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We show that the diameter of a uniformly drawn spanning tree of a simple connected graph on n vertices with minimal degree linear in n is typically of order
. A byproduct of our proof, which is of independent interest, is that on such graphs the Cheeger constant and the spectral gap are comparable.
We report detailed chemical and isotopic data from a subglacial siliceous deposit on andesitic bedrock recently exposed by glacier retreat. Whereas a single, <1 μm, Si-rich layer covers the highly polished bedrock on the up-glacier (stoss) surfaces, distinct, lithified deposits commonly occur at the lee of small bedrock protuberances, on a scale <0.1 meter. The deposit is millimeters in thickness and consists of laminae tens to hundreds microns thick that differ from one another in color, rock-fragment abundance and chemical composition. Ca-rich laminae that are sufficiently enriched in uranium (~2–50 ppm) to permit U-series isotopic analysis suggest that the subglacial deposit formed 10–20 ka, much earlier than previously assumed. We conclude that (1) the siliceous deposit persisted for at least 10 000 years despite the intervening erosion and weathering, (2) distinct episodes of formation due to significant changes in hydrology and water chemistry are recorded in the deposit, and (3) a siliceous slurry may have existed at the ice-rock interface and influenced the local friction. This work reinforces earlier findings that subglacial chemical deposits can form and persist on geologic time scales and may have implications for the role of the cryosphere in the Earth's geochemical cycles and climate system.
As championed by the work of Ed Zigler, investing in nurturing environments for all children is a chief tenet of primary prevention that will have far-reaching benefits to the health and welfare of all members of society. Children who endure child maltreatment (CM) are among society's most vulnerable. Prospective longitudinal research aimed at a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms linking CM to subsequent adverse health consequences is needed to improve outcomes and to strengthen causal inference. This paper outlines the methods of the Child Health Study (CHS), a large, state-wide longitudinal cohort of recently maltreated and nonmaltreated youth aged 8–13 who will be assessed every 2 years. The CHS is designed to include in-depth assessments of multiple environmental, behavioral, neural, physiological, and molecular mechanisms through which CM may impact a broad spectrum of youth development, including behavioral and physical health outcomes. In addition to describing the conceptual framework and methods underlying the CHS, we provide information on valuable “lessons learned” in the hopes of supporting future research efforts facing similar challenges. The ultimate goal of this research is demonstrating how policies regarding CM impact the well-being, resilience and recovery of survivors and that they are worthy of large public investment.
This article presents data on lexical development of 881 Israeli Hebrew-speaking monolingual toddlers ages 1;0 to 2;0. A Web-based version of the Hebrew MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (H-MB-CDI) was used for data collection. Growth curves for expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, actions and gestures were characterized. Developmental trajectories of toddlers with various demographic characteristics, such as education, income, religiosity level, birth order of the child, and child-care arrangements were compared. Results show that the lexical growth curves for Hebrew are comparable to those reported for other languages. Sex, birth order, and child-care arrangements were found to influence the size of lexicons. It is recommended that the trajectories presented here be used as norms for lexical growth among typical Hebrew-speaking toddlers in the second year of life.
Recent radiocarbon (14C) research demonstrates that the urban culture of Early-Bronze III in the southern Levant ends around 2500 BC, and not around 2300 BC as was widely assumed. This should extend the Intermediate Bronze Age by 200 years. Charred olive pits from Intermediate Bronze Age contexts in the site of Khirbat el-‘Alya Northeast in the Judean Shephelah region (Israel) were 14C dated, resulting in calibrated dates around 2500 BC. The date range of Khirbat el-‘Alya Northeast samples is an indication that in the Mediterranean parts of the southern Levant, the Intermediate Bronze Age material culture appeared around the time of the decline of the preceding culture of Early-Bronze III—around 2500 BC or somewhat earlier. Possible Intermediate Bronze settlement pattern and the site’s relation to the nearby Early-Bronze city of Tel Yarmuth are discussed based on previous Intermediate Bronze and Early-Bronze related research in the surrounding area.
Technical challenges associated with telomere length (TL) measurements have prompted concerns regarding their utility as a biomarker of aging. Several factors influence TL assessment via qPCR, the most common measurement method in epidemiological studies, including storage conditions and DNA extraction method. Here, we tested the impact of power supply during the qPCR assay. Momentary fluctuations in power can affect the functioning of high-performance electronics, including real-time thermocyclers. We investigated if mitigating these fluctuations by using an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) influenced TL assessment via qPCR. Samples run with a UPS had significantly lower standard deviation (p < 0.001) and coefficient of variation (p < 0.001) across technical replicates than those run without a UPS. UPS usage also improved exponential amplification efficiency at the replicate, sample, and plate levels. Together these improvements translated to increased performance across metrics of external validity including correlation with age, within-person correlation across tissues, and correlation between parents and offspring.
