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In recent decades, concern about rabbit welfare and sustainability has increased. The housing system is a very important factor for animal welfare. However, information about how different available housing types for female rabbits affect their health status is scarce, but this is an important factor for their welfare. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the health status of female rabbits in five common housing systems: three different single-housing systems with distinct available surfaces and heights; a single-housing system with a platform; a collective system. Female rabbits in the collective and platform cages had greater cortisol concentrations in hair than those in the single-housing system with no platform. Haptoglobin concentrations and kit mortality rates during lactation were greater for the collective-cage female rabbits. The collective group had more culled females and more lesions than in the other groups. The main reasons for culling in all the groups were reproduction problems and presence of abscesses, and the collective group of females was the most affected. In conclusion, it appears that keeping females together in collective systems negatively affects their health status and welfare, while single-housing systems imply lower kit mortality rates during lactation and cortisol concentrations, and fewer lesions in female rabbits.
The dynamics of bubbles near infinite boundaries has been studied in great detail. Once viscosity is accounted for, large wall shear stresses are generated upon jet impact and spreading. Although earlier works covered bubble dynamics in thin gaps and revealed rich fluid dynamics, viscosity and the resulting mechanical action on the surface have not been addressed. Here, we report experimental and numerical studies of cavitation bubbles expanding and collapsing inside a narrow gap. High-speed recordings and numerical simulations demonstrate an unexpected enhancement of the jetting velocity, a centre of mass translation and a dramatic increase of the wall shear stress. For the latter, we use computational simulations and present the results as spatio-temporal shear stress maps, while the bubble is recorded with high-speed photography. To test the implications of the high wall shear stress combined with the bubble translation, we conducted two experimental demonstrations. The first shows particulate removal on the distant wall, and the second cell detachment and molecule delivery through the cell membrane.
This work presents an alternative methodology for monitoring flight performance during airline operations using the available inboard instrumentation system. This method tries to reduce the disadvantages of the traditional specific range monitoring technique where instrumentation noise and cruise stabilisation conditions affect the quality of the performance monitoring results. The proposed method consists of using an unscented Kalman filter for aircraft performance identification using Newton’s flight dynamic equations in the body X, Y and Z axis. The use of the filtering technique reduces the effect of instrumentation and process noise, enhancing the reliability of the performance results. Besides the better quality of the monitoring process, using the proposed technique, additional results that are not possible to predict with the specific range method are identified during the filtering process. An example of these possible filtered results that show the advantages of this proposed methodology are the aircraft fuel flow offsets, as predicted in the specific range method, but also other important aircraft performance parameters as the aircraft lift and drag coefficients (CL and CD), sideslip angle (β) and wind speeds, giving the operator a deeper understanding of its aircraft operational status and the possibility to link the operational monitoring results to aircraft maintenance scheduling. This work brings a cruise stabilisation example where the selected performance monitoring parameters such as fuel flow factors, lift and drag bias, winds and sideslip angle are identified using only the inboard instrumentation such as the GPS/inertial sensors, a calibrated anemometric system and the angle-of-attack vanes relating each flight condition to a specific aircraft performance monitoring result. The results show that the proposed method captures the performance parameters by the use of the Kalman filter without the need of a strict stabilisation phase as it is recommended in the traditional specific range method, giving operators better flexibility when analysing and monitoring fleet performance.
Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonosis, considered an endemic disease of dogs and cats in several countries of Western Europe, including Portugal. This study assesses the levels of D. immitis exposure in humans from Northern Portugal, to which end, 668 inhabitants of several districts belonging to two different climate areas (Csa: Bragança, Vila Real and Csb: Aveiro, Braga, Porto, Viseu) were tested for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) antibodies. The overall prevalence of seropositivity to both anti-D. immitis and WSP antibodies was 6.1%, which demonstrated the risk of infection with D. immitis in humans living in Northern Portugal. This study, carried out in a Western European country, contributes to the characterisation of the risk of infection with D. immitis among human population in this region of the continent. From a One Health point of view, the results of the current work also support the close relationship between dogs and people as a risk factor for human infection
The need for efficient propulsion systems allied to increasingly more challenging fixed-wing UAV mission requirements has led to recent research on the autonomous thermal soaring field with promising results. As part of that effort, the feasibility and advantages of model predictive control (MPC)-based guidance and control algorithms capable of extracting energy from natural occurring updrafts have already been demonstrated numerically. However, given the nature of the dominant atmospheric phenomena and the amplitude of the required manoeuvres, a non-linear optimal control problem results. Depending on the adopted prediction horizon length, it may be of large order, leading to implementation and real-time operation difficulties. Knowing that, an alternative MPC-based autonomous thermal soaring controller is presented herein. It is designed to yield a simple and small non-linear programming problem to be solved online. In order to accomplish that, linear prediction schemes are employed to impose the differential constraints, thus no extra variables are added to the problem and only linear bound restrictions result. For capturing the governing non-linear effects during the climb phase, a simplified representation of the aircraft kinematics with quasi-steady corrections is used by the controller internal model. Flight simulation results using a 3 degree-of-freedom model subjected to a randomly generated time varying thermal environment show that the aircraft is able to locate and exploit updrafts, suggesting that the proposed algorithm is a feasible MPC strategy to be employed in a practical application.
Liquid jetting and fragmentation are important in many industrial and medical applications. Here, we study the jetting from the surface of single liquid droplets undergoing internal volume oscillations. This is accomplished by an explosively expanding and collapsing vapour bubble within the droplet. We observe jets emerging from the droplet surface, which pinch off into finer secondary droplets. The jetting is excited by the spherical Rayleigh–Taylor instability where the radial acceleration is due to the oscillation of an internal bubble. We study this jetting and the effect of fluid viscosity experimentally and numerically. Experiments are carried out by levitating the droplet in an acoustic trap and generating a laser-induced cavitation bubble near the centre of the droplet. On the simulation side, the volume of fluid method (OpenFOAM) solves the compressible Navier–Stokes equations while accounting for surface tension and viscosity. Both two-dimensional (2-D) axisymmetric and 3-D simulations are performed and show good agreement with each other and the experimental observation. While the axisymmetric simulation reveals how the bubble dynamics results destabilizes the interface, only the 3-D simulation computes the geometrically correct slender jets. Overall, experiments and simulations show good agreement for the bubble dynamics, the onset of disturbances and the rapid ejection of filaments after bubble collapse. Additionally, an analytic model for the droplet surface perturbation growth is developed based on the spherical Rayleigh–Taylor instability analysis, which allows us to evaluate the surface stability over a large parameter space. The analytic model predicts correctly the onset of jetting as a function of Reynolds number and normalized internal bubble energy.
The collapse of a cavitation bubble near a rigid boundary induces a high-speed transient jet accelerating liquid onto the boundary. The shear flow produced by this event has many applications, examples of which are surface cleaning, cell membrane poration and enhanced cooling. Yet the magnitude and spatio-temporal distribution of the wall shear stress are not well understood, neither experimentally nor by simulations. Here we solve the flow in the boundary layer using an axisymmetric compressible volume-of-fluid solver from the OpenFOAM framework and discuss the resulting wall shear stress generated for a non-dimensional distance,
is the distance of the initial bubble centre to the boundary, and
is the maximum spherical equivalent radius of the bubble). The calculation of the wall shear stress is found to be reliable once the flow region with constant shear rate in the boundary layer is determined. Very high wall shear stresses of 100 kPa are found during the early spreading of the jet, followed by complex flows composed of annular stagnation rings and secondary vortices. Although the simulated bubble dynamics agrees very well with experiments, we obtain only qualitative agreement with experiments due to inherent experimental challenges.
PNIPAM hydrogels are widely studied materials which swell in a great extent in water and water like solvents (e.g. alcohols). The hydrophilic nature of PNIPAM networks is very attractive however it is an important disadvantage at the moment of encapsulating hydrophobic drugs, which minimize their use in other fields. In this work we studied the swelling in different solvent mixtures with water and also in pure nonaqueous solvents, some of them immiscible with water. Accordingly, PNIPAM gels swell strongly in highly polar solvents (e.g. chloroform) but it does not swell in slightly polar solvents (e.g. toluene). The main interaction between the solvent and the polymer chain seems to involve the hydrogen bonding with the amide group, according to the calculated Hansen parameters (δh). It is possible to swell the gel in binary or ternary mixtures containing toluene. In that way, non-polar substances can be loaded inside the gel to change its properties. As a proof of concept, polyaniline (PANI) solubilized in chloroform using camphorsulfonate as solubilizing counterion. The obtained nanocomposites become sensitive to pH changing color and conductivity when exposed to basic or acidic aqueous solutions.
