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How can gift and gift-giving studies be relevant to the study of institutions and vice versa? This is the question we broadly address in the introduction to this symposium while drawing on the contributing articles and sketching out a possible future research in a perspective of integration between these two fields of study. Is the gift an institution? What types of methodological approaches would be most suitable in view of such integration? We define the gift as transfers underpinned by institutions, including customs and norms. We contend that the institutional thought can employ empirical and qualitative research methods used by anthropology and that there are important and fruitful lines of tension between gift-giving and institutions – from the relationship between freedom and obligation to the role of third sector between state and market – worthy of further research in the future.
Thirty-one patients, 30 girls and 1 boy, who had suffered from anorexia nervosa, were re-evaluated at a minimum of 4 years (mean 7.6 years) after onset. Follow-up information was based on a semi-structured interview and 2 self-evaluation questionnaires, EAT-26 (1979) and HSCL-90 (1976). As well as using the Garfinkel and Garner criteria (1977) for assessing outcome, 2 psychiatrists independently evaluated the psychiatric state using DSM III criteria. The results demonstrated that 54.8% of the sample had a positive and 45% (including 3 deaths) a poor outcome. Of the 25 subjects interviewed, 20% presented chronic anorexia. Seventy-two percent, on the other hand, showed an evolution in clinical diagnosis, meeting the criteria for a mental disorder other than anorexia nervosa: Affective Disorders (40%), Somatoform Disorder (16%), Anxiety Disorder (12%), and Bulimia (8%). Two variables were significant, in terms of poor long-term prognosis: a larger number of hospitalizations for anorexia and an unsatisfactory educational and/or vocational adjustment at presentation.
After the last damaging earthquake in 2012, an anti-seismic reinforcement project of the cathedral of Modena was designed giving us the opportunity to investigate and date the building materials. Radiocarbon (14C), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and thermoluminescence (TL) dating techniques were performed on the vaults with the aim to (1) clarify the construction timing, (2) define the history of the restorations, and (3) explore the possible correlation of the main restoration works to the earthquake chronology deduced from the historic catalog. Preliminary results show that medieval older bricks were reused for most of the original construction. Only lime and non-gypsum mortar was used for the original construction in the 15th century and for later repair of damage caused by earthquakes in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gypsum mortar was used for later repair in the 18th century. The results show much stronger damage due to earthquakes than previously thought.
I must confess that I am a bit sceptical and pessimistic as far as the harmonisation of national rules of procedure, reached via the initiatives of EU institutions, is concerned. I do agree that on a few basic principles of civil procedure (such as access to justice, fairness, equality of arms) the differences between domestic procedural systems are not so remarkable; certainly, though, there are areas in which the differences are truly striking. But before addressing this point, I would like to review a question, one that other contributors to this book, too, pose in their chapters: What does “harmonisation“ mean ? Certainly harmonisation is an “ambiguous and imprecise“ concept, just like the synonym of harmonisation “approximation“ is: both terms, besides the obvious reference to the idea of an alignment of national legislations to the acquis communautaire, leave much room for defining which kind of harmonisation has taken place in the EU, a spontaneous one or a policy-driven one.
But this is not the first point on which I would like to expand. The first point is encapsulated in the following question: To what level is harmonisation desirable and, most of all, to what level is it practically feasible ? My impression is that these days, more now than in the past, the push to harmonisation is oft en perceived as a push to homologation, and this is something that a few Member States fear or, more simply, dislike. In 1997, Professor Lowenfeld wrote an essay titled: “The Elements of Procedure: Are They Separately Portable ?“ He underlined that, contrary to the conventional wisdom – according to which procedural law plays a secondary role since it is simply ancillary to substantive law – the rules of procedure are the very ones that better embody the history, the culture, the societal developments and the values of a given legal system, well beyond the traditional divide between the civil law tradition and the common law tradition. This might explain why, in my opinion, harmonisation in the field of civil procedure is oft en seen as an attempt at homologation, and again something that a few Member States do not support, fearing that this will deprive them of their national identity.
