions between oppositely charged ions at low and well-defined relative velocities is under construction at Stockholm University. Here we consider the prospect of using this new tool to measure cross-sections and rate coefficients for mutual neutralization reactions of importance in interstellar ion chemistry in general and specifically in cosmic pre-biotic ion chemistry.
The effects of 1-h soaking of a pig diet based on wheat and barley with low (4·1 g P per kg) and high (6·8 g P per kg) total phosphorus (P) content on total tract apparent digestibility and performance in growing-finishing pigs were studied in a balance and a performance trial respectively. Phosphorus bound to inositol penta- and hexaphosphate (IP5-IP6) was reduced by proportionately 0·1 in the soaked food. Soaking numerically increased the apparent digestibility of P. The digestibility of P did not differ between the dry high P and the soaked low P. Excretion of P in urine was correlated (R2 = 0·84) with the intake of digestible P. The average daily weight gain, final body weight and carcass weight were lower (P < 0·001), and the energy conversion ratio was higher (P < 0·001) in the dry low P treatment than in the other treatments. Pigs on the low P diets had lower levels of inorganic P in serum (P < 0·01) and slightly higher serum Ca values (P < 0·05) and there were no effects of soaking. The density of femur was lower (P < 0·01) in both the low P treatments than in the high P treatments, and soaking of the low P diet improved (P < 0·01) femur density. In conclusion, a 1-h soaking of pig food in water appears to be sufficient to improve P availability and growth performance.
Fifteen Swedish and Finnish soil samples from spodic B horizons containing imogolite-type materials were equilibrated with dilute NaCl and HC1 at 8°C. For the NaCl extracts, apparent equilibrium with respect to an AI(OH)3 phase was reached in one to two weeks. Equilibrium with respect to an imogolite-type phase was slower, especially at large soil:solution ratios. The results show that log *Ks (gibbsite), i.e. the logarithm of the solubility constant for reactive AI(OH)3 at 8°C was ~9.40 (8.29 at 25°C) while log *Ks (imogolite) was variable; for the soil studied in most detail it was 7.66 (6.64 at 25°C) As well-ordered gibbsite rarely forms in spodic B horizons, it is suggested that Al(OH)3 and poorly-ordered allophanic materials may be slowly converted to less soluble and less reactive imogolite-type materials.
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