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The financial crisis of 2008 brought with it a renewed interest in the study of capitalism across disciplines. While historians have since led the way with writings on commodities, labor, finance, and institutions, these have been largely conveyed from the Euro-American perspective without necessarily probing other values, parameters, and conditions beyond western political economy that have shaped business over time. This article suggests that to assess the benefits and limits of the global capitalist experience, we must prioritize unconventional subjects, sources, and styles in how we frame research questions, analyze evidence, and cast narratives. Such an endeavor is especially timely given the growing influence of regional markets around the world and the increasing prominence of computational tools to generate and analyze novel datasets.
Cerebral edema is a common challenge in the intensive care unit, and often occurs during trauma, malignant ischemic stroke, or hemorrhage. The condition describes a relative increase in the brain’s water content, as a result of pathologic fluid and solute movement between intracranial compartments. The brain’s four intracranial compartments are intracellular, extracellular, intravascular, and cerebrospinal fluid. Barriers separate each of these compartments, and allow each to maintain their own electrochemical environments. In acute brain injury, disruptions of these barriers may lead to cerebral edema formation [1,2].
Recognising the significant extent of poor-quality care and human rights issues in mental health, the World Health Organization launched the QualityRights initiative in 2013 as a practical tool for implementing human rights standards including the United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) at the ground level.
To describe the first large-scale implementation and evaluation of QualityRights as a scalable human rights-based approach in public mental health services in Gujarat, India.
This is a pragmatic trial involving implementation of QualityRights at six public mental health services chosen by the Government of Gujarat. For comparison, we identified three other public mental health services in Gujarat that did not receive the QualityRights intervention.
Over a 12-month period, the quality of services provided by those services receiving the QualityRights intervention improved significantly. Staff in these services showed substantially improved attitudes towards service users (effect sizes 0.50–0.17), and service users reported feeling significantly more empowered (effect size 0.07) and satisfied with the services offered (effect size 0.09). Caregivers at the intervention services also reported a moderately reduced burden of care (effect size 0.15).
To date, some countries are hesitant to reforming mental health services in line with the CRPD, which is partially attributable to a lack of knowledge and understanding about how this can be achieved. This evaluation shows that QualityRights can be effectively implemented even in resource-constrained settings and has a significant impact on the quality of mental health services.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for fragility bone disease. Current osteoporosis screening guidelines do not account for HIV status, and clinical risk assessment tools are not sensitive in PLWH. We examined the value of traditional osteoporosis risk factors, HIV-specific indices, and bone turnover biomarkers in predicting low bone mineral density (BMD) in PLWH. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Demographic and clinical characteristics, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived BMD, HIV indices (viral load, CD4 count, antiretroviral therapy [ART]), and biomarkers of bone turnover (C-terminal telopeptide of collagen [CTx], osteocalcin [OCN]) were evaluated in a cross-sectional analysis of PLWH (n=248) and HIV- controls (n=183). The primary outcome was low BMD, defined as osteopenia or osteoporosis by WHO criteria. Multivariable logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to assess associations between low BMD and covariates of interest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, median age was 44 years, 48% were male, 88% were black, median body mass index (BMI) was 28 kg/m2, 72% smoked cigarettes, and 53% used alcohol; characteristics did not differ by HIV status. PLWH had a mean CD4 of 408 cells/mm3, 55% were ART-naïve, and 45% had viral suppression on ART. Overall, 25% (109/431) had low BMD, including 31% of PLWH compared to 16% of HIV- controls. In multivariable models, HIV was significantly associated with low BMD (aOR 2.46, 95%CI 1.39-4.34; aRR 1.90, 95%CI 1.18-3.07). Adjusting for HIV, three traditional risks– age, race, and BMI– were independently associated with low BMD in the full cohort. However, bone turnover markers, CTx and OCN, were better able to discriminate low vs. normal BMD in PLWH compared to HIV- controls. In PLWH, mean serum CTx was 23% higher in low vs. normal BMD (mean CTx difference=0.06 ug/mL); in HIV- controls, no association with BMD was observed (mean CTx difference=0 ug/mL). In PLWH, mean serum OCN was 38% higher in those with low vs. normal BMD (mean OCN difference=2.48 ug/mL); in HIV- controls, mean serum OCN was only 16% higher in those with low vs. normal BMD (mean OCN difference=1.08 ug/mL). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In PLWH as opposed to HIV- controls, serum biomarkers reflecting a high bone turnover state, may discriminate individuals with low versus normal BMD. Because changes in biomarkers precede changes in BMD, these markers should be explored further either alone or in combination with traditional risk assessment tools to improve early screening for osteoporosis in PLWH.
