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How does literary form change as Christianity and rabbinic Judaism take shape? What is the impact of literary tradition and the new pressures of religious thinking? Tracing a journey over the first millennium that includes works in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic, this book changes our understanding of late antiquity and how its literary productions make a significant contribution to the cultural changes that have shaped western Europe.
Radiative transfer is essential for obtaining information from the spectra of astrophysical objects. This volume provides an overview of the physical and mathematical background of radiative transfer, and its applications to stellar and planetary atmospheres. It covers the phenomenology and physics of early-type and late-type stars, as well as ultra-cool dwarf stars and extrasolar planets. Importantly, it provides a bridge between classical radiative transfer and stellar atmosphere modelling and novel approaches, from both theoretical and computational standpoints. With new fields of application and a dramatic improvement in both observational and computational facilities, it also discusses the future outlook for the field. Chapters are written by eminent researchers from across the astronomical disciplines where radiative transfer is employed. Using the most recent observations, this is a go-to resource for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.
This volume brings together a unique collection of legal, religious, ethical, and political perspectives to bear on debates concerning biotechnology patents, or 'patents on life'. The ever-increasing importance of biotechnologies has generated continual questions about how intellectual property law should treat such technologies, especially those raising ethical or social-justice concerns. Even after many years and court decisions, important contested issues remain concerning ownership of and rewards from biotechnology - from human genetic material to genetically engineered plants – and regarding the scope of moral or social-justice limitations on patents or licensing practices. This book explores a range of related issues, including questions concerning morality and patentability, biotechnology and human dignity, and what constitute fair rewards from genetic resources. It features high-level international, interfaith, and cross-disciplinary contributions from experts in law, religion, and ethics, including academics and practitioners, placing religious and secular perspectives into dialogue to examine the full implications of patenting life.
This chapter looks at the last thirty years of political developments in Hungary as it explains how the democracy that was built after 1989 and was considered consolidated by many scholars has substantially eroded in the last ten years. We argue that the non-participatory or elitist nature of regime change and the new Hungarian democracy, the development of partitocracy, that is exercise of democracy exclusively through political parties, and the political elite’s never-ending demand for sacrifices from the population as an answer to economic problems led to public disillusionment with democracy. As a result, in 2010 voters gave Viktor Orbán and his government unchecked power to do as he wished. He used the power invested in him to consolidate the political, economic, and cultural dominance of his circle to the detriment of democratic values and institutions. We conclude by describing the characteristics of the externally constrained hybrid regime that has developed since 2010.
Indonesia has long been notorious for having very high levels of public sector corruption. Two key institutions were established after Soeharto: the Anti-corruption Courts (ACCs) and the Anti-corruption Commission (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi or KPK). This chapter discusses the background to the establishment of the ACCs, the statutory powers they have been granted, their functions and workings and their place within the broader judicial system. The KPK investigates and prosecutes many of the cases the ACCs decide. As this chapter demonstrates, the legal and institutional framework within which the ACC initially operated in 2003 have since undergone significant change – most notably, the establishment of thirty-three new ACCs, so that all Indonesian provincial capitals now have one. This has brought real challenges to the way that the ACCs function that have significant potential to undermine their future efficacy. I conclude by discussing how these courts have been shaped, and themselves shape, judicial culture in Indonesia.
Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) influence the interactions of a person with their environment and generate economic and socioeconomic costs for the person, their family and society.
To estimate costs of lost workforce participation due to informal caring for people with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorders by estimating lost income to individuals, lost taxation payments to federal government and increased welfare payments.
We used a microsimulation model based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers (population surveys of people aged 15–64), and projected costs of caring from 2015 in 5-year intervals to 2030.
The model estimated that informal carers of people with intellectual disability and/or ASD in Australia had aggregated lost income of AU$310 million, lost taxation of AU$100 million and increased welfare payments of AU$204 million in 2015. These are projected to increase to AU$432 million, AU$129 million and AU$254 million for income, taxation, and welfare respectively by 2030. The income gap of carers for people with intellectual disability and/or ASD is estimated to increase by 2030, meaning more financial stress for carers.
