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Written by eminent international judges, scholars and practitioners, this book offers a timely study of China's role in international dispute resolution in the context of the construction of the 'Belt and Road Initiative' (BRI). It provides in-depth analysis of the law and practice in the fields of international trade, commerce, investment and international law of the sea, as they relate to the BRI construction. It is the first comprehensive assessment of China's policy and practice in international dispute resolution, in general and in individual fields, in the context of the BRI construction. This book will be an indispensable reading for scholars and practitioners with interest in China and international dispute resolution. It also constitutes an invaluable reference for anyone interested in the changing international law and order, in which China is playing an increasingly significant role, particularly through the BRI construction.
Not all plant-based and animal foods exert the same health effects due to their various nutrient compositions. We aimed to assess the quality of plant-based vs. animal foods in relation to mortality in a prospective cohort study. Using data collected from a nationally representative sample of 36,825 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014, we developed a de novo Comprehensive Diet Quality Index (cDQI) that assesses the quality of 17 foods based on the healthfulness, and separately scored the quality of 11 plant-based foods in a plant-based Diet Quality Index (pDQI) and 6 animal foods in an animal-based Diet Quality index (aDQI). Mortality from all causes, heart disease, and cancer were obtained from linkage to the National Death Index through December 31, 2015. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after multivariable adjustments. During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 4,669 all-cause deaths occurred, including 798 deaths due to heart disease and 1,021 due to cancer. Compared to individuals in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of cDQI had a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.86; P-trend<0.001), which largely reflected the inverse relationship between quality of plant-based foods (pDQI) and all-cause mortality (HR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.74, P-trend<0.001). No independent association was found for the quality of animal-foods (aDQI) and mortality. Our results suggest that consuming healthy plant-based foods is associated with lower all-cause mortality among US adults.
Since the advent of the first programmable robotic arm in the early 1960s by George C. Devol, the robotics industry has seen fast growth, and nowadays robotic arms are ubiquitous in automobile assembly lines. In addition to those fixed to the ground as in the robotic arm case, autonomous mobile robots have also been designed and manufactured, and have found ample applications in many areas such as space and deep-sea exploration, thanks to synergistic progress in control, actuation, and information technology, among others. These robots are featured with high accuracy for force and position control. They are ideal for repetitive tasks that quickly bore humans. They make many fewer mistakes. Their bodies are made of hard materials, such as metals and hard plastics, while their control and actuation units use metal or semiconductors such as silicon for electronics.
Thermal conductivity behaviors are one of the most important evaluations of carbon fiber-reinforced carbon matrix (C/C) composites in the field of thermal protective structures. In order to deepen the understanding of the thermal conductivity behaviors of C/C composites, the out-of-plane thermal conductivity of C/C composites is studied by considering voids and the fiber volume fractions. The representative volume element (RVE) models of microscale and mesoscale are proposed. The parameters of the RVE models are captured by X-ray micro-computed tomography. The carbon matrix equivalent models and fiber volume fraction models along the z-direction were established. The effects of the porosity and fiber volume fraction along the z-direction on the thermal conductivity were analyzed. The proposed model was validated by experimental results at room temperature. Further, the numerical methods developed in this study can provide guidance for predicting the thermal conductivity of C/C composites with complex structures.
Whole-rock major and trace elements and Hf isotopes of magmatic zircons of tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) rocks with different ages (2.9, 2.7 and 2.5 Ga) from the three blocks (the Eastern Block, Western Block and Trans-North China Orogen) of the North China Craton were compiled to investigate their respective petrogenesis, tectonic setting and implications for crustal growth and evolution. Geochemical features of the 2.5 Ga TTGs of the Eastern Block require melting of predominant rutile-bearing eclogite and subordinate garnet-amphibolite at higher pressure, while the source material of the 2.7 Ga TTGs is garnet-amphibolite or granulite at lower pressure. The 2.5 Ga TTGs have high Mg#, Cr and Ni, negative Nb–Ta anomalies and a juvenile basaltic crustal source, indicating derivation from the melting of a subducting slab. In contrast, features of the 2.7 Ga TTGs suggest generation from melting of thickened lower crust. The 2.5 and 2.7 Ga TTGs in the Trans-North China Orogen were formed at garnet-amphibolite to eclogite facies, and the source material of the 2.5 Ga TTGs in the Western Block is most likely garnet-amphibolite or eclogite. The 2.5 Ga TTGs in the Trans-North China Orogen and Western Block were generated by the melting of a subducting slab, whereas the 2.7 Ga TTGs in the Trans-North China Orogen derived from melting of thickened lower crust. The Hf isotopic data suggest both the 2.5 and 2.7 Ga TTG magmas were involved with contemporary crustal growth and reworking. The two-stage model age (TDM2) histograms show major crustal growth between 2.9 and 2.7 Ga for the whole North China Craton.