The last 12 years have seen the evolution of a new funding regime under the supervision of the Pensions Regulator. Over this period, there has been significant turbulence in financial markets, including record low interest rates. This paper takes a critical look at the development of funding approaches and methodologies over this period. It analyses the Pensions Regulator guidance and how scheme specific actuarial methods have emerged since the move away from the Minimum Funding Requirement in 2001 and the introduction of the Scheme Specific Funding Requirements in 2005. It asks whether these new methodologies have been successful from the perspective of members, trustees, employers and shareholders. At a time when actuarial valuation methodologies have faced considerable criticism, this paper aims to propose a pension funding methodology which is fit for purpose and also reflects the latest guidance from the Pensions Regulator on integrated risk management.
Most continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces of the world contain silicic (granitic and rhyolitic) rocks, which are of significant petrogenetic interest. These rocks can form by advanced fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, crustal assimilation with fractional crystallization, partial melting of hydrothermally altered basaltic lava flows or intrusions, anatexis of old basement crust, or hybridization between basaltic and crustal melts. In the Deccan Traps CFB province of India, the Barda and Alech Hills, dominated by granophyre and rhyolite, respectively, form the largest silicic complexes. We present petrographic, mineral chemical, and whole-rock geochemical (major and trace element and Sr–Nd isotopic) data on rocks of both complexes, along with 40Ar–39Ar ages of 69.5–68.5 Ma on three Barda granophyres. Whereas silicic magmatism in the Deccan Traps typically postdates flood basalt eruptions, the Barda granophyre intrusions (and the Deccan basalt flows they intrude) significantly pre-date (by 3–4 My) the intense 66–65 Ma flood basalt phase forming the bulk of the province. A tholeiitic dyke cutting the Barda granophyres contains quartzite xenoliths, the first being reported from Saurashtra and probably representing Precambrian basement crust. However, geochemical–isotopic data show little involvement of ancient basement crust in the genesis of the Barda–Alech silicic rocks. We conclude that these rocks formed by advanced (70–75 %), nearly-closed system fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas in crustal magma chambers. The sheer size of each complex (tens of kilometres in diameter) indicates a very large mafic magma chamber, and a wide, pronounced, circular-shaped gravity high and magnetic anomaly mapped over these complexes is arguably the geophysical signature of this solidified magma chamber. The Barda and Alech complexes are important for understanding CFB-associated silicic magmatism, and anorogenic, intraplate silicic magmatism in general.
Abernethy malformations manifest as hepatopulmonary syndrome, pulmonary vasculopathy, or encephalopathy. A novel intervention in a child with portosystemic shunt and inferior caval vein hypoplasia led to complete normalisation of hypoxia and relief of obstruction in the inferior caval vein. Embryological explanations of venous anomalies may indicate that inferior caval vein anomalies are frequent but under-recognised in patients with Abernethy malformation.
Left aortic arch with right descending aorta is a rare congenital anomaly. We describe the clinical presentation of this unusual anomaly associated with cardiorespiratory compromise from severe aortic obstruction and left main bronchus compression. The anatomical peculiarities, embryological basis, and surgical solutions are presented.
“Deep learning” is finding more and more applications everywhere, and astronomy is not an exception. This talk described the application of convolutional neural networks to time-domain astronomy, specifically to light-curves of sources. The work that is discussed is based on a published paper to which reference can be made for more detail. The talk finished with a note cautioning new practitioners about the pitfalls lurking in out-of-the-box use of deep-learning techniques.
Using a sample of 7 barred spirals from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies (SONG), we compare the molecular gas distribution in the bar, to recent massive star formation activity. In all 7 galaxies, Hα is offset azimuthally from the CO on the downstream side. The maximum offset, at the bar ends, ranges from 170-570 pc, with an average of 320±120 pc. We discuss whether the observed offsets are consistent with the description of gas flows in bars provided by the two main classes of models: n-body models and hydrodynamic models.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=−0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries.
Clustering analysis indicate that at z ~ 2 submm-selected galaxies (SMGs) reside in very massive halos (MDM > 5 × 1013), suggesting that SMGs trace high-density environments that evolve into rich galaxy clusters. Conversely, recent work suggests that SMGs are tracers of a broader range of environments, including structures with more modest masses caught in highly active periods; since galaxies in these structures are likely caught during episodes of peak starbursts, SMGs may be tracers of a wider range of environments beyond the progenitors of todays very rich clusters, opening a window for a more complete exploration of the details underpinning the process of galaxy evolution in concert with the assembly of the large scale structure (LSS). We have undertaken a large observing program comprising deep narrow-band Ly-alpha imaging and multi-object spectroscopy using Palomar/Keck/Magellan/Gemini telescopes to probe for galaxy overdensities in SMG environments at z ~ 1 − 5. With ~200 spectroscopically-confirmed Ly-alpha emitters, we are in a position to gauge the level of galaxy overdensity in these regions.