Informal carers of people with intellectual disability and/or ASD experience significant loss of income, leading to increased welfare payments and reduced taxation revenue for governments; these are all projected to increase. Strategic policies supporting informal carers wishing to return to work could improve the financial and psychological impact of having a family member with intellectual disability and/or ASD.
Twenty years ago Gibb suggested that despite an ‘explosion of research’ into enterprise, there had been ‘a growth of ignorance’. To see if that still applies, this paper looks at the nature of ‘knowledge’ and in particular at how our knowledge about enterprise has evolved. It suggests that to build our enterprise understanding, assumptions were made but not subsequently reviewed and verified. For instance it seems to have been assumed that enterprise is a sub-set of business, with the apparent consequence that big business-based thinking is applied also to small businesses.The paper concludes that there is a prima face case that ignorance about enterprise still prevails and there are examples which support this conclusion. In consequence, until the questionable assumptions are highlighted and their foundations recognised and corrected, we should not claim a leading role for our thinking or promote it as an appropriate basis for enterprise policy.
This chapter examines the world in which the BdL was established. It centres on the period 1948–51, the latter being the year when monetary sovereignty was transferred by the Allies to the West Germans. The chapter documents the opinions of West German elites in the lead-up to the creation of the BdL, noting that they were split on the question of central bank independence. It argues that a political struggle surrounding the future of the central bank incentivised a variety of West German elites to confront their inter-war monetary history. The chapter then shows how the BdL adopted an active press policy in the effort to influence the Bundesbank Law. Such efforts failed to prove effective during this period, however. Other events, such as the Allied decision to transfer monetary sovereignty to West Germany in 1951, proved more decisive. But it was in this very period that the central bank established a workable framework of historical narratives that could be applied for political ends.
The chapter examines the evolution of the Reichsbank, from its establishment in 1876 until the departure of key figures of the directorate in 1939. It devotes particular attention to the record of central bank independence during the inter-war era, and the careers of those Reichsbankers who went on to lead the post-war central bank. The chapter argues that the origins of monetary mythology can be traced back to the Nuremberg trials, where a form of it was first applied in defence of Schacht amid efforts to sanitise both his record and the conduct of the Reichsbank under his tenure.
This chapter examines the independence of the central bank in a decade riven by economic crises. In 1973, the Bundesbank faced a challenge to its independence – a challenge that emerged from within the SPD, which shared power in a coalition government. The argument of this chapter underlines Chapter 3’s concluding argument. It highlights how the Bundesbank Law provided the impetus for conflicts between Bonn and Frankfurt, in turn prompting the use of historical narratives concerning the two inflations applied in support of central bank independence. Furthermore, the chapter goes on to note the extent to which the 1970s were littered with monetary anniversaries. It argues that these occasions, coupled with the economic crises at hand, served as moments of reflection that allowed the Bundesbank to bolster its reputation and reinforce the parameters through which West Germans interpreted the monetary past. The chapter concludes by examining a ceremony that marked the thirtieth anniversary of the deutschmark in 1978.
The 2008 financial crisis led to more and more frequent political attacks on central banks. The recent spotlight on central bank independence is reminiscent of the fiery debates amongst Germany's political elites in 1949 on the same issue; debates that were sparked by the establishment of West Germany in that year. Simon Mee shows how, with the establishment of West Germany's central bank - today's Deutsche Bundesbank - the country's monetary history became a political football, as central bankers, politicians, industrialists and trade unionists all vied for influence over the legal provisions that set out the remit of the future monetary authority. The author reveals how a specific version of inter-war history, one that stresses the lessons learned from Germany's periods of inflation, was weaponised and attached to a political, contemporary argument for an independent central bank. The book challenges assumptions around the evolution of central bank independence with continued relevance today.
‘The Germans had terrible experiences with inflation in the twentieth century’, recalled Mario Draghi, the president of the European Central Bank (ECB) in March 2012. He was speaking to two journalists from the tabloid newspaper Bild at the ECB’s headquarters, who had just given him a Pickelhaube. ‘It does away with value and makes forecasting impossible. More still – inflation can downright destroy the society of a country.’1 To be dead set against inflation, to be for a strong currency, and to be independent of politics – these were ‘German virtues’. And they were virtues, Draghi said, that every European central banker should strive towards.2