More or less, readers will know what the ELI/Unidroit project is about, and therefore this introduction should be somewhat brief. The project was inaugurated in 2013 in Vienna and is still ongoing, with a view to being completed in May 2019 (at least, this is the completion date that appears on the ELI website). The official title of the project is “From Transnational Principles to European Rules of Civil Procedure“, and the reference to transnational principles makes it clear that the basis of the project, meaning the canvass on which the different working groups that have been established are supposed to work (although not exclusively), rests on the Transnational Principles and Rules of Civil Procedure that were the product of a joint venture between the ALI (American Law Institute) and Unidroit at the end of the last century and the first years of the present one. The ALI/Unidroit project was intensely discussed in academic circles all around the world; it was translated into a variety of languages, and it gave rise to a huge amount of scholarly writing. Unfortunately though, it never went beyond the stage of an intellectual endeavour and a remarkable exercise in the study of comparative civil procedure, considering that the aim of the project was to combine the best and most efficient aspects of litigation according to both the civil law and common law traditions in a set of rules that – if adopted – would help parties litigate in other national jurisdictions with the peace of mind provided by a system of rules and principles that were uniform throughout the whole world. The project was certainly ambitious, maybe too ambitious at that time, and therefore it was never taken into account by any institutions, either national ones or international ones.
Maybe now the time is ripe for a new attempt at devising common procedural principles, on a smaller scale, meaning at the European Union level. In fact, the European institutions, originally involved in the ELI/Unidroit project simply as observers, in the last couple of years have shown a deeper interest in the project, producing a variety of documents in which aspects of the project are under scrutiny.
Microwave radars can be used to monitor the internal structure of the snowpack, delivering real-time and non-destructive measurements. Recently, the working principle of an innovative radar architecture able to identify some of the most important snowpack parameters, without external aids, has been demonstrated. A key point of this new architecture is the use of two independent receiving antennas, and one transmitting antenna. This paper presents a comparison between two different implementations, either based on one physical antenna miming two receiving antennas, or based directly on two physical receiving antennas. The different advantages and disadvantages of both solutions are discussed, highlighting the superior accuracy achieved by the implementation based on two physical receiving antennas. Then, this paper also presents the field results achieved by this type of radar architecture, on the grounds of a 5-day experimental campaign that took place in winter 2019 in the Italian Alps on dry snow. The comparison between the radar measurements and the ground truth (manual snowpit analysis, in terms of snowpack depth, dielectric constant, bulk density, and snow water equivalent) is provided. Overall, a root mean square error of around 3.5 cm, 0.05, 27 kg/m3, and 2.5 cm is achieved, respectively.
The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions.
Most commonly described as sporadic, pulmonary adenocarcinoma with enteric differentiation (PAED) is a rare variant of invasive lung cancer recently established and recognised by the World Health Organization. This tumour is highly heterogeneous and shares several morphological features with pulmonary and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Our objective is to summarise current research on PAED, focusing on its immunohistochemical and molecular features as potential tools for differential diagnosis from colorectal cancer, as well as prognosis definition and therapeutic choice. PAED exhibits an ‘entero-like’ pathological morphology in more than half cases, expressing at least one of the typical immunohistochemical markers of enteric differentiation, namely CDX2, CK20 or MUC2. For this reason, this malignancy appears often indistinguishable from a colorectal cancer metastasis, making the differential diagnosis laborious. Although standard diagnostic criteria have not been established yet, in the past few years, a number of approaches have been addressed, aimed at defining specific immunohistochemical and molecular signatures. Based on previously published literature, we have collected and analysed molecular and immunohistochemical data on this rare neoplasm, and have described the state of the art on diagnostic criteria as well as major clinical and therapeutic implications.
The analysis of data from 295 patients from 58 published articles allowed us to identify the most represented immunohistochemical and molecular markers, as well as major differences between Asian PAEDs and those diagnosed in European/North American countries. The innovative molecular approaches, exploring driver mutations or new gene alterations, could help to identify rare prognostic factors and guide future tailored therapeutic approaches to this rare neoplasm.
There is discontent and turnover among faculty at US academic health centers because of the challenges in balancing clinical, research, teaching, and work–life responsibilities in the current healthcare environment. One potential strategy to improve faculty satisfaction and limit turnover is through faculty mentoring programs.
A Mentor Leadership Council was formed to design and implement an institution-wide faculty mentoring program across all colleges at an academic health center. The authors conducted an experimental study of the impact of the mentoring program using pre-intervention (2011) and 6-year (2017) post-intervention faculty surveys that measured the long-term effectiveness of the program.
