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Central to the conception of this article is the architectural theorist Bernard Tschumi's dictum, ‘There is no architecture without action, no architecture without events, no architecture without program … no architecture without violence.’ Shaped as well by Eyal Weizman's conception of ‘forensic architecture’, the focus of the investigation is on Israel's architecture of security and on the corresponding Palestinian architecture of resistance. Emphasising an encounter of cartographies that reveals the way Palestinians make life livable in response to the architectural violence they face, the analysis is continues with reference to Yari Sharif's analysis of architectures of resistance and with a reading of a feature film, Hany Abu-Assad's Omar (2013) in which the Separation Wall between Israel and Palestine is one of the film's primary agent/protagonists. The article surveys popular culture texts, focused on crime and espionage to analyse a range of security practices and breaches that amplify the analysis with attention to security issues in individual households, multiple-person dwelling arrangements, architectural locations throughout cities, and buildings housing governmental security agencies. That trajectory of architectural sites lends a micropolitical analysis to the macropolitical level of governmental policy and modes of resistance to it.
Effective community engagement in T3–T4 research is widespread, however, similar stakeholder involvement is missing in T1–T2 research. As part of an effort to embed community stakeholders in T1–T2 research, an academic community partnered team conducted discussion groups with researchers to assess perspectives on (1) barriers/challenges to including community stakeholders in basic science, (2) skills/training required for stakeholders and researchers, and (3) potential benefits of these activities. Engaging community in basic science research was perceived as challenging but with exciting potential to incorporate “real-life” community health priorities into basic research, resulting in a new full-spectrum translational research model.
In view of the robust link often inferred between autonomous journalism and the strength of a society's democratic institutions, and against the background of current challenges to journalists’ traditional roles as purveyors of timely and independent information, we interviewed 352 Canadian journalists about their social and political roles and the influences on their news choices. Comparison of their responses against an international data set (N = 27,567) suggests that Canadian journalists place greater value on detached monitorial roles and claim relatively greater autonomy from commercial and other influences on their work. Further, in comparing these findings to an influential panel study from 1996 to 2003, we conclude that the Canadian journalists’ “credo,” focused on neutral reporting and oriented more to perceived public interest than to business or audience interests, remains surprisingly intact despite contemporary pressures on news forms and business models. This professed neutrality is mitigated by a desire to promote diversity and tolerance.
Adverse caregiving, for example, previous institutionalization (PI), is often associated with emotion dysregulation that increases anxiety risk. However, the concept of developmental multifinality predicts heterogeneity in anxiety outcomes. Despite this well-known heterogeneity, more work is needed to identify sources of this heterogeneity and how these sources interact with environmental risk to influence mental health. Here, working memory (WM) was examined during late childhood/adolescence as an intra-individual factor to mitigate the risk for separation anxiety, which is particularly susceptible to caregiving adversities. A modified “object-in-place” task was administered to 110 youths (10–17 years old), with or without a history of PI. The PI youths had elevated separation anxiety scores, which were anticorrelated with morning cortisol levels, yet there were no group differences in WM. PI youths showed significant heterogeneity in separation anxiety symptoms and morning cortisol levels, and WM moderated the link between caregiving and separation anxiety and mediated the association between separation anxiety and morning cortisol in PI youth. Findings suggest that (a) institutional care exerts divergent developmental consequences on separation anxiety versus WM, (b) WM interacts with adversity-related emotion dysregulation, and (c) WM may be a therapeutic target for separation anxiety following early caregiving adversity.
Gastrointestinal and mental disorders are highly comorbid, and animal models have shown that both can be caused by early adversity (e.g., parental deprivation). Interactions between the brain and bacteria that live within the gastrointestinal system (the microbiome) underlie adversity–gastrointestinal–anxiety interactions, but these links have not been investigated during human development. In this study, we utilized data from a population of 344 youth (3–18 years old) who were raised with their biological parents or were exposed to early adverse caregiving experiences (i.e., institutional or foster care followed by international adoption) to explore adversity–gastrointestinal–anxiety associations. In Study 1, we demonstrated that previous adverse care experiences were associated with increased incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in youth. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also associated with concurrent and future anxiety (measured across 5 years), and those gastrointestinal symptoms mediated the adversity–anxiety association at Time 1. In a subsample of children who provided both stool samples and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (Study 2, which was a “proof-of-principle”), adversity was associated with changes in diversity (both alpha and beta) of microbial communities, and bacteria levels (adversity-associated and adversity-independent) were correlated with prefrontal cortex activation to emotional faces. Implications of these data for supporting youth mental health are discussed.
