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The National Academies of Sciences (NAS) emphasize the need for interdisciplinary team science (TS) training, but few training resources are available. COALESCE, an open-access tool developed with National Institutes of Health support and located at teamscience.net, is considered a gold standard resource but has not previously been evaluated. COALESCE launched four learning modules in 2011. The Science of TS (SciTS) module, an interactive encyclopedia, introduces foundational concepts. Three scenario-based modules simulate TS challenges in behavioral, clinical, and basic biomedical sciences. This study examined user characteristics, usage patterns, and effects of completing the four modules on TS knowledge, attitudes, and skills.
Repeated measures ANOVA tested for pre-post changes in performance and compared learning by users with biomedical versus other disciplinary backgrounds.
From 2011 through 2017, the site attracted 16,280 new users who engaged in 6461 sessions that lasted more than 1 min. The modal registrant identified as working in a biomedical field (47%), in an academic institution (72%), and expressed greater interest in the practice than the SciTS (67%). Those completing pre- and post-tests (n = 989) showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and skills after taking all scenario-based modules (p < 0.005); knowledge and attitudes were unchanged after the SciTS encyclopedia. Biomedical and other health professionals improved comparably.
Evaluation of the TS training tool at teamscience.net indicates broad dissemination and positive TS-related outcomes. Site upgrades implemented between 2018 and 2020, including adding five new modules, are expected to increase the robustness and accessibility of the COALESCE training resource.
A compact planar ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with WiMAX and WLAN notched band is presented in this paper. The presented antenna consists of a rectangular patch and slotted partial ground plane and fed by a microstrip feed line. The volumetric size of the antenna is 30 mm × 22 mm × 1.6 mm. Method of moment-based simulation technology is used to simulate and analyze the characteristics of the antenna. To generate two notch bands at WiMAX and WLAN, a pair of parasitic resonator is placed beneath the radiating patch. The presented antenna achieves an operating band (VSWR ≤2) ranging from 2.98 to 12 GHz with an average gain of 3.95 dBi along with considerable efficiency and symmetric radiation patterns. Moreover, the antenna exhibits two notch bands at 3.5 and 5.45 GHz and is able to avoid possible interference with pre-existing narrow band services. The proposed antenna is low cost and low profile and is modeled to be used as a transceiver in UWB communication applications.
Just before midnight on 31 December 1983, His Majesty the Sultan and Yang Dipertuan Sir Muda Hassanal Bolkiah, 29th ruler of Brunei, began reading the Proclamation of Independence to a crowd of 30,000 gathered at the Taman Haji Sir Omar Ali Saifuddien, Bandar Seri Begawan. He declared Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei, Abode of Peace) — “which has never been a colony” — “an independent, sovereign and democratic Malay Muslim monarchy based on Islamic teachings”. A 21-gun salute heralded the New Year, and also marked a new era in the long history of this ancient country.
The proclamation outlined the special treaty relationship between Britain and Brunei which dated from 1847. In 1888, Britain assumed responsibility for Brunei's defence and external affairs. Brunei achieved internal self-government under its 1959 constitution which remains in force. The 1959 constitution was promulgated during the reign of His Majesty's father, His Royal Highness the Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Jeneral Haji Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien, the 28th Sultan, who abdicated in 1967 in favour of his son.1 The 1979 Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with Britain led to Brunei's full independence on 1 January 1984. With the reading of the proclamation, Britain relinquished its last responsibilities for the state's defence and foreign affairs.
Immediately following the proclamation ceremony, His Majesty the Sultan and Yang Dipertuan unveiled his new cabinet. The Sultan's personalized rule continues with his holding the offices of Prime Minister, Minister of Finance and Minister of Home Affairs. He named six other ministers, including his father, His Royal Highness the Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan (Minister of Defence), and two of his younger brothers, the Perdana Wazir Prince Mohamed Bolkiah (Minister of Foreign Affairs) and the Pengiran Digadong Prince Jefri (Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports cum Deputy Minister of Finance).
In addition, His Majesty named three cabinet ministers who are not members of the immediate royal family. Pengiran Bahrin bin Pengiran Haji Ahas was named Minister of Law and concurrently Minister of Communication. Pengiran Bahrin is a law graduate of Birmingham University. He also obtained his Master of Law from London University and is a barrister of Gray's Inn in London. Pehin Dato Haji Abdul Aziz was named Minister of Education and Health.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a locally aggressive intermediate malignancy.
The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to determine the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in local control of DFSP.
Patients and methods
The recurrence-free survival (RFS) for 45 patients treated for DFSP at our institution was estimated and compared between surgery alone and postoperative RT groups.
