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With great potential benefit and possible harm, online social media platforms are transforming human society. Based on decades of deep exploration, distinguished scholar William Sims Bainbridge surveys our complex virtual society, harvesting insights about the future of our real world. Many pilot studies demonstrate valuable research methods and explanatory theories. Tracing membership interlocks between Facebook groups can chart the structure of a social movement, like the one devoted to future spaceflight development. Statistical data on the roles played by people in massively multiplayer online games illustrate the Silicon Law: information technology energizes both freedom and control, in a dynamic balance. The significance of open-source software suggests the traditional distinction between professional and amateur may fade, whereas web-based conflicts between religious and political groups imply that chasms are opening in civil society. This analysis of online space and the divergent communities is long overdue.
Individuals with epilepsy, and their family and friends, are impacted by system-based barriers arising from public policies, affecting their quality of lives. Policies on driving, education, employment, ethics, and research are widespread, and often lead to unwarranted complications.
Elastic modulus and residual stress in freestanding ultrathin films (<100 nm) are characterized using bilayer cantilevers. The cantilevers comprise a test film and a well-characterized reference material (SU-8). When released from the substrate, residual stresses in the bilayer cantilever cause it to deflect with measurable curvatures, allowing the determination of both stiffness and residual stress of the test film. The technique does not require sophisticated mechanical test equipment and serves as a useful metrology tool for characterizing coatings immediately after fabrication in a clean room assembly line. The measured biaxial modulus and residual strain of 75 nm copper films are 211 ± 19 GPa and (7.05 ± 0.22) × 10−3, respectively. Additional experiments on the freestanding structures yield a mean Young’s modulus of 115 GPa. These properties are in close agreement with those measured from additional residual stress–driven structures developed on the same coatings by the authors.
Non-tuberculous mycobacterium encephalitis is rare. Since 2013, a global outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infection has been attributed to point-source contamination of heater cooler units used in cardiac surgery. Disseminated M. chimaera infection has presented many unique challenges, including non-specific clinical presentations with delays in diagnosis, and a high mortality rate among predominantly immunocompetent adults. Here, we describe three patients with fatal disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infection showing initially non-specific, progressively worsening neurocognitive decline, including confusion, delirium, depression and apathy. Autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebrum, brain stem and spinal cord, along with granulomatous chorioretinitis. Cerebral involvement and differentiation between mycobacterial granulomas and microangiopathic changes can be assessed best on MRI with contrast enhancement. The prognosis of M. chimaera encephalitis appears to be very poor, but might be improved by increased awareness of this new syndrome and timely antimicrobial treatment.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Describe the clinical, radiological and neuropathological findings of Mycobacterium chimaera encephalitis
2.Be aware of this rare form of encephalitis, and explain its diagnosis, prognosis and management
Case managers in international arbitration include those working in dispute resolution institutions such as the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA),1 the International Chamber of Commerce’s International Court of Arbitration (ICC),2 and the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA):3 the officers of such institutions, tribunal secretaries, tribunal assistants and arbitrators’ assistants. These ‘unseen’ arbitral institutions and assistants form the foundations of efficient and effective dispute resolution,4 but their legitimacy has attracted significant controversy lately.5
Quasi-Sturmian words, which are infinite words with factor complexity eventually
share many properties with Sturmian words. In this article, we study the quasi-Sturmian colorings on regular trees. There are two different types, bounded and unbounded, of quasi-Sturmian colorings. We obtain an induction algorithm similar to Sturmian colorings. We distinguish them by the recurrence function.
We show how to reconstruct a finite directed graph E from its Toeplitz algebra, its gauge action, and the canonical finite-dimensional abelian subalgebra generated by the vertex projections. We also show that if E has no sinks, then we can recover E from its Toeplitz algebra and the generalized gauge action that has, for each vertex, an independent copy of the circle acting on the generators corresponding to edges emanating from that vertex. We show by example that it is not possible to recover E from its Toeplitz algebra and gauge action alone.
Pharmacological treatments targeting the neuroendocrine stress response may hold special promise in secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, findings from clinical trials have been inconsistent and the efficacy of specific drugs, their temporal window of efficacy, effective doses and the characteristics of likely treatment responders remain unclear.