The various vision-based tactile sensors have been developed for robotic perception in recent years. In this paper, the novel soft robotic finger embedded with the visual sensor is proposed for perception. It consists of a colored soft inner chamber, an outer structure, and an endoscope camera. The bending perception algorithm based on image preprocessing and deep learning is proposed. The boundary of color regions and the position of marker dots are extracted from the inner chamber image and label image, respectively. Then the convolutional neural network with multi-task learning is trained to obtain bending states of the finger. Finally, the experiments are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Hearing loss affects over 1.3 billion individuals worldwide, with the greatest burden among adults. Little is known regarding the association between adult-onset hearing loss and employment.
Seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ABI/Inform Collection, Business Source Ultimate, Web of Science and Scopus) were searched through to October 2018. The key word terms used related to hearing loss and employment, excluding paediatric or congenital hearing loss and deaf or culturally deaf populations.
The initial search resulted in 13 144 articles. A total of 7494 articles underwent title and abstract screening, and 243 underwent full-text review. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were set in 10 predominantly high-income countries. Seven of the 25 studies analysed regionally or nationally representative datasets and controlled for key variables. Six of these seven studies reported associations between hearing loss and employment.
The highest quality studies currently available indicate that adult-onset hearing loss is associated with unemployment. However, considerable heterogeneity exists, and more rigorous studies that include low- and middle-income countries are needed.
Limited studies have investigated the effects of serum carotenoids on the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and the findings have been inconclusive. This study aims to assess the association between serum total or specific carotenoid levels and NHL risk. This 1:1 matched, hospital-based case–control study enrolled 512 newly diagnosed (within 1 month) NHL patients and 512 healthy controls who were matched by age (±5 years) and sex in Urumqi, China. Serum carotenoid levels were measured by HPLC. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher serum total carotenoid levels and their subtypes (e.g. α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene) were dose-dependently associated with decreased NHL risk. The multivariable-adjusted OR and their 95 % CI for NHL risk for quartile 4 (v. quartile 1) were 0·31 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·48; Pfor trend < 0·001) for total carotenoids, 0·52 (95 % CI 0·33, 0·79; Pfor trend: 0·003) for α-carotene, 0·63 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·94; Pfor trend: 0·031) for β-carotene, 0·73 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·05; Pfor trend: 0·034) for β-cryptoxanthin and 0·51 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·75; Pfor trend: 0·001) for lycopene. A null association was observed between serum lutein + zeaxanthin and NHL risk (OR 0·89, 95 % CI 0·57, 1·38; Pfor trend: 0·556). Significant interactions were observed after stratifying according to smoking status, and inverse associations were more evident among current smokers than past or never smokers for total carotenoids, α-carotene and lycopene (Pfor heterogeneity: 0·047, 0·042 and 0·046). This study indicates that higher serum carotenoid levels might be inversely associated with NHL risk, especially among current smokers.
Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and albumin bovine serum (BSA) have profound application in the detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In the present study, the effects and mechanism of PEG and BSA modification on the cytotoxicity of QDs have been explored. It was found that the diameter of the as-prepared QDs, PEG@QDs, BSA@QDs is 3–5 nm, 4–5 nm, and 4–6 nm, respectively. With increase of the treatment time from 0 to 24 h, the HCC cell viability treated with QDs, PEG@QDs, and BSA@QDs obviously decreases, showing a certain time-dependent manner. When the concentration of several nanomaterials is increased from 10 to 90 nM, the cell viability decreases accordingly, exhibiting a certain concentration-dependent manner. Under the same concentration change conditions, the reactive oxygen species contents of cells treated by QDs, PEG@QDs, and BSA@QDs also rise from 7.9 × 103, 6.7 × 103, and 4.7 × 103 to 13.2 × 103, 14.3 × 103, and 12.3 × 103, respectively. In these processes, superoxide dismutase does not play a major role. This study provides strong foundation and useful guidance for QD applications in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Our objective was to determine whether chorionicity affects umbilical cord blood acid-base parameters of the second twin. This was a retrospective cohort of twin pregnancies delivered at ≥23 weeks of gestation at a tertiary hospital from 2010 to 2016. Patients were included if arterial and venous umbilical cord gas results were available for both newborns and chorionicity was confirmed histologically. Exclusion criteria included intrauterine fetal demise of either twin prior to labor, major fetal anomalies, monoamnionicity, uncertain chronicity and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. The primary outcome evaluated was the umbilical artery (UA) pH of the second twin. A total of 593 dichorionic (DC) and 86 monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies were included. No difference in UA pH was observed between MC and DC twins. Among vaginal deliveries (n = 97), the UA pH of the first twin was higher than the second twin (7.26 vs. 7.24; p = .01). Twin-to-twin delivery interval (TTDI) ≥20 min was associated with a higher UA pH in the first twin compared to the second twin (7.25 vs. 7.16, respectively; p = .006). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict arterial pH < 7.20 for the second twin; the most predictive factors were arterial pH < 7.20 for the first twin, chronic hypertension and prolonged TTDI. Chorionicity was not associated with any acid-base parameter of umbilical cord blood in either the first or second twin. No differences in neonatal outcomes were observed based on chorionicity or birth order. Populations with a lower cesarean delivery rate may yield different findings.