The percent of faculty who responded to the surveys was 45.9% (656/1428) in 2011 and 40.2% (706/1756) in 2017. For faculty below the rank of full professor, percent of faculty with a mentor (45.3% vs. 67.1%, P < 0.001), familiarity with promotion criteria (81.7% vs. 90.0%, P = 0.001), and satisfaction with department’s support of career (75.6% vs. 84.7%, P = 0.002) improved. The percent of full professors serving as mentors also increased from 50.3% in 2011 to 68.0% in 2017 (P = 0.002). However, the percent of non-retiring faculty considering leaving the institution over the next 2 years increased from 18.8% in 2011 to 24.3% in 2017 (P = 0.02).
Implementation of an institution-wide faculty mentoring program significantly improved metrics of career development and faculty satisfaction but was not associated with a reduction in the percent of faculty considering leaving the institution. This suggests the need for additional efforts to identify and limit factors driving faculty turnover.
Atrial fibrillation (AFIB) with rapid ventricular response (RVR) is a common tachydysrhythmia encountered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Current guidelines suggest rate control in stable, symptomatic patients.
Little is known about the safety or efficacy of rate-controlling medications given by prehospital providers. This study assessed a protocol for prehospital administration of diltiazem in the setting of AFIB with RVR for provider protocol compliance, patient clinical improvement, and associated adverse events.
This was a retrospective, cohort study of patients who were administered diltiazem by providers in the Orange County EMS System (Florida USA) over a two-year period. The protocol directed a 0.25mg/kg dose of diltiazem (maximum of 20mg) for stable, symptomatic patients in AFIB with RVR at a rate of >150 beats per minute (bpm) with a narrow complex. Data collected included patient characteristics, vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythm before and after diltiazem, and need for rescue or additional medications. Adverse events were defined as systolic blood pressure <90mmHg or administration of intravenous fluid after diltiazem administration. Clinical improvement was defined as a heart rate decreased by 20% or less than 100bmp. Original prehospital ECG rhythm interpretations were compared to physician interpretations performed retrospectively.
Over the study period, 197 patients received diltiazem, with 131 adhering to the protocol. The initial rhythm was AFIB with RVR in 93% of the patients (five percent atrial flutter, two percent supraventricular tachycardia, and one percent sinus tachycardia). The agreement between prehospital and physician rhythm interpretation was 92%, with a Kappa value of 0.454 (P <.001). Overall, there were 22 (11%) adverse events, and 112 (57%) patients showed clinical improvement. When diltiazem was given outside of the existing protocol, the patients had higher rates of adverse events (18% versus eight percent; P = .033). Patients who received diltiazem in adherence with protocols were more likely to show clinical improvement (63% versus 46%; P = .031).
This study suggests that prehospital diltiazem administration for AFIB with RVR is safe and effective when strict protocols are followed.
Rodriguez A, Hunter CL, Premuroso C, Silvestri S, Stone A, Miller S, Zuver C, Papa L. Safety and efficacy of prehospital diltiazem for atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(3):297–302.
This paper presents a technique to increase the bandwidth in substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity-backed antennas, inspired by the design of cavity filters. The proposed structure consists of a slot antenna backed by two cavities, located one on top of the other and coupled through a slot. To demonstrate the bandwidth increase, a standard cavity-backed SIW antenna, with a rectangular slot etched in the top metal plane, has been designed, manufactured, and measured. Subsequently, a similar antenna was developed, by doubling the substrate thickness with the aim to improve the bandwidth. Finally, the new topology of two-cavity SIW antenna has been implemented and compared with the two previous ones. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed two-cavity antenna exhibits a bandwidth twice as large as the standard SIW cavity-backed antenna.
The human animal type melanoma (ATM) is a rare subtype of melanoma characterised by the proliferation of pigmented dermal epithelioid and spindled melanocytes. However, this variant of melanoma is still lacking a precise nosography definition and classification for the difficulty to be distinguished from other more common melanocytic lesions, as well as for its peculiar biological behaviour. On the other hand, the contribution of scientific literature to this issue is fragmented and limited to the description of very few cases. Starting from the presentation of a case with abnormally aggressive clinical features, here we revisit the current knowledge on ATM from its dermatologic patterns, epidemiology, demography and histopathology to the clinical management. Peculiar accuracy has also been reserved to several histopathologic criteria, which are critical for the differential diagnosis from other melanocytic diseases in junction with molecular data deriving from recent cytogenetic and mutational characterisation of this tumour.