The generation of filaments constituted by nanocomposites allows printing pieces with functional properties. A method is proposed for incorporating nanoparticles in plastic filaments (thermoplastic polyurethane, PU) by diffusion in the swollen material. The nanoparticles must be dispersed in solvents (or solvent mixtures) in which the polymer swells but does not dissolve. Nanoparticles are incorporated mainly at the surface as revealed by SEM/EDS mapping. The thermal properties (studied by DSC and TGA) of the PU are only slightly affected by the presence of NPs. Test pieces successfully are printed using the modified filaments. Incorporation of solid lubricant (MoS2) nanoparticles decreases the coefficient of friction of the printed test samples.
Cavitation bubbles are nucleated at a high repetition rate in water by delivering a pulsed laser through a fibre optic. Continuous high-frequency cavitation drives a stream away from the fibre tip. Using high-speed photography and particle image velocimetry, the stream is characterised as a synthetic jet, generated by trains of vortices induced by non-spherical bubble collapse. At low laser power, the bubbles collapse before the arrival of a subsequent laser pulse. Yet, by increasing the laser power, a system of bubbles is formed which leads to complex bubble–bubble interactions. The synthetic jet is observed regardless of the bubble formation regime, demonstrating the stability of the phenomenon. Synthetic jet generation by repetitive bubble collapse extends the well-studied acoustic streaming from small-amplitude bubble oscillations.
We report on an experimental study on the dynamics and fragmentation of water droplets levitated in a sound field exposed to a single laser-induced cavitation bubble. The nucleation of the cavitation bubble leads to a shock wave travelling inside the droplet and reflected from pressure release surfaces. Experiments and simulations study the location of the high negative pressures inside the droplet which result into secondary cavitation. Later, three distinct fragmentation scenarios are observed: rapid atomization, sheet formation and coarse fragmentation. Rapid atomization occurs when the expanding bubble, still at high pressure, ruptures the liquid film separating the bubble from the surrounding air and a shock wave is launched into the surrounding air. Sheet formation occurs due to the momentum transfer of the expanding bubble; for sufficiently small bubbles, the sheet retracts because of surface tension, while larger bubbles may cause the fragmentation of the sheet. Coarse fragmentation is observed after the first collapse of the bubble, where high-speed jets emanate from the surface of the droplet. They are the result of surface instability of the droplet combined with the impulsive pressure generated during collapse. A parameter plot for droplets in the size range between 0.17 and 1.5 mm and laser energies between 0.2 and 4.0 mJ allows the separation of these three regimes.
Approximately 75% of prescription opioid abusers obtain the drug from an acquaintance, which may be a consequence of improper opioid storage, use, disposal, and lack of patient education. We aimed to determine the opioid storage, use, and disposal patterns in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a comprehensive cancer center.
We surveyed 113 patients receiving opioids for at least 2 months upon presenting to the ED and collected information regarding opioid use, storage, and disposal. Unsafe storage was defined as storing opioids in plain sight, and unsafe use was defined as sharing or losing opioids.
The median age was 53 years, 55% were female, 64% were white, and 86% had advanced cancer. Of those surveyed, 36% stored opioids in plain sight, 53% kept them hidden but unlocked, and only 15% locked their opioids. However, 73% agreed that they would use a lockbox if given one. Patients who reported that others had asked them for their pain medications (p = 0.004) and those who would use a lockbox if given one (p = 0.019) were more likely to keep them locked. Some 13 patients (12%) used opioids unsafely by either sharing (5%) or losing (8%) them. Patients who reported being prescribed more pain pills than required (p = 0.032) were more likely to practice unsafe use. Most (78%) were unaware of proper opioid disposal methods, 6% believed they were prescribed more medication than required, and 67% had unused opioids at home. Only 13% previously received education about safe disposal of opioids. Overall, 77% (87) of patients reported unsafe storage, unsafe use, or possessed unused opioids at home.
Significance of Results:
Many cancer patients presenting to the ED improperly and unsafely store, use, or dispose of opioids, thus highlighting a need to investigate the impact of patient education on such practices.