Using an experimental human model of distressing involuntary memory formation, we compare the effects of two drugs that have theoretical or empirical support as secondary preventive agents in PTSD. Eighty-eight healthy women (average age: 23.5 years) received oral propranolol (80 mg), hydrocortisone (30 mg), or matched placebo immediately after viewing a ‘trauma film’. They then completed daily, time-stamped intrusion diaries for 1 week, at the end of which, voluntary memory was tested.
While neither drug affected voluntary memory for the trauma narrative, propranolol treatment was associated with 42% fewer, and hydrocortisone with 55% fewer intrusions across the week, relative to placebo. Additionally, propranolol reduced general trauma-like symptoms, and post-drug cortisol levels were negatively correlated with intrusion frequency in the hydrocortisone group.
Overall, this study shows substantial reductions in intrusive memories and preserved voluntary narrative-declarative memory following either propranolol or hydrocortisone in an experimental model of psychological trauma. As such, despite some inconsistencies in clinical trials, our findings support continued investigation of propranolol and hydrocortisone as secondary preventive agents for re-experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The findings also suggest that it is critical for future research to identify the conditions governing the preventive efficacy of these drugs in PTSD.
Seoul is the third most densely populated area in the world except for the city-state. However, a national disaster plan has not yet been established.
From September 2017, representatives of seven regional emergency medical centers in Seoul met monthly and decided to investigate basic data for the future establishment of surge capacity planning.
Staff, supply, space, and systems for surge capacity were surveyed in seven hospitals. The additional surveyed data were as follows: hospital incident command system and actual operational experience; performance of disaster drill; safety and security plan; estimation of surge capacity in normal operating conditions and extreme operating conditions; alternative therapeutic spaces; back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff; decontamination equipment; contingency plan for stuff shortage; etc.
All the hospitals reported they have hospital incident command systems and held disaster drills every year, however, the two hospitals (28.5%) had no real experience of hospital incident command system activation. Five hospitals (71.4%) did not have a safety and security plan. They replied they can treat average 7.7 emergency patients (Korean Triage and Acute scale (KTAS) ≤ 3), 10 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 0.9 surgical patients and 0.7 unstable patients simultaneously in normal operating conditions. In extreme operating conditions, they replied they can treat average 26.4 emergency patients (KTAS ≤ 3), 54.3 non-emergent patients (KTAS>4), 37 surgical patients and 2.3 unstable patients simultaneously. The two hospitals (28.5%) had no alternative therapeutic spaces, no back-up plan to call non-duty medical staff and no contingency plan for stuff shortage. Three hospitals (42.9%) did not have decontamination equipment.
The survey revealed the basic data for surge capacity planning in Seoul. Data from hospitals other than regional emergency medical centers should be collected for the completion of disaster plans.
We consider a family of higher-dimensional non-commutative tori, which are twisted analogues of the algebras of continuous functions on ordinary tori and their Toeplitz extensions. Just as solenoids are inverse limits of tori, our Toeplitz non-commutative solenoids are direct limits of the Toeplitz extensions of non-commutative tori. We consider natural dynamics on these Toeplitz algebras, and we compute the equilibrium states for these dynamics. We find a large simplex of equilibrium states at each positive inverse temperature, parametrized by the probability measures on an (ordinary) solenoid.
Most older Canadians do not engage in sufficient physical activity. There is an urgent need for outside-the-box strategies that encourage and sustain active lifestyles. Video is a promising knowledge translation (KT) tool to engage diverse audiences in discussion and action around health promoting behaviours. We adopted a KT framework to inform a structured process of video development we have named systematic approach to evidence-informed video (SAEV). This guided the creation and dissemination of a 19-minute documentary video: I’d Rather Stay (https://vimeo.com/80503957). Following screenings, we collected focus group and questionnaire data from 48 participants aged 60 years and older at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The video educated, encouraged, and activated older people around issues such as independence, physical activity and social connectedness. We encourage researchers to adopt KT strategies – and to use evidence-informed video – that older adults can relate to and critically engage with on an accessible, emotional, and intellectual level.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and dietary modification.
A systematic review was conducted. The data sources for the study were PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Articles were independently extracted by two authors according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The outcome focus was laryngopharyngeal reflux improvement through diet or dietary behaviour.
Of the 372 studies identified, 7 met our inclusion criteria. In these seven studies, laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms improved following dietary modifications. However, the studies did not present the independent effect of each dietary factor on laryngopharyngeal reflux. Moreover, only one of the seven studies had a randomised controlled study design.