The present work consists of an investigation of the turbulence radiation interaction (TRI) in a radiative turbulent channel flow of grey gas bounded by isothermal hot and cold walls. The optical thickness
of the channel is varied from 0.1 to 10 to observe different regimes of TRI. A high-resolution finite volume method for radiative heat transfer is employed and coupled with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow. The resulting effects of TRI on temperature statistics are strongly dependent on the considered optical depth. In particular, the contrasting role of emission and absorption is highlighted. For a low optical thickness the effect of radiative fluctuations on temperature statistics is low and causes the reduction of temperature variance through the dissipating action of emission. On the other hand, while increasing optical thickness to relatively high levels, the dissipation of temperature variance is balanced, at low wavenumbers in the turbulence spectrum, through the preferential action of absorption, which increases the large-scale temperature fluctuations. A significant rise in the effect of radiation on the temperature variance can be observed as a consequence of the reduction of radiative heat transfer length scales.
Microstructural and morphological features of the layers forming integrated PTB7/PC71BM organic solar cells with Ca/Al cathode are studied. The effects of vacuum treatment on properties and durability were addressed using complementary approaches: time-resolved experiments revealing the structural evolution of the active layers under illumination were conducted combining the in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXD) technique with atomic force microscopy (AFM); space-resolved characterization of the integrated devices was possible via high resolution X-ray diffraction, using a nano-focused synchrotron radiation X-ray beam to discriminate the device components. Active layers surface morphology is stable under illumination and PC71BM structural properties remain unaltered. PTB7 undergoes crystallinity depletion, mainly at the active layer/cathode interface. This effect is actually inhibited in the device submitted to vacuum treatment, proving that this procedure induces stabilization at the cathode’s buried interface, as verified by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Importantly, the protective role of the vacuum treatment results in a significant photovoltaic durability enhancement.
This paper presents a new class of quasi-elliptic pass-band filters in substrate-integrated waveguide technology, which exhibits compact size and modular geometry. These filters are based on mushroom-shaped metallic resonators, and they can be easily implemented using a standard dual-layer printed circuit board manufacturing process. The presented filters exploit non-resonating modes to obtain coupling between non-adjacent nodes in the case of in-line geometry. The resulting structure is very compact and capable of transmission zeros. In this work, the singlet configuration is preliminarily investigated, and a parametric study is performed. The design of three-pole, four-pole, and higher-order filters is illustrated with examples and thoroughly discussed. A four-pole filter operating at the frequency of 4 GHz has been manufactured and experimentally verified, to validate the proposed technique.
FUNDAMENTAL AND OTHER PRINCIPLES OF EVIDENCE IN CIVIL LITIGATION
E. Silvestri, Associate Professor of Civil Procedure and Comparative Civil Procedure; Scientific Director of the postgraduate program on Mediation and ADR, Department of Law, University of Pavia (Italy)
The idea of addressing the topic of the impact of language differences on litigation was prompted by the reading of the essays collected in a special issue of Erasmus Law Review under the heading ‘Law and Language: Implication for Harmonization and Cross-Border Litigation’. These essays helped me frame some thoughts on the problems that may arise when the dramatis personae of a judicial proceeding do not share the same native language.
Language differences can affect litigation in many ways, and most of all in transnational cases or, to use the preferred expression in the EU context, in crossborder cases. Cross-border litigation implies that at least one party to a case will have to litigate in a foreign language, since the rule is that the court language is the official language of the forum state. Whenever international rules on jurisdiction allow the plaintiff to do some forum shopping, they also allow him to engage in language shopping. Therefore, often the defendant is the one who is faced with language obstacles. It is clear that these obstacles must not harm his right to a fair trial, nor must they contribute to delaying the proceedings.
Language differences may arise at the very beginning of a case (just think of the problems brought about by service of process), but in this contribution I would like to make some remarks on the impact of language differences at the evidencetaking level, that is, with reference to the documents that are produced as evidence, and to oral evidence, namely, witness testimony or the interrogation of the party himself, as regards the legal systems – such as the Italian system – in which the parties cannot be heard as witnesses, but are subject to a particular form of examination that in Italy is qualified as ‘formal interrogatory’.
The Protection of Language Rights
The problem of language differences and their impact on litigation and on the rights of the parties can be dealt with from different angles. One is to see the problem within the framework of so-called language rights. Scholars have emphasized that ‘the concept of language rights is in an embryonic stage only’, and, as a matter of fact, it is difficult to offer a clear definition of what is meant exactly by ‘language rights’, if one steps back from the perspective in which they are often analysed, namely, the protection of minority languages.