The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of chest injuries, oxygen therapy for respiratory failure, and the outcomes of victims after the Jiangsu tornado, which occurred on June 23, 2016 in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, China.
The clinical records of 144 patients referred to Yancheng City No.1 People’s Hospital from June 23 through June 25 were retrospectively investigated. Of those patients, 68 (47.2%) sustained major chest injuries. The demographic details, trauma history, details of injuries and Abbreviated Injury Scores (AIS), therapy for respiratory failure, surgical procedures, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and mortality were analyzed.
Of the 68 patients, 41 (60.3%) were female and 27 (39.7%) were male. The average age of the injured patients was 57.1 years. Forty-six patients (67.6%) suffered from polytrauma. The mean thoracic AIS of the victims was calculated as 2.85 (SD = 0.76). Rib fracture was the most common chest injury, noted in 56 patients (82.4%). Pulmonary contusion was the next most frequent injury, occurring in 12 patients (17.7%). Ten patients with severe chest trauma were admitted to ICU. The median ICU stay was 11.7 (SD = 8.5) days. Five patients required intubation and ventilation, one patient was treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), and four patients were treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Three patients died during hospitalization. The hospital mortality was 4.41%.
Chest trauma was a common type of injury after tornado. The most frequent thoracic injuries were rib fractures and pulmonary contusion. Severe chest trauma is usually associated with a high incidence of respiratory support requirements and a long length of stay in the ICU. Early initiation of appropriate oxygen therapy was vital to restoring normal respiratory function and saving lives. Going forward, HFNC might be an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic addition to the management of acute respiratory failure in chest trauma.
Findings for the roles of dairy products, Ca and vitamin D on ovarian cancer risk remain controversial. We aimed to assess these associations by using an updated meta-analysis. Five electronic databases (e.g. PubMed and Embase) were searched from inception to 24 December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated. A total of twenty-nine case–control or cohort studies were included. For comparisons of the highest v. lowest intakes, higher whole milk intake was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (RR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·59), whereas decreased risks were observed for higher intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96), dietary Ca (RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84) and dietary vitamin D (RR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·95). Additionally, for every 100 g/d increment, increased ovarian cancer risks were found for total dairy products (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) and for whole milk (RR 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11); however, decreased risks were found for 100 g/d increased intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·99), cheese (RR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·98), dietary Ca (RR 0·96; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98), total Ca (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99), dietary vitamin D (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) and increased levels of circulating vitamin D (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97). These results show that whole milk intake might contribute to a higher ovarian cancer risk, whereas low-fat milk, dietary Ca and dietary vitamin D might reduce the risk.
The head-on collision between two dust-acoustic solitary waves in a non-magnetized, collisionless and strongly coupled dust plasma has been studied. The application scope of the analytical solution of the head-on collision is given in the present paper by using the particle-in-cell simulation method. It is noted that the analytical results are valid if the amplitudes of both of the solitary waves are small enough. The effects of the coupling parameters on both the head-on collision and the waveform are also studied in the present paper.
Ba3−xSrxTb3−xCexO9 (x = 1 and 1.5) ceramics (BSTC) with a relative density of 93% and a grain size distribution of 0.2–3 µm were prepared by the mixed-oxides reaction route. The crystalline structures, microstructures, valence states, and electrical properties of two ceramics were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and electrical measurements. Rietveld analyses of XRPD patterns show that BSTC1 is indexed as a trigonal structure with the space group R-3c, and BSTC3/2 is indexed as an orthorhombic perovskite structure with the space group Pmcn. The EPR, XPS, and electrical conductivity results confirm that Ce and Tb ions in BSTC exist as Ce4+ and mixed-valence states of Tb4+/Tb3+, respectively. At room temperature, the two BSTC ceramics exhibit a similar semiconducting behavior. The relationships between electrical conductivity and temperature/frequency are provided. The defect chemistry is discussed.