Visual and auditory signs of patient functioning have long been used for clinical diagnosis, treatment selection, and prognosis. Direct measurement and quantification of these signals can aim to improve the consistency, sensitivity, and scalability of clinical assessment. Currently, we investigate if machine learning-based computer vision (CV), semantic, and acoustic analysis can capture clinical features from free speech responses to a brief interview 1 month post-trauma that accurately classify major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
N = 81 patients admitted to an emergency department (ED) of a Level-1 Trauma Unit following a life-threatening traumatic event participated in an open-ended qualitative interview with a para-professional about their experience 1 month following admission. A deep neural network was utilized to extract facial features of emotion and their intensity, movement parameters, speech prosody, and natural language content. These features were utilized as inputs to classify PTSD and MDD cross-sectionally.
Both video- and audio-based markers contributed to good discriminatory classification accuracy. The algorithm discriminates PTSD status at 1 month after ED admission with an AUC of 0.90 (weighted average precision = 0.83, recall = 0.84, and f1-score = 0.83) as well as depression status at 1 month after ED admission with an AUC of 0.86 (weighted average precision = 0.83, recall = 0.82, and f1-score = 0.82).
Direct clinical observation during post-trauma free speech using deep learning identifies digital markers that can be utilized to classify MDD and PTSD status.
Despite its high prevalence, the validated treatment for ADHD is chronic administration of psychostimulants, which is associated with side effects and occasionally not tolerated. Deep TMS using special coil designs for targeting neural networks linked with neuropsychiatric disorders, may become a viable alternative.
Comparison of rTMS treatment using deep, figure-8 and sham coils on ADHD symptoms.
In the current randomized, sham-controlled study, adult ADHD patients received 15 daily sessions of high-frequency rTMS directed to the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC), using either deep, figure-8, or a sham coil. ADHD symptoms and cognitive alterations were assessed using the CAARS-INV, self–report questionnaires and performance tests. Additionally, the stop signal task (SST) combined with EEG measures was used to asses behavioural inhibition and ERPs. EEG responses to an inhibitory protocol of paired TMS pulses over the rPFC were measured before and after treatments. A healthy control group was evaluated at baseline for comparison.
Several ADHD symptoms were improved in patients that received dTMS but not standard figure-8 or sham treatment (p=0.007, CAARS; p=0.014, SST). Differences between ADHD patients and healthy controls were demonstrated in ERPs during the SST, and in response to single and paired TMS pulses. The lower amplitudes of ERPs in patients correlated with ADHD symptoms and behavioural inhibition measures.
Repeated stimulation of deep areas in the rPFC has therapeutic potential, where rPFC excitability is impaired in ADHD patients. Ongoing analysis attempts to establish the neurophysiological measures as predictors and biomarkers for effectiveness of dTMS treatment.
PTSD patients display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards negative emotion. Long latency eventrelated potentials (ERP’s) are composed of the P300 and subsequent slow wave activity. These ERP’s are hypothesized to be relevant for attentional and initial memory storage events as well as emotional processing. objectives: This study tested the hypothesis that abnormal emotional processing in PTSD is reflected in altered brain activity, as measured via ERP’s.
Detect differences in cortical activity and emotional processing in PTSD patients as compared to controls.
ERP’s were recorded from 14 PTSD and 14 control subjects while viewing emotion-laden pictures. Subjects were instructed to press a button depending on the presence of a person or human part in the picture and response time was recorded.
Long latency ERP data (300-1035 msec) showed valence dependent activity in control subjects distinguishing negative vs. positive and neutral pictures. PTSD patients, however, lacked differential activation and had similar brain activity across all picture valances, which resembled the pattern observed in controls only for negative stimuli.
[Late ERP’s 980-1035msec]
PTSD patients also exhibited longer response time.
Our results demonstrate abnormal cognitive-emotional processing in PTSD patients and may underlie overgeneralization processes that are part of this disorder.
Impairments in social behavior and cognition, such as the ability to identify others’ emotional state, are important features in schizophrenia. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) and are nonapeptides that influence social cognition and behavior. Previous studies have shown that the administration of intranasal AVP or OXT may affect the ability to recognize facial emotions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a single dose of AVP or OXT on social cognition in patients with schizophrenia. The secondary objective of the study was to test for sex-specific effects of intranasal AVP and OXT administration on social cognition.
In this double-blind, placebo-control, cross-over study, 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, received a dose of AVP, OXT or placebo in three separate meetings. Forty-five minutes after administration, subjects performed facial emotion recognition tasks.