The availability of high spatial resolution molecular gas observations from ALMA, and similar resolution observations in the radio continuum using the VLA, is providing the opportunity to make comparisons with specific features seen in optical observations more directly than in the past. Using our ALMA observations of the Antennae galaxies as a springboard, we have compared the locations of small-scale CO (3−2) features with a variety of multi-wavelength observations, in particular optical and near-infrared imaging using both broad (UBVI) and narrow-band data (Hα and Paβ) taken with the HST, and radio (3.6 cm) continuum observations taken with the VLA. This comparison leads to the development of an evolutionary classification system which provides a framework for studying the sequence of star cluster formation and evolution, from diffuse Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), to proto, embedded, emerging, young, and intermediate/old star clusters. Using this evolutionary framework, we estimate the maximum age range of clusters formed in a single GMC is approximately 10 Myr. This suggests that the molecular gas is removed over this timescale, resulting in the cessation of star formation and the destruction of the GMC within a radius of about 200 pc.
Background: Cranioplasty encompasses various cranial reconstruction techniques that are used following craniectomy due to stroke or trauma. Despite classical infectious signs, symptoms, and radiologic findings, however, the diagnosis of infection following cranioplasty can be elusive, with the potential to result in definitive treatment delay. We sought to determine if fever or leukocytosis at presentation were indicative of infection, as well as to identify any factors that may limit its applicability. Methods: Following institutional review board approval, a retrospective cohort of 239 patients who underwent cranioplasty following craniectomy for stroke or trauma was established from 2001-2011 at a single center (Massachusetts General Hospital). Analysis was then focused on those who developed a surgical site infection, as defined by either frank intra-operative purulence or positive intra-operative cultures, and subsequently underwent operative management. Results: In 27 total cases of surgical site infection, only two had a fever and four had leukocytosis at presentation. This yielded a false-negative rate for fever of 92.6% and for leukocytosis of 85.2%. In regard to infectious etiology, 22 (81.5%) cases generated positive intra-operative cultures, with Propionibacterium acnes being the most common organism isolated. Median interval to infection was 99 days from initial cranioplasty to time of infectious presentation, and average follow-up was 3.4 years. Conclusions: The utilization of fever and elevated white blood cell count in the diagnosis of post-cranioplasty infection is associated with a high false-negative rate, making the absence of these features insufficient to exclude the diagnosis of infection.
The previous chapter addressed the many challenges facing the context and relevance of management education and emphasised the importance of re-evaluating and rethinking existing models. This chapter tries to provide some benchmark information and a set of guidelines and general principles for improving management education based on our collective experience. It adds to the Lorange model (see pp. 123–34) with one developed by Professor Jagdish Sheth that outlines an interactive framework detailing the ‘bad habits’ of business schools and examining how they should then embrace the opportunities provided by the changing business environment.
This is followed in Chapter 5 by an evaluation and analysis of a number of innovative new models of management education using the Sheth framework and the results from a recent study of new MBA models carried out by Professor Datar and his colleagues at Harvard Business School (Datar et al., 2010).
THE SHETH MODEL FRAMEWORK
Since the financial crisis of 2008, business as a capitalist institution has received much criticism, especially with respect to its obsessive focus on creating shareholder value as opposed to shared value (Porter and Kramer, 2011; Currie et al., 2010). By association, business and management education, as indicated earlier, has also come under criticism about its relevance, purpose, mission and curriculum, and about its teaching, research and service outcomes.
This chapter examines the proposition that business schools have simpler characteristics than professional service firms (PSFs). There are two useful reasons for doing so. First, the process of analysing business schools through a professional services lens sheds new light on the management and leadership challenges for business school deans. Second, the process broadens the range of studies of PSFs that exist outside of the ‘core professions’ (law, accountancy, medicine and so on; Lowendahl, 1997), enabling closer scrutiny of the characteristics of PSFs.
Business schools, like most higher education institutions and PSFs, are ‘loosely coupled’ organisations that exhibit a set of distinctive traits and characteristics which lead to a unique organisational form and setting. This presents particular challenges for business school deans since leading a business school is not the same as leading a corporation. In a growing literature that examines business schools and their various constituents, there is only limited coverage of the practice and role of deans (Davies and Thomas, 2009).