To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In acknowledgment of the continued tension between the need to dimensionalize personality pathology in youth, and the reality of a categorical nosology in clinical settings, the goal of the present chapter is to review research on child and adolescent personality pathology from both these perspectives. While the review highlights several differences in constructs, methodology, and clinical implications of the two approaches, it also highlights significant commonalities in conclusions drawn from the traditions underlying categorical versus dimensional approaches. In particular, both categorical and dimensional approaches seem to support the idea that adolescence presents a unique developmental period for the crystallization of personality pathology.
This rejoinder is aimed at responding to the respective commentaries by Vernberg and Abel and Beauchaine; however, most of the rejoinder focuses on the commentary by Vernberg and Abel given the fact that Vernberg and Abel appear to challenge the basic premise that maladaptive traits denote personality disturbance beyond that of externalizing and internalizing disorder, which according to them, renders the concept of youth BPD obsolete. The authors of this rejoinder provide two points of rebuttal in this regard. First, while it is true that Axis I and II show a very similar empirical structure and can thus be represented from a unified perspective, the construct of youth BPD lies in the co-occurrence and interplay of specific symptoms. BPD is therefore more than a sum of its symptoms, and assessing these symptoms individually from established internalizing-externalizing measures (as Vernberg and Abel suggest) would not adequately capture the dynamics between symptoms that largely account for the downward spiral of BPD functioning. Second, they view the DSM-5 Criterion A function as the feature of personality pathology that distinguishes it from trait function; in particular the self-concept manifestations of Criterion A that are not readily captured by trait (Criterion B) personality function.
Recent scholarship has shown the increasing likelihood that Shakespeare’s very first work was collaborative, or at least that collaboration as a practice dominates his pre-1594 writing in ways that we are finally beginning to understand, something many chronologies of Shakespeare have failed to acknowledge satisfactorily. While the matter of firm dates for Shakespeare’s early work remains elusive, its collaborative nature must change both our conception of Shakespeare’s working practices in his early career as well as our sense of how collaborative writing may be better understood as part of his development as a literary and dramaturgical craftsman. This essay charts the various arguments for collaboration, canon, and chronology in Shakespeare’s early career, and proposes some ways of understanding how they map onto possible company affiliations in Shakespeare’s beginnings as a dramatist.
Arkansans have some of the worst breast cancer mortality to incidence ratios in the United States (5th for Blacks, 4th for Whites, 7th overall). Screening mammography allows for early detection and significant reductions in mortality, yet not all women have access to these life-saving services. Utilization in Arkansas is well below the national average, and the number of FDA-approved screening facilities has decreased by 38% since 2001. Spatial accessibility plays an important role in whether women receive screenings.
We use constrained optimization models within a geographic information system (GIS) to probabilistically allocate women to nearby screening facilities, accounting for facility capacity and patient travel time. We examine accessibility results by rurality derived from rural–urban commuting area (RUCA) codes.
Under most models, screening capacity is insufficient to meet theoretical demand given travel constraints. Approximately 80% of Arkansan women live within 30 minutes of a screening facility, most of which are located in urban and suburban areas. The majority of unallocated demand was in Small towns and Rural areas.
Geographic disparities in screening mammography accessibility exist across Arkansas, but women living in Rural areas have particularly poor spatial access. Mobile mammography clinics can remove patient travel time constraints to help meet rural demand. More broadly, optimization models and GIS can be applied to many studies of healthcare accessibility in rural populations.
Purple nutsedge is a troublesome weed in tomato grown in plasticulture systems. Field trials were conducted in the fall of 2017 and spring of 2018 at Balm, FL, to evaluate multiple herbicide programs applied pretransplanting (pre-T), post-transplanting (post-T), and pre-T followed by (fb) post-T for purple nutsedge control in plasticulture tomato. Pre-T treatment of sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor alone were ineffective and did not decrease purple nutsedge density compared with the nontreated control. Post-T application of halosulfuron did not reduce purple nutsedge density at 12 wk after initial treatment (WAIT) in fall 2017 but reduced the purple nutsedge density at 17 WAIT in both seasons. Pre-T sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor application fb halosulfuron applied post-T were the most effective treatments and consistently reduced purple nutsedge population in both seasons. Herbicide treatments did not injure or reduce tomato height or yield. Overall, these results suggest sequential herbicide programs, including pre-T application of sulfentrazone or S-metolachlor fb post-T application of halosulfuron generally resulted in greater purple nutsedge control compared with pre-T or post-T application only. Halosulfuron applied post-T is critical to provide season-long purple nutsedge control in plasticulture tomato.
