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No study is available that has assessed the association of dietary diversity score (DDS) and alternative healthy eating index (AHEI) with glioma. The present study aimed to assess this association in Iranian adults. Overall, 128 pathologically confirmed cases of glioma were enrolled from hospitals and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from other wards of the hospital between 2009 and 2011. Dietary assessment was done using a validated block-format 123-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Dietary indices including DDS and AHEI-2010 were constructed according to standard methods. After controlling for potential confounders, a significant inverse association was found between DDS and risk of glioma (OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·94). Such finding was also seen when further adjustment was made for BMI; such that participants in the highest quartile of DDS were 56 % less likely to have glioma compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR 0·44, 95 % CI, 0·20, 0·97). In addition, a significant inverse association was found between adherence to AHEI and glioma; such that in the fully adjusted model, participants in the fourth quartile of AHEI had 74 % lower risk of glioma compared with those in the first quartile (OR 0·26, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·56). In conclusion, we found that greater adherence to the healthy, as measured by AHEI, and diverse, as measured by DDS, diets was associated with decreased odds of glioma.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Recently, HEV-7 has been shown to infect camels and humans. We studied HEV seroprevalence in dromedary camels and among Bedouins, Arabs (Muslims, none-Bedouins) and Jews and assessed factors associated with anti-HEV seropositivity. Serum samples from dromedary camels (n = 86) were used to determine camel anti-HEV IgG and HEV RNA positivity. Human samples collected between 2009 and 2016 from >20 years old Bedouins (n = 305), non-Bedouin Arabs (n = 320) and Jews (n = 195), were randomly selected using an age-stratified sampling design. Human HEV IgG levels were determined using Wantai IgG ELISA assay. Of the samples obtained from camels, 68.6% were anti-HEV positive. Among the human populations, Bedouins and non-Bedouin Arabs had a significantly higher prevalence of HEV antibodies (21.6% and 15.0%, respectively) compared with the Jewish population (3.1%). Seropositivity increased significantly with age in all human populations, reaching 47.6% and 34.8% among ⩾40 years old, in Bedouins and non-Bedouin Arabs, respectively. The high seropositivity in camels and in ⩾40 years old Bedouins and non-Bedouin Arabs suggests that HEV is endemic in Israel. The low HEV seroprevalence in Jews could be attributed to higher socio-economic status.
One of the stereotactic radiosurgery techniques is Gamma Knife radiosurgery, in which intracranial lesions that are inaccessible or inappropriate for surgery are treated using 201 cobalt-60 sources in one treatment session. In this conformal technique, the penumbra width, which results in out-of-field dose in tumour-adjacent normal tissues should be determined accurately. The aim of this study is to calculate the penumbra widths of single and 201 beams for different collimator sizes of Gamma Knife machine model 4C using EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo simulation code and comparison the results with EBT3 film dosimetry data.
Methods and materials
In this study, simulation of Gamma Knife machine model 4C was performed based on the Monte Carlo codes of EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. To investigate the physical penumbra width (80−20%), the single beam and 201 beams profiles were obtained using EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc code and EBT3 films located at isocentre point in a spherical Plexiglas head phantom.
Based on the results, the single beam penumbra widths obtained from simulation data for 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm collimator sizes along X axis were 0·75, 0·77, 0·90 and 0·92 mm, respectively. The data for 201 beams obtained from simulation were 2·61, 4·80, 7·92 and 9·81 mm along X axis and 1·31, 1·60, 1·91 and 2·14 mm along Z axis and from film dosimetry were 3·21, 4·90, 8·00 and 10·61 mm along X axis and 1·22, 1·69, 2·01 and 2·25 mm along Z axis, respectively.
The differences between measured and simulated penumbra widths are in an acceptable range. However, for more precise measurement in the penumbra region in which dose gradient is high, Monte Carlo simulation is recommended.