Age range of the patients were in the third and fourth decades; males:females=2:1; most common site: anterior abdominal wall; tumours >5 cm in size in 75%; low grade in 77·8%; margins positive in 31·8% and <5 mm margins in 45·5%. Two-thirds of patients had at least one recurrence before presentation to our institution. RT dose was >50 Gy in 88% of patients. The patients treated with postoperative RT had poorer prognostic factors compared with surgery alone: they were males (17 versus 13 patients), and presented with high-grade tumours (5 versus 1 patients), multiple recurrences prior to presentation (25 versus 20 patients) and positive or <5 mm margins (22 versus 12 patients). Median follow-up for surgery alone group was 17 (1–152) months and for postoperative RT group, this was 54 (5–121) months. RFS at 5 years was 77·1% for surgery alone and 87·9% for postoperative RT group but was not statistically significant. The median time to recurrence was 4 years.
RT delays the time to recurrence in DFSP. RT improves the outcome of DFSP for recurrent tumours and with positive margins.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in the United States and increases risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Identifying modifiable risk factors for NAFLD could allow better targeting of prevention programs. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a significant role in the development and progression of NAFLD. IR is also an important precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the development and duration of IR during young adulthood and its association with NAFLD and T2DM in midlife is unclear. To test whether trajectories of IR using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) change throughout early adulthood are associated with risk of prevalent NAFLD and T2DM among persons with NAFLD in midlife independent of current or baseline HOMA-IR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants from the CARDIA study, a prospective multicenter population-based biracial cohort of adults (baseline age 18–30 years), underwent HOMA-IR measurement (≥8 h fasting and not pregnant) at baseline (1985–1986) and follow-up exam years 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25. At Year 25 (Y25, 2010–2011), liver fat was assessed by noncontrast computed tomography (CT). NAFLD was defined as CT liver attenuation <51 Hounsfield Units after exclusion of other causes of liver fat (alcohol/hepatitis/medications). Latent mixture modeling was used to identify 25-year trajectories in HOMA-IR over time. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between HOMA-IR trajectory groups and prevalent NAFLD with adjustment for baseline or Y25 HOMA-IR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 3060 participants, we identified 3 distinct trajectory groups for HOMA-IR for individuals free from diabetes in middle adulthood: qualitatively low-stable (46.7% of the cohort), moderate-increasing (42.0%), and high-increasing (11.3%) with a NAFLD prevalence at Y25 of: 8.3%, 33.4%, and 63.5%, respectively (p-trend<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders (baseline smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity score, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and total/HDL cholesterol ratio) and baseline HOMA-IR, increasing HOMA-IR trajectories were associated with greater NAFLD prevalence compared with the low-stable trajectory group [odds ratio (95% CI): 5.8 (4.3–7.9) and 22.3 (14.2–34.9) for moderate and high, respectively]. These associations were attenuated, but remained significant, even after controlling for current Y25 HOMA-IR [OR=3.6 (2.6–5.0) for moderate and 5.9 (3.4–10.3) for high (referent: low)]. Among participants with NAFLD (n=511), high-increasing HOMA-IR trajectory was associated with greater prevalent [OR=6.5 (1.6–25.7)] and incident [OR=8.7 (2.2–34.4)] T2DM at Y25 independent of confounders and Y25 HOMA-IR (referent: low-stable). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this community-based sample of individuals free from diabetes at baseline, an increasing HOMA-IR trajectory through young adulthood was associated with greater NAFLD prevalence in midlife. Knowledge of changes in IR throughout adulthood provides new information on the risk of T2DM among persons with NAFLD in midlife independent of current level of IR. These findings highlight early identification of increasing IR as a potential target for primary prevention of T2DM in the setting of NAFLD.
Selective laser melting, a laser-based additive manufacturing process, can manufacture components with good geometrical integrity. Application of the selective laser melting process for serial production is subject to its reliability on mechanical properties, especially on fatigue behavior, when it is required to be applied for dynamic applications. This study focuses on microstructural, quasistatic, high cycle fatigue (HCF), and very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) mechanisms of aluminum alloys manufactured by selective laser melting. Manufacturing of hybrid structures by selective laser melting process is also investigated. Microstructural features were investigated for process-induced effects and the corresponding influence on quasistatic and fatigue properties. The microstructural features can be controlled in the selective laser melting process for required properties. Joining strengths in hybrid structures can be improved by post process heat-treatments. Material constants in different fatigue regions were determined, and higher fatigue strength of hybrid alloys was achieved in HCF as well as VHCF regimes.