Music plays a central role in the ceremonies of many native-American groups. Ritual practitioners are often called Singers, and the most important words of the ceremonies are uttered musically. While the music is used in obvious ways—accompanying dance, for instance, or making text audible—a less obvious but much more important function is that of structuring the time-frame of the ritual. This is a particularly necessary function in those ceremonies which last over a period of several days and must therefore sustain over time the experience of transcendence. The purpose of such a ceremony is to effect ritual transformation within a socially regulated framework. In this paper, we will be describing the role of music in the Mescalero Apache girls' rite of passage, an eight-day ritual in which a young pubescent girl is transformed into the female deity of the Apache, Isdzαnadl'esh, and is literally “sung” into womanhood.
The occupational exposure to uranium associated with milling and fabrication of depleted uranium is presently assessed from bioassay of urine samples. The evaluation of the body-burden of uraninm from urine analysis has many difficulties and uncertainties associated with accounting for the bio-transport of inhaled uranium psrticles from the lungs, to absorption in the blood and excretion through the kidneys. The chemical toxicity of uranium and other transuranic elements is not fully understood, partially because of the difficulty of assessing the body burden of these metals in-situ. The transuranic elements are known to be deposited and retained in bone. A non-invasive X-ray fluorescence technique has been developed to assay the depleted uranium in bones in-situ. The K-shell electrons in uranium, which have a binding energy of 115.6 key are excited by the 122 and 136 keV gamma rays from a Co-57 source. A liquid N2 cooled intrinsic Ge-detector is employed to measure the characteristic K fluorescence from the uranium as well as the coherently scattered gamma raj's from the Co-57 source. The quantity of uranium in the bone is determined from the number of K fluorescence events extracted from the measured scattered photon spectrum. In addition, the bone mineral mass is determined from the number of coherently scattered gamma rays, permitting the assay of uranium to be expressed in terms of micrograms per unit mass bone. Using this system it was possible to measure molar concentrations of uranium with high precision and reproducibility.
In this paper we show that to a unital associative algebra object (resp. co-unital co-associative co-algebra object) of any abelian monoidal category (
) endowed with a symmetric 2-trace, i.e., an
satisfying some natural trace-like conditions, one can attach a cyclic (resp. cocyclic) module, and therefore speak of the (co)cyclic homology of the (co)algebra “with coefficients in
”. Furthermore, we observe that if
-bimodule category and
is a stable central pair, i.e.,
satisfy certain conditions, then
acquires a symmetric 2-trace. The dual notions of symmetric 2-contratraces and stable central contrapairs are derived as well. As an application we can recover all Hopf cyclic type (co)homology theories.
Meaning and Purpose (MaP) therapy aims to enhance meaning-based coping through a life review that focuses on the value and worth of the person, key relationships, sources of fulfillment, roles, and future priorities in living life out fully. We sought to test the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session model of MaP therapy against a wait-list control cohort in a pilot study seeking effect sizes on measures of adaptation.
We randomized patients with advanced cancer to MaP therapy or wait-list control, with measures administered at baseline and after 6–8 weeks. Wait-list patients could then crossover to receive therapy, with further measures collected postintervention. Adherence to the manualized model was sustained through weekly supervision and fidelity coding of recorded sessions. We used generalized estimating equations to control for baseline and any correlation of data.
From 134 eligible participants, 57 (43%) consented, and 40 of 45 (89%) offered therapy completed 6 sessions. Key barriers to consenting patients were poor health (15 refusers and 4 withdrawals) and death intervened in 6 participants. MaP therapy generated adequate effect sizes in posttraumatic growth (new possibilities, appreciation of life, and personal strength) and life attitudes (choices and goal seeking) to permit calculation of power for a formal randomized, controlled trial.
Significance of results
Delivery of this model of existentially oriented therapy is feasible and acceptable to patients. A properly powered randomized controlled trial is justified to examine the efficacy of this intervention.