In this paper, progressive crushing of prismatic multi-corner thin walled metal tubes under quasi-static axial load is investigated in detail. The novelty of the paper is mainly in considering strain hardening effect during plastic deformation instead of rigid plastic model and also the effect of curvature in forming the folds instead of plastic hinges. For this purpose, a new geometric model based on FEM and experimental observations is used which is capable of being adapted with new crushing configurations during crushing. Based on this model, the instantaneous energy associated with plastic deformation of different regions are calculated and finally by summing all energies and using minimum absorbed energy, mean crushing force and collapse parameters are determined. To evaluate the results, a detailed finite element study using ABAQUS and LS-Dyna solver is conducted on some regular polygonal mild steel tubes under axial crushing. Comparing the results of the new theoretical approach with FEM results show very good capability of that in predicting collapse behavior of these structures.
Oyster aquaculture has experienced tremendous growth in the United States over the past decade, but little is known about consumer preferences for oysters. This study analyzed preferences for oysters with varied combinations of brands, production locations, and production methods (aquaculture vs. wild-caught) using dichotomous choice, revealed preference economic field experiments. Results suggest significant and distinct differences in behavior between first-time and regular oyster consumers. While infrequent oyster consumers were drawn to oysters labeled as wild-caught, experienced oyster consumers preferred oysters raised via aquaculture. These findings will be valuable for growers and policymakers who invest in aquaculture to improve surrounding ecosystems.
Data on the association of adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style and glioma are scarce. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to the DASH-style diet and glioma in Iranian adults. In this study, 128 pathologically confirmed cases of glioma were recruited from hospitals and 256 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from other wards of the hospital. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 126-item validated FFQ. Adherence to the DASH-style diet was followed considering the healthy and non-healthy foods emphasised in the DASH dietary pattern. After controlling for potential confounders, individuals with the greatest adherence to the DASH diet were 72 % less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest adherence (OR 0·28; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·57). Individuals with the highest consumption of fruits had lower odds for having glioma compared with those with the lowest intake (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·68). A protective association was also observed between consumption of legumes and nuts and risk of glioma (OR 0·23; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·53). We found a significant positive association between red and processed meat (OR 2·60; 95 % CI 1·16, 5·81) and salt intakes (OR 2·87; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·34) and risk of glioma, after taking all potential confounders into account. Adherence to the DASH-style dietary pattern was inversely associated with glioma. In addition, some components of the DASH diet, including red meats and salt intakes, were positively associated with glioma. Consumption of nuts and legumes as well as fruits was inversely associated with glioma. Prospective cohort studies are required to confirm our findings.
Background: Violence is a frequent occurrence in ice hockey and has been associated with an increased risk of injury. Methods: Case-control study. The study population consisted of youth aged 0-19 years who presented to a participating emergency department (ED) with an injury resulting from participation in ice hockey. In order to examine the outcomes following brain injuries in ice hockey, the outcome was admission to the hospital (cases) or discharge from the ED (controls). In order to examine the relationship between brain injury and violence, the outcome was brain injury (cases) or a non-brain injury (controls). Logistic regression was used to determine the associations controlling for potential confounders. Results: In total, 56,835 youth suffered an injury related to ice hockey. 11.0% (n=6,293) were brain injuries. Youth who engaged in violence were at significantly higher odds of sustaining a brain injury as opposed to an injury to another body part (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.55-1.80). Youth who sustained violence-related injuries were at significantly higher odds of being admitted to the hospital compared to youth who sustained non-violence related injuries (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.49-5.68). Conclusions: Youth who engage in violence are at higher odds of sustaining a brain injury and of being admitted to the hospital.
Background: Horse riding is a hazardous activity with the potential for serious injury. Equestrian-related injuries account for a higher rate of injury per number of riding hours than motorcyclists and automobile racers. There is a lack of literature pertaining to equestrian-related brain injuries. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence, characteristics, and mechanisms of equestrian-related brain injuries sustained amongst Canadians between 1990 and 2014. Methods: Data were obtained from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database. The study population consisted of individuals who sustained equestrian-related brain injuries between the years 1990 and 2014 and presented to one of 15 participating emergency departments. Results: Brain injuries accounted for 13.3% (N=1060) of all equestrian-related injuries. The greatest proportion of injuries occurred amongst individuals aged 15-19 years, followed by individuals aged 0-4 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was falls. 17.9% of individuals were admitted to hospital. Normalized rates of injury increased from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: Brain injuries sustained while participating in equestrian are often of a greater severity than injuries sustained while participating in other recreational activities. A clear understanding of the epidemiology and mechanisms of equestrian-related brain injuries must be achieved in order to effectively implement prevention efforts.