The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity’s (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA’s predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA’s ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p < .050), and not global self-concept. Physical self-concept was the strongest predictor and approximately 32.45 % of PA’s effect on PQL was mediated by it. This study’s findings support a multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept.
Phenological models are considered key tools for the short-term planning of viticultural activities and long-term impact assessment of climate change. In the present study, statistical phenological models were developed for budburst (BUD), flowering (FLO) and veraison (VER) of 16 grapevine varieties (autochthonous and international) from the Portuguese wine-making regions of Douro, Lisbon and Vinhos Verdes. For model calibration, monthly averages of daily minimum (Tmin), maximum (Tmax) and mean (Tmean) temperatures were selected as potential regressors by a stepwise methodology. Significant predictors included Tmin in January–February–March for BUD, Tmax in March–April for FLO, and Tmin, Tmax and Tmean in March–July for VER. Developed models showed a high degree of accuracy after validation, representing 0·71 of total variance for BUD, 0·83 for FLO and 0·78 for VER. Model errors were in most cases < 5 days, outperforming classic growing degree-day models, including models based on optimized temperature thresholds for each variety. Applied to the future scenarios RCP4·5/8·5, projections indicate earlier phenophase onset and shorter interphases for all varieties. These changes may bring significant challenges to the Portuguese wine-making sector, highlighting the need for suitable adaptation/mitigation strategies, to ensure its future sustainability.
We describe an exemplary case of congestive heart failure (CHF) symptoms controlled with milrinone. We also analyze the benefits and risks of milrinone administration in an unmonitored setting.
We describe the case of a patient with refractory leukemia and end-stage CHF who developed severe dyspnea after discontinuation of milrinone. At that point, despite starting opioids, she had been severely dyspneic and anxious, requiring admission to the palliative care unit (PCU) for symptom control. After negotiation with hospital administrators, milrinone was administered in an unmonitored setting such as the PCU. A multidisciplinary team approach was also provided.
Milrinone produced a dramatic improvement in the patient's symptom scores and performance status. The patient was eventually discharged to home hospice on a milrinone infusion with excellent symptom control.
Significance of Results:
This case suggests that milrinone may be of benefit for short-term inpatient administration for dyspnea management, even in unmonitored settings and consequently during hospice in do-not-resuscitate (DNR) patients. This strategy may reduce costs and readmissions to the hospital related to end-stage CHF.
We report on a novel method to generate fast transient microjets and study their characteristics. The simple device consists of two electrodes on a substrate with a hole in between. The side of the substrate with the electrodes is submerged in a liquid. Two separate microjets exit through the tapered hole after an electrical discharge is induced between the electrodes. They are formed during the expansion and collapse of a single cavitation bubble. The cavitation bubble dynamics as well as the jets were studied with high-speed photography at up to 500 000 f.p.s. With increasing jet velocity they become unstable and spray formation is observed. The jet created during expansion (first jet) is in most cases slower than the jet created during bubble collapse, which can reach up to
. The spray exiting the orifice is at least in part due to the presence of cavitation in the microchannel as observed by high-speed recording. The effect of viscosity was tested using silicone oil of 10, 50 and 100 cSt. Interestingly, for all liquids the transition from a stable to an unstable jet occurs at
. We demonstrate that these microjets can penetrate into soft material; thus they can be potentially used as a needleless drug delivery device.
Dirofilaria immitis is endemic in Portugal. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease, although no previous studies on feline infections have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of D. immitis in cats and dogs from central and northern Portugal. Blood samples from 434 cats were tested for circulating anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies. Furthermore, 386 dogs were tested for circulating D. immitis antigens. Overall feline seroprevalence was 15%, while canine prevalence was 2.1%. The highest feline seroprevalences of 18.7% and 17.6% were found in Aveiro and Viseu, respectively, while the highest canine prevalences of 8.8% and 6.8% were found in Coimbra and Aveiro, respectively. Cats and dogs showing respiratory signs presented higher prevalences of 24.4% and 17%, respectively, while 50% of cats with gastrointestinal signs were seropositive. The present study confirms the seropositivity of D. immitis in the feline population in central and northern Portugal, and suggests the importance of including heartworm disease in the list of differential diagnoses of cats and dogs showing clinical signs compatible with the disease.