The reference studies of dietary modification for laryngopharyngeal reflux patients are not sufficient to provide recommendations.
The Douglas–Rachford method has been employed successfully to solve many kinds of nonconvex feasibility problems. In particular, recent research has shown surprising stability for the method when it is applied to finding the intersections of hypersurfaces. Motivated by these discoveries, we reformulate a second order boundary value problem (BVP) as a feasibility problem where the sets are hypersurfaces. We show that such a problem may always be reformulated as a feasibility problem on no more than three sets and is well suited to parallelization. We explore the stability of the method by applying it to several BVPs, including cases where the traditional Newton’s method fails.
The psychological effects of war trauma are well-documented, but comparatively little research has focused on the mechanisms underlying intergenerational impacts of war and displacement. Specifically, the effects of armed conflict on family processes such as parenting behavior, and subsequent impacts on child psychosocial outcomes, are less understood.
This study tests a conceptual model linking past war trauma and current displacement-related stressors to maternal mental health, parenting behavior, and child psychosocial problems. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2016–2017 from a sample of 291 Syrian refugee mothers in Lebanon. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations between war trauma, daily stressors, mothers’ general psychological distress and post-traumatic stress (PTS), negative parenting, and child psychosocial problems.
Exposure to war-related events was directly associated with maternal PTS and general psychological distress, as well as indirectly via daily stressors. Mothers’ general psychological distress, but not PTS, was directly associated with negative parenting and child psychosocial difficulties. Negative parenting mediated the association between maternal general psychological distress and child psychosocial problems. Model fit statistics indicate that the measurement and structural models provided a good fit to the data.
Results suggest that the adverse effects of past war trauma and ongoing displacement on refugee mothers’ general mental health can increase the risk of negative parenting behavior, and in turn contribute to poorer psychosocial outcomes for children. Interventions should focus on psychosocial and parenting support for war-affected caregivers, as well as address structural challenges that debilitate caregiver and child mental health.
Highly ordered wrinkling morphologies of liquid crystalline polymer films are demonstrated based on simple multi-rubbing. The spontaneous pattern formation of periodic wrinkling morphology is achieved through utilizing plasma treatment on a predefined alignment layer. The multi-directional ordering on the alignment layer obtained through selectively covering the alignment layer with a protective layer, which is chemically inert and keeps alignment properties during another rubbing process. The ordering of the wrinkle pattern can be tailored through a molecular orientation of liquid crystal (LC) and a process condition, including film thickness, plasma treatment, and rubbing. The proposed methods enable the spontaneous pattern formation of well-aligned one- or two-dimensionally periodic microstructures over a large area, without an additional template or patterning steps. Since the LC polymer incorporated the optical anisotropic mesogenic groups into polymer chains, it has an optical birefringence in the film and it can be utilized for optical devices requiring a microstructure on a surface.
The sensations produced were those of exquisite lightness and airiness … I expected to be lifted up and carried away by the first breeze … the walls of my frame were burst outward and tumbled into ruin, and without thinking what form I wore … I felt that I existed throughout a vast extent of space. The blood pulsed from my head, sped through uncounted leagues before it reached my extremities; the air drawn into my lungs expanded into seas of limpid ether, and the arch of my skull was broader than the vault of heaven … I was a mass of transparent jelly, and a confectioner poured me into a twisted mould. (Taylor, 1856)
Febrile seizure (FS) in children is a common complication of infections with respiratory viruses and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We conducted a retrospective ecological time-series analysis to determine the temporal relationship between hospital attendances for FS and HFMD or respiratory virus infections. Epilepsy attendance was used as a control. Data from 2004 to 2012 FS and epilepsy hospital attendance, HFMD notifications to the Ministry of Health and from laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections among KK Women's and Children's Hospital inpatients were used. A multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between FS and the virus time series. Relative risks of FS by age were calculated using Bayesian statistical methods. Paediatric accident and emergency (A&E) attendances for FS were found to be associated with influenza A (extra 0.47 FS per influenza A case), B (extra 0.32 per influenza B case) and parainfluenza 3 (extra 0.35 per parainfluenza type 3 case). However, other viruses were not significantly associated with FS. None of the viruses were associated with epileptic seizure attendance. Influenza A, B and parainfluenza 3 viruses contributed to the burden of FS resulting in A&E attendance. Children at risk of FS should be advised to receive seasonal influenza vaccination.