Background: Rugby is a high-intensity, full-body contact sport in which there is an increased risk of injury associated with participation. The objectives of this study were to identify the mechanisms and characteristics of rugby-related injury sustained amongst Canadian youth. Methods: Data were obtained from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database. The study population consisted of individuals aged 10-19 who sustained an injury while participating in rugby between the years 1990 and 2014. Proportions of body parts injured, mechanisms of brain injury, and nature of injury were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Results: There were a total of 6200 rugby-related injuries sustained among individuals aged 10-19 between the years 1990 and 2014. 16.0% (N=993) of all injuries were brain injuries, 48.9% (n=486) of which were concussions. 70.7% (n=4838) of all injuries were sustained by males. The predominant mechanism of brain injury was tackling which accounted for 48.3% of all brain injuries n=480. Conclusion: Participation in rugby is rapidly increasing, and brain injury as a result of participation is a common occurrence. Possible changes to reduce injury include stricter penalties for high tackles to the head and neck area, and rules against blindside tackles.
It is widely claimed that there was a clear spatial continuity in the evolution of the traditional Middle Eastern city, with every new development the result of an intelligent, albeit unplanned, evolution of pre-existing doctrines of construction. However, as far as the new Safavid urban development of seventeenth-century Isfahan (in Iran) is concerned, it is possible to distinguish a spatial fragmentation, in terms of urban pattern and urban structure, between the old texture and new extensions.
The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health.
Luminal nutrient sensing by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed on the apical domain of enteroendocrine cells activates intracellular pathways leading to secretion of gut hormones that control vital physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, food intake and glucose homeostasis. The taste 1 receptor (T1R) family of GPCR consists of three members: T1R1; T1R2; T1R3. Expression of T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 at mRNA and protein levels has been demonstrated in the intestinal tissue of various species. It has been shown that T1R2–T1R3, in association with G-protein gustducin, is expressed in intestinal K and L endocrine cells, where it acts as the intestinal glucose (sweet) sensor. A number of studies have demonstrated that activation of T1R2–T1R3 by natural sugars and artificial sweeteners leads to secretion of glucagon-like peptides 1&2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin secretion; GLP-2 increases intestinal growth and glucose absorption. T1R1–T1R3 combination co-expressed on the apical domain of cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing cells is a luminal sensor for a number of l-amino acids; with amino acid-activation of the receptor eliciting CCK secretion. This article focuses on the role of the gut-expressed T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 in intestinal sweet and l-amino acid sensing. The impact of exploiting T1R2–T1R3 as a nutritional target for enhancing intestinal glucose absorption and gut structural maturity in young animals is also highlighted.
An active receiving antenna for Radio Navigation and Radio Positioning applications in S-band frequency is designed and fabricated. In this active antenna, the amplifier is integrated with the radiator which is a rectangular patch antenna. This patch antenna is analyzed with full-wave momentum method. With the developed design routine, ultra-low noise active receiving antenna can be realized. The ADS software and its full-wave Momentum is used for simulation. The experimental results show good agreement with the simulation results.
This materia medica - a book of collected knowledge about medicines and their properties - was originally written in Persian by Noureddeen Mohammed Abdullah al-Shirazi (fl.1625–40), physician to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, to whom it was dedicated. This 1793 publication contains entries in Persian, Arabic and Hindi, with English translations by Francis Gladwin (1744–1812), an employee of the East India Company and professor of Persian at Fort William College. The work begins by giving traditional Arabic evaluations of each type of medicine in terms of its power on a scale of 1 to 4, before presenting the dictionary of over 1,400 medicines, some with notes on their properties and usage. Providing an insight into healing practices in India in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this work remains of interest to scholars in the history of medicine.