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The Cambridge Edition of the Complete Fiction of Henry James provides, for the first time, a scholarly edition of a major writer whose work continues to be read, quoted, adapted and studied. The nine tales in this volume, published between 1884 and 1888, include 'The Aspern Papers', set in Venice and featuring a devious scholar attempting to steal the letters of an American poet from his former lover, and 'The Liar,' on the world of painters and their models. These tales exemplify James's continuing interest in the art of short fiction during a period which saw him responding to the stimulations of French naturalism and successfully reworking the international theme that had made him famous at the end of the 1870s. Extensive explanatory notes enable modern readers to understand the tales' historical, cultural and literary references.
This introduction to the theory of rigid structures explains how to analyze the performance of built and natural structures under loads, paying special attention to the role of geometry. The book unifies the engineering and mathematical literatures by exploring different notions of rigidity - local, global, and universal - and how they are interrelated. Important results are stated formally, but also clarified with a wide range of revealing examples. An important generalization is to tensegrities, where fixed distances are replaced with 'cables' not allowed to increase in length and 'struts' not allowed to decrease in length. A special feature is the analysis of symmetric tensegrities, where the symmetry of the structure is used to simplify matters and allows the theory of group representations to be applied. Written for researchers and graduate students in structural engineering and mathematics, this work is also of interest to computer scientists and physicists.
Celsus penned the earliest known detailed attack upon Christianity. While his identity is disputed and his anti-Christian treatise, entitled the True Word, has been exclusively transmitted through the hands of the great Christian scholar Origen, he remains an intriguing figure. In this interdisciplinary volume, which brings together ancient philosophers, specialists in Greek literature, and historians of early Christianity and of ancient Judaism, Celsus is situated within the cultural, philosophical, religious and political world from which he emerged. While his work is ostensibly an attack upon Christianity, it is also the defence of a world in which Celsus passionately believed. It is the unique contribution of this volume to give voice to the many dimensions of that world in a way that will engage a variety of scholars interested in late antiquity and the histories of Christianity, Judaism and Greek thought.
Why was the UK so unprepared for the pandemic, suffering one of the highest death rates and worst economic contractions of the major world economies in 2020? Hilary Cooper and Simon Szreter reveal the deep roots of our vulnerability and set out a powerful manifesto for change post-Covid-19. They argue that our commitment to a flawed neoliberal model and the associated disinvestment in our social fabric left the UK dangerously exposed and unable to mount an effective response. This is not at all what made Britain great. The long history of the highly innovative universal welfare system established by Elizabeth I facilitated both the industrial revolution and, when revived after 1945, the postwar Golden Age of rising prosperity. Only by learning from that past can we create the fairer, nurturing and empowering society necessary to tackle the global challenges that lie ahead - climate change, biodiversity collapse and global inequality.
The field of grand strategy is exceptionally American-centric theoretically, methodologically and empirically. Indeed, many scholars treat the United States as a unique case, and thus incomparable. This Element addresses the shortcomings of this approach by developing a novel framework for the purpose of systematic comparison, both within and among different countries. Using the United States as a benchmark, three dimensions are considered in which grand strategy can be compared: first, attributes of the major types commonly discussed in the literature; second, similarities and differences in the implementation of grand strategies over time, using US strategic relations with contemporary Russia as an example; and finally, across space, properties of the grand strategies that are interactively employed by other major powers in relation to the United States in the Indo-Pacific. The Element can be used by scholars and students alike to expand analysis beyond the confines that currently dominate the field.
Dependency functions as a keyword in care theory. However, care theorists have spelled out the ontological and moral ramifications of dependency in different and often conflicting ways. In this article, I argue that conceptual disputes about dependency betray a fundamental discordance among authors, rooted in the empirical premises of their arguments. Hence, although authors appear to share a vocabulary of dependency, they are not writing about quite the same phenomenon. I seek to elucidate these differences by teasing out and comparing different conceptions of dependency found in the literature. Borrowing a phrase from Eva Kittay, I trace four “paradigm cases” of dependency: the infant, the physically disabled person, the profoundly intellectually disabled person, and the refugee. These paradigm cases serve as the empirical touchstone from which theorists extract their conceptions of dependency. Each paradigm case, moreover, permits (or even implores) a particular ethical sensibility toward care. How we understand and value dependency thus seems to determine how we understand and value care, and vice versa. In this way, I contend, our normative orientation toward care might influence what sorts of dependency we see—and, by extension, which forms of dependency we fail to notice.
A new international instrument is needed to address access to interoperability standards and standards-essential intellectual property, which are critical to maintaining technological advancement and promoting cost-effective solutions for consumers. Applying law and economics methodologies, Simon Brinsmead systematically explores how international and domestic law deals with these matters. This important book includes an examination of the technical and economic nature of interoperability standards; a detailed analysis of the issues arising under intellectual property and competition law; an analysis of whether liability or exclusive property rules should apply with respect to interoperability standards and SEIP; and consideration of feasible international approaches. Finally, Brinsmead includes a draft of his proposed international soft law instrument as a starting point for future discussions in the field. Of interest to lawyers, regulators and scholars, this work offers a meaningful contribution to international governance, harmonization of laws and technological advancement.
Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal growth and development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and how it relates to circulating FAs and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1.44% energy from LA) or HLA (6.21% energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy, and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25 (PN25), were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at PN40 (n = 6-8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. Alpha- linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic PVRs, and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after 10–20 sec occlusions. In conclusion, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, fatty acids and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying fatty acids and cardiac function in the female offspring.
To assess the incidence of colonization and infection with carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) in the ICUs of our city hospitals before and during COVID-19 pandemic.
Multicentre before-after cross sectional study to compare the rates of colonization and infection with CPE and/or CR-Ab in two study periods, period 1 (Jan-Apr 2019) and period 2 (Jan-Apr 2020). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% CI of weekly colonization and infection rates for each period were compared for the two study periods with Poisson regression. Weekly trends in the incidence of colonization or infection for each study period were summarized using local weighted (Loess) regression.
There was no significant change in either IRR and weekly trend in CPE colonization and infection during the two study periods. A shift from KPC to other CPE mechanisms (OXA-48 and VIM) was observed during period 2. Compared to period 1, during period 2 the IRR of colonization and infection with CR-Ab increased of 7.5 and 5.5-fold, respectively. Genome sequencing showed that all CR-Ab strains belonged to the CC92/IC2 clonal lineage. Clinical strains clustered closely into a single monophyletic group in one of the three centres, whereas segregated in two different clusters in the other two centres, strongly appoints for the occurrence of horizontal transmission.
Our findings remark the need of pursuing infection control activities targeted against the spread of antimicrobial resistance intra and inter hospitals during COVID-19 pandemic, and if necessary re-modulating them according to the new organizational structures imposed by the pandemic.
Two prominent risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) are childhood maltreatment (CM) and familial risk for MDD. Despite having these risk factors, there are individuals who maintain mental health, i.e. are resilient, whereas others develop MDD. It is unclear which brain morphological alterations are associated with this kind of resilience. Interaction analyses of risk and diagnosis status are needed that can account for complex adaptation processes, to identify neural correlates of resilience.
We analyzed brain structural data (3T magnetic resonance imaging) by means of voxel-based morphometry (CAT12 toolbox), using a 2 × 2 design, comparing four groups (N = 804) that differed in diagnosis (healthy v. MDD) and risk profiles (low-risk, i.e. absence of CM and familial risk v. high-risk, i.e. presence of both CM and familial risk). Using regions of interest (ROIs) from the literature, we conducted an interaction analysis of risk and diagnosis status.
Volume in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), part of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), was significantly higher in healthy high-risk individuals. There were no significant results for the bilateral superior frontal gyri, frontal poles, pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyri, and the right MFG.
The healthy high-risk group had significantly higher volumes in the left DLPFC compared to all other groups. The DLPFC is implicated in cognitive and emotional processes, and higher volume in this area might aid high-risk individuals in adaptive coping in order to maintain mental health. This increased volume might therefore constitute a neural correlate of resilience to MDD in high risk.
Sperm are highly specialized cells, evolved to function as vehicles for the transport of the paternal genome to the oocyte. The sperm cell is characterized by a distinct head, mid-piece and tail, structured for a streamlined function. The sperm head consists of the haploid paternal genome (23 chromosomes), packed in a specific tight manner with the help of specialized proteins called protamines. The mid-piece consists of the centrosome and mitochondria, organelles that provide energy for sperm propulsion from the tail. The unique sperm structure, complimented with its motility, helps the sperm to swim through the male and female reproductive tract and penetrate the egg. Therefore, the primary function of the sperm is to successfully deliver the paternal genome to the oocyte.
To eliminate the effect of ocean currents for optimal path planning for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) in the underwater environment, an intelligent algorithm is designed and proposed in this paper. The algorithm consists of two parts: an artificial potential field-based algorithm that derives the shortest path and avoids collision accidents; and an adjusting function that eliminates the effect of ocean currents. The planning results of the intelligent algorithm are presented in detail, and compared with the conventional algorithm that does not consider the effect of currents. The effectiveness of the optimised path planning method given in this paper is proved.
Throughout the Ediacaran Period, variable water-column redox conditions persisted along productive ocean margins due to a complex interplay between nutrient supply and oceanographic restriction. These changing conditions are considered to have influenced early faunal evolution, with marine anoxia potentially inhibiting the development of the ecological niches necessary for aerobic life forms. To understand this link between oxygenation and evolution, the combined geochemical and palaeontological study of marine sediments is preferable. Located in the Yangtze Gorges region of southern China, lagoonal black shales at Miaohe preserve alga and putative metazoans, including Eoandromeda, a candidate total-group ctenophore, thereby providing one example of where integrated study is possible. We present a multi-proxy investigation into water-column redox variability during deposition of these shales (c. 560–551 Ma). For this interval, reactive iron partitioning indicates persistent water-column anoxia, while trace metal enrichments and other geochemical data suggest temporal fluctuations between ferruginous, euxinic and rare suboxic conditions. Although trace metal and total organic carbon values imply extensive basin restriction, sustained trace metal enrichment and δ15Nsed data indicate periodic access to open-ocean inventories across a shallow-marine sill. Lastly, δ13Corg values of between −35‰ and −40‰ allow at least partial correlation of the shales at Miaohe with Member IV of the Doushantuo Formation. This study provides evidence for fluctuating redox conditions in the lagoonal area of the Yangtze platform during late Ediacaran time. If these low-oxygen environments were regionally characteristic, then the restriction of aerobic fauna to isolated environments can be inferred.