In Pakistan, although the sea cucumber fishery has not yet been developed, Holothuria arenicola is abundant on its coast. Nineteen months of sampling was carried out to study the population structure, allometric relationships and reproductive status of H. arenicola stocks in Manora and Buleji rocky shores. All measured biometric characters showed significant temporal variations and width/length, weight/length, gutted weight/length and gutted weight/weight relationships followed negative allometry, indicating a change in body shape as the animal grows. Length-frequency distribution analysis was bimodal in both summer and autumn consisting of small-sized and medium-sized individuals while in winter and spring three modes were found at Manora. At Buleji, the population was unimodal in all seasons consisting of small-sized individuals. Sex in H. arenicola cannot be determined externally but can be identified on examination of gonad colour which is orange-like in females and creamy yellow in males. The sex was further confirmed on histological examination and maturation was divided into five stages, i.e. undetermined, early developing, late developing, mature and partially spawned. The sex ratio in H. arenicola was approximately 1:1 and increase in gonad index was observed during spring and early summer, followed by a decrease in GI in autumn and winter, which showed the spawning followed by resting phase. The GI showed a significant negative correlation with salinity and non-significant correlation with temperature. There is a need to undertake more biological/ecological studies on H. arenicola in order to take effective measures for its management.
Newcastle Disease (ND) is regarded as one of the major diseases of poultry because of the devastating losses that the virulent form of the ND virus can impose on both commercial and domestic chickens. However, the disease can be controlled through the administration of effective vaccines. Almost all the commercially available ND vaccines require refrigeration and begin to deteriorate rapidly after 1-2 hours if left at room temperature (around 25°C). Subsequently, because maintaining an adequate supply of refrigerated facilities may be a difficult task in many countries with unreliable electrical supplies, the development and large scale production of an effective thermostable ND vaccine seems imperative to support the poultry industry. Such vaccines should be resilient to damage associated with either very cold or hot environments so there are no concerns about the viability of the vaccine in response to temperatures fluctuations that can occur in extreme environments when the difference in temperature during cold and warm seasons can vary greatly. In the following review paper, the development of such a vaccine is discussed, including molecular characterisation, organ tropism of vaccine strains, production, as well as administration methods and their efficacy. It addition, the potential payback has been calculated alongside opportunities provided by removing vaccines from cold chain storage.
The aim of this survey was to investigate the voting practices of patients on an acute psychiatric unit in the General Election 2011. Our survey showed that only 10% of patients voted and many patients were unaware of their right to vote. We recommend that all patients should be routinely informed of their right to vote as part of their hospital admission. Voting should be facilitated by hospital staff and advocacy where practicable.
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human and animal health. Globally, more than one billion people are Se deficient due to low dietary Se. Low dietary intake of Se can be improved by Se supplementation, food fortification and biofortification of crops. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris) is a popular cool-season food legume in many parts of the world; it is naturally rich in Se and therefore has potential for Se biofortification. An Se foliar application experiment at two locations and a multi-location trial of 12 genotypes at seven locations were conducted from April to December 2011 in South Australia and Victoria, Australia. Foliar application of a total of 40 g/ha of Se as potassium selenate (K2SeO4) – 10 g/ha during full bloom and 30 g/ha during the flat pod stage – increased seed Se concentration from 201 to 2772 μg/kg, but had no effect on seed size or seed yield. Consumption of 20 g of biofortified lentil can supply all of the recommended daily allowance of Se. After Se foliar application, cultivars PBA Herald XT (3327 μg/kg), PBA bolt (3212) and PBA Ace (2957 μg/kg) had high seed Se concentrations. These cultivars may be used in lentil biofortification. In the genotypic evaluation trial, significant genotype and location variation was observed for seed Se concentration, but the interaction was not significant. In conclusion, foliar application of Se as K2SeO4 is an efficient agronomic approach to improve seed Se concentration for lentil consumers and there is also scope for genetic biofortification in lentil.
Law reform in Pakistan attracts such disparate champions as the Chief Justice of Pakistan, the USAID and the Taliban. Common to their equally obsessive pursuit of 'speedy justice' is a remarkable obliviousness to the historical, institutional and sociological factors that alienate Pakistanis from their formal legal system. This pioneering book highlights vital and widely neglected linkages between the 'narratives of colonial displacement' resonant in the literature on South Asia's encounter with colonial law and the region's postcolonial official law reform discourses. Against this backdrop, it presents a typology of Pakistani approaches to law reform and critically evaluates the IFI-funded single-minded pursuit of 'efficiency' during the last decade. Employing diverse methodologies, it proceeds to provide empirical support for a widening chasm between popular, at times violently expressed, aspirations for justice and democratically deficient reform designed in distant IFI headquarters that is entrusted to the exclusive and unaccountable Pakistani 'reform club'.