There were no significant main effects of hormone administration on the ability to recognize facial emotions between treatment conditions. However, AVP administration resulted in sex-specific differences in emotion recognition. Specifically, in men, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize angry faces. In women, AVP administration reduced the ability to recognize sad faces and improved the ability to recognize fearful faces.
These findings indicate that intranasal AVP may affect the recognition of facial emotions differently in men and women. Thus, AVP may increase the differences between men and women on social cognition.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Research exploring the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has documented four modal trajectories (low, remitting, high, and delayed), with proportions varying across studies. Heterogeneity could be due to differences in trauma types and patient demographic characteristics.
This analysis pooled data from six longitudinal studies of adult survivors of civilian-related injuries admitted to general hospital emergency departments (EDs) in six countries (pooled N = 3083). Each study included at least three assessments of the clinician-administered PTSD scale in the first post-trauma year. Latent class growth analysis determined the proportion of participants exhibiting various PTSD symptom trajectories within and across the datasets. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined demographic characteristics, type of event leading to the injury, and trauma history as predictors of trajectories differentiated by their initial severity and course.
Five trajectories were found across the datasets: Low (64.5%), Remitting (16.9%), Moderate (6.7%), High (6.5%), and Delayed (5.5%). Female gender, non-white race, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries were associated with increased risk for initial PTSD reactions. Female gender and assaultive injuries were associated with risk for membership in the Delayed (v. Low) trajectory, and lower education, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries with risk for membership in the High (v. Remitting) trajectory.
The results suggest that over 30% of civilian-related injury survivors admitted to EDs experience moderate-to-high levels of PTSD symptoms within the first post-trauma year, with those reporting assaultive violence at increased risk of both immediate and longer-term symptoms.
Projected changes to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 may affect the prevalence and severity of identified cases. This study examined differences in rates, severity, and overlap of diagnoses using ICD-10 and ICD-11 PTSD diagnostic criteria during consecutive assessments of recent survivors of traumatic events.
The study sample comprised 3863 survivors of traumatic events, evaluated in 11 longitudinal studies of PTSD. ICD-10 and ICD-11 diagnostic rules were applied to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) to derive ICD-10 and ICD-11 diagnoses at different time intervals between trauma occurrence and 15 months.
The ICD-11 criteria identified fewer cases than the ICD-10 across assessment intervals (range −47.09% to −57.14%). Over 97% of ICD-11 PTSD cases met concurrent ICD-10 PTSD criteria. PTSD symptom severity of individuals identified by the ICD-11 criteria (CAPS total scores) was 31.38–36.49% higher than those identified by ICD-10 criteria alone. The latter, however, had CAPS scores indicative of moderate PTSD. ICD-11 was associated with similar or higher rates of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Individuals identified by either ICD-10 or ICD-11 shortly after traumatic events had similar longitudinal course.
This study indicates that significantly fewer individuals would be diagnosed with PTSD using the proposed ICD-11 criteria. Though ICD-11 criteria identify more severe cases, those meeting ICD-10 but not ICD-11 criteria remain in the moderate range of PTSD symptoms. Use of ICD-11 criteria will have critical implications for case identification in clinical practice, national reporting, and research.
Empirical data on the use of services due to mental health problems in older adults in Europe is lacking. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with service utilization in the elderly.
As part of the MentDis_ICF65+ study, N = 3,142 people aged 65–84 living in the community in six European and associated countries were interviewed. Based on Andersen's behavioral model predisposing, enabling, and need factors were analyzed with logistic regression analyses.
Overall, 7% of elderly and 11% of those with a mental disorder had used a service due to mental health problems in the last 12 months. Factors significantly associated with underuse were male sex, lower education, living in the London catchment area, higher functional impairment and more comorbid mental disorders. The most frequently reported barrier to service use was personal beliefs, e.g. “I can deal with my problem on my own” (90%).
Underutilization of mental health services among older people in the European community is common and interventions are needed to achieve an adequate use of services.
Except for dementia and depression, little is known about common mental disorders in elderly people.
To estimate current, 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in different European and associated countries using a standardised diagnostic interview adapted to measure the cognitive needs of elderly people.
The MentDis_ICF65+ study is based on an age-stratified, random sample of 3142 older men and women (65–84 years) living in selected catchment community areas of participating countries.
One in two individuals had experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime, one in three within the past year and nearly one in four currently had a mental disorder. The most prevalent disorders were anxiety disorders, followed by affective and substance-related disorders.
Compared with previous studies we found substantially higher prevalence rates for most mental disorders. These findings underscore the need for improving diagnostic assessments adapted to the cognitive capacity of elderly people. There is a need to raise awareness of psychosocial problems in elderly people and to deliver high-quality mental health services to these individuals.