This study aimed to investigate general factors associated with prognosis regardless of the type of treatment received, for adults with depression in primary care.
We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central (inception to 12/01/2020) for RCTs that included the most commonly used comprehensive measure of depressive and anxiety disorder symptoms and diagnoses, in primary care depression RCTs (the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule: CIS-R). Two-stage random-effects meta-analyses were conducted.
Twelve (n = 6024) of thirteen eligible studies (n = 6175) provided individual patient data. There was a 31% (95%CI: 25 to 37) difference in depressive symptoms at 3–4 months per standard deviation increase in baseline depressive symptoms. Four additional factors: the duration of anxiety; duration of depression; comorbid panic disorder; and a history of antidepressant treatment were also independently associated with poorer prognosis. There was evidence that the difference in prognosis when these factors were combined could be of clinical importance. Adding these variables improved the amount of variance explained in 3–4 month depressive symptoms from 16% using depressive symptom severity alone to 27%. Risk of bias (assessed with QUIPS) was low in all studies and quality (assessed with GRADE) was high. Sensitivity analyses did not alter our conclusions.
When adults seek treatment for depression clinicians should routinely assess for the duration of anxiety, duration of depression, comorbid panic disorder, and a history of antidepressant treatment alongside depressive symptom severity. This could provide clinicians and patients with useful and desired information to elucidate prognosis and aid the clinical management of depression.
The Food Quality Observatory was created in the province of Quebec (Canada) in 2016. In this study, the Observatory aimed to generate a methodology to 1) test the use of sales data combined with nutrient values to characterize the nutritional composition of RTE breakfast cereals offered and purchased in the province of Quebec (Canada), and 2) verify the extent to which a FOP label based on the percentage of daily value (DV) for total sugar, as a strategy to improve the food supply, would be distributed in this food category.
Nutritional information were obtained by purchasing each RTE breakfast cereal available in the Greater Montreal area. Cereals were then classified according to their processing type.
The nutritional values of 331 RTE breakfast cereals available in Quebec were merged with sales data covering the period between May 2016 and May 2017. A total of 306 products were successfully cross-referenced.
Granola and sweetened cereals were the most available (36.6 % and 19.6 % respectively) and purchased (19.8 % and 40.9 % of sales, respectively). When compared with other types of cereals, granola cereals had a higher energy, fat, saturated fat, protein content and a lower sodium content. A larger proportion of chocolate (65 %) and sweetened cereals (49 %) were above 15 % of the DV for sugar.
This study showed that the methodology developed generates important data to monitor nutritional quality of the food supply and ultimately contribute to improve the nutritional quality of processed foods.
Ethnic inequalities in the experiences and outcomes of severe mental illness are well established. These include a higher incidence of severe mental illnesses (psychoses), adverse pathways into and through care, including crisis care, police and criminal justice systems involvement, and care under the powers of the Mental Health Act. The situation persists despite awareness and is driven by a mixture of the social determinants of poor health, societal disadvantage and structural racism, as well as conflictual interactions with care systems, which themselves are configured in ways that sustain or deepen these inequalities. Although training and education are often proposed, this is not shown to have sustained effects. Clinical processes (interviewing/assessment/formulation/intervention) need to address systemic influences and improve the cultural precision with which care is delivered, organised and commissioned. We discuss clinical ethnography and present evidence of its value in addressing systemic as well as individual care needs for diverse communities.
MRI-derived cortical folding measures are an indicator of largely genetically driven early developmental processes. However, the effects of genetic risk for major mental disorders on early brain development are not well understood.
We extracted cortical complexity values from structural MRI data of 580 healthy participants using the CAT12 toolbox. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and cross-disorder (incorporating cumulative genetic risk for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) were computed and used in separate general linear models with cortical complexity as the regressand. In brain regions that showed a significant association between polygenic risk for mental disorders and cortical complexity, volume of interest (VOI)/region of interest (ROI) analyses were conducted to investigate additional changes in their volume and cortical thickness.
The PRS for depression was associated with cortical complexity in the right orbitofrontal cortex (right hemisphere: p = 0.006). A subsequent VOI/ROI analysis showed no association between polygenic risk for depression and either grey matter volume or cortical thickness. We found no associations between cortical complexity and polygenic risk for either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychiatric cross-disorder when correcting for multiple testing.
Changes in cortical complexity associated with polygenic risk for depression might facilitate well-established volume changes in orbitofrontal cortices in depression. Despite the absence of psychopathology, changed cortical complexity that parallels polygenic risk for depression might also change reward systems, which are also structurally affected in patients with depressive syndrome.