One of the main innovations in monastic life—one that marks a real caesura between the two halves of the Middle Ages—is the explosion of diversitas religionum, that is, the multiplication of the forms of communal regular life. At the start of the eleventh century, monasticism was not uniform, but these differences were not considered to be a defining feature. This was the form of monasticism that the fourteenth-century papacy would later designate the ordo sancti Benedicti. From the eleventh century on, there was growing diversity among religious communities, which later led to the construction of many religious orders with well-defined institutional and legal structures. The most famous example (but also the most innovative) was that of the Cistercian order, which during the first two decades of the twelfth century laid the foundation for a complex organization that was at once decentralized through the system of filiation and firmly unified by the general chapter. This new diversity justifies starting with the sources that accompanied this institutional transformation, before returning in the final two sections of this essay, first to the sources of monastic history that are less specific to the late Middle Ages (such as the privileges and letters of the popes and other supervisory authorities), and then to a consideration of recent methodological developments.
“The power of bishops is harmful to the monastic way of life (regimini religiosorum).” So the Cistercian abbot Jacques de Thérines (d. 1321) summed up the relationship between bishops and monks around the year 1300. Whether or not the abbot was correct about the effect of episcopal power, most scholars have agreed that tension, if not outright conflict, was a normal part of this relationship. To some extent this was inevitable. Tightly knit communities with a strong sense of vocation and heritage rarely welcome outside interventions, even if they are well-meaning. Nonetheless, there was also a happier aspect to monastic–episcopal relations. Bishops could act as patrons, providing monasteries with resources and defending their interests, while preventing serious internal abuses. Monasteries, for their part, could serve an important role for bishops’ flocks as pilgrimage sites, and centers for networks of devotion and learning.
The aim of this study was to analyze pharmacy functionality, or the volume of operational pharmacies, among areas in North Carolina and South Carolina affected by Hurricane Florence.
Using geographic information system software and data from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Healthcare Ready, we computed, mapped, and analyzed pharmacy functionality measures for the period of September 12, 2018, through September 20, 2018, among counties in North Carolina and South Carolina to examine health-care–related disaster readiness for and response to Hurricane Florence.
In the Hurricane Florence-impacted region, counties located along the coast had the most suboptimal pharmacy functionality, whereas counties located more centrally within North Carolina and South Carolina had more optimal pharmacy functionality throughout the disaster. Generally, functionality was high at Hurricane Florence’s landfall on September 14, 2018, for which operating pharmacy capacity was reported at 85% in North Carolina and 88% in South Carolina. Both states had the lowest functionality on September 16, 2018, at 71% for North Carolina and 62% for South Carolina.
During the Hurricane Florence event, suboptimal pharmacy functionality was detected for coastal areas and during the disaster response period. Hurricane readiness plans and infrastructure strengthening should be emphasized for community pharmacies in hurricane-prone areas.
This study explored factors that influence academic achievement and hence, future career prospects. The relationships between the factors, academic trait boredom, approach to learning and academic achievement were examined using data collected from university students at a small English university and from their student records. The initial statistical analysis revealed significant effects of gender on learning approach and two of the three academic trait boredom subscales. Female students proved to be less prone to academic trait boredom than their male counterparts. A model was then developed that showed how a student’s choice of learning approach was influenced by academic trait boredom and impinged on academic achievement. This modelling also confirmed that students who are more prone to academic trait boredom are also more likely to adopt a surface approach to learning rather than a deep or strategic one. The results of this investigation have implications for students, lecturers, course designers and learning support staff both here in this one location as well as elsewhere across the higher education sector.
Doveweed is a problematic weed species in many agricultural ecosystems as well as on roadsides and rights-of-way. Effective POST chemical control options for doveweed are limited in many cropping systems. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of metsulfuron-methyl dose and the impact of mixtures and sequential applications of either trifloxysulfuron-sodium or bentazon with metsulfuron-methyl for doveweed control. By 14 d after the initial treatment, applying 0.04 kg ai ha−1 metsulfuron-methyl, either once or sequentially, provided 100% control of doveweed. Application of trifloxysulfuron-sodium at 0.04 kg ai ha−1 alone or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) did not provide consistent doveweed control nor did it reduce biomass. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium applied alone at 0.08 kg ha−1 or in a mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided consistent doveweed control (>80%). A single application of bentazon (0.56 kg ai ha−1) was ineffective at controlling doveweed. A single application of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) or sequential applications of either bentazon alone (0.56 kg ha−1) or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided excellent doveweed control (100%) by 35 d after treatment. Overall, single applications of metsulfuron-methyl (0.02 to 0.17 kg ha−1) or mixtures of metsulfuron-methyl with trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.04 + 0.08 kg ha−1, respectively) or bentazon (0.04 + 0.56 kg ha−1, respectively) controlled doveweed and may be useful for enhancing the control spectrum for other weeds. Sequential applications of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) provided doveweed control and are a resistance-management strategy for doveweed.
POST weed control atop the bed during strawberry production is limited to hand weeding, clopyralid, and acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Identification of additional modes of action is desirable to increase available options for producers and alleviate herbicide resistance concerns. The study objective was to screen sulfonylurea herbicides for safety of strawberry coordinated with efficacy against Carolina geranium. Herbicide treatments included metsulfuron-methyl, flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, and rimsulfuron. Strawberry plants were heavily damaged by all herbicides apart from foramsulfuron. Although the strawberry plant was dramatically affected by the evaluated herbicides, demonstrating strong epinasty, there were no differences in resultant biomass at 31 d after treatment (DAT) compared to controls. Carolina geranium was severely injured by metsulfuron-methyl, flazasulfuron, and thifensulfuron-methyl, and moderately injured by foramsulfuron. There were consistent reductions in biomass by 31 DAT by metsulfuron-methyl and flazasulfuron. Overall, metsulfuron-methyl and flazasulfuron are suitable candidates for Carolina geranium control in row-middles. Foramsulfuron is a suitable candidate for additional field-based screening for utility in POST use in strawberry production atop the bed. Consideration toward doses, surfactants, timings, and cultivar tolerance may be necessary to minimize injury as observed in the greenhouse (15% to 20%).
Increasing fluorination of organosilyl nitrile solvents improves ionic conductivities of lithium salt electrolytes, resulting from higher values of salt dissociation. Ionic conductivities at 298 K range from 1.5 to 3.2 mS/cm for LiPF6 salt concentrations at 0.6 or 0.7 M. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes where the fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent is mixed with ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. Ionic conductivities of the FOS solvent/carbonate blend electrolytes increase achieving ionic conductivities at 298 K of 5.5–6.3 mS/cm and salt dissociation values ranging from 0.42 to 0.45. Salt dissociation generally decreases with increasing temperature.
Many hospitals have established inpatient antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs), but outpatient activities remain limited. In 2016, the United Hospital Fund (UHF), an independent nonprofit working to build a more effective healthcare system for every New Yorker, launched a 2-stage grant-funded initiative to evaluate outpatient antibiotic stewardship, focusing on adults with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Conclusions from stage 1 included few outpatient antibiotic stewardship activities, variation in prescribing, macrolides as the most commonly prescribed antibiotic, and provider interest in improving prescribing.1
Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) offer patient care and perform research. Increasingly, AMCs advertise to the public in order to garner income that can support these dual missions. In what follows, we raise concerns about the ways that advertising blurs important distinctions between them. Such blurring is detrimental to AMC efforts to fulfill critically important ethical responsibilities pertaining both to science communication and clinical research, because marketing campaigns can employ hype that weakens research integrity and contributes to therapeutic misconception and misestimation, undermining the informed consent process that is essential to the ethical conduct of research. We offer ethical analysis of common advertising practices that justify these concerns. We also suggest the need for a deliberative body convened by the Association of American Medical Colleges and others to develop a set of voluntary guidelines that AMCs can use to avoid in the future, the problems found in many current AMC advertising practices.
This study examines 2,000 years of marine trade to the ancient Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala. Located almost 150 kilometers from the nearest coast in Belize, Ceibal was a large community spanning the Middle Preclassic through early Postclassic periods (1000 b.c.–a.d. 1200). It therefore provides an excellent opportunity to assess the marine resources imported through the southern Maya lowlands over many centuries, offering insight into trade networks, uses of shell ornaments, religious beliefs and rituals, and other activities involving marine species. The study compares marine invertebrate data from Ceibal to a neighboring subordinate community, Caobal, as well as data previously reported from sites in the southern Mesoamerican lowlands, in order to understand regional sociocultural and trade connections over time. The majority of Ceibal's marine taxa are Atlantic species and reflect shell trends observed elsewhere in Guatemala and Belize, suggesting strong ties to trade networks eastward to the coast that lasted many centuries.