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Early attempts at surgical sperm retrieval focused on creating artificial spermatoceles in men with vas aplasia or uncorrectable obstructive azoospermia. The collected sperm was used for intrauterine insemination, and success was rare. The major impetus to sperm retrieval came soon after the development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which enabled high fertilization rates and live-birth rates using sperm from the testis or epididymis. Initial cases involved men with obstructive azoospermia and sperm were retrieved microsurgically from the epididymis. Subsequently, testicular sperm, obtained by conventional biopsy, were used when sperm could not be aspirated from the epididymis. Retrieval was simplified with the development of percutaneous techniques for extracting epididymal or testicular sperm. Techniques became more complex and varied when it was realized that men with nonobstructive azoospermia may also have sperm in their testes, but these sperm-containing tubules could be very localized. Hence, a variety of percutaneous and open methods were developed that could sample the testes extensively. Initially the sampling was blind, through multidirectional aspiration or multiple random biopsies. However, these blind techniques could still miss localized areas of sperm production. Also, multiple biopsies were shown to cause testicular damage. Hence, microdissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) was developed, which involved visual inspection of the entire testicular parenchyma under high magnification. mTESE gives the highest sperm retrieval rates, especially when the testes are small or atrophic.
Individuals with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) experience a high burden of illness. Current guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for treating depression, but the extent to which best-practice care pathways are adhered to is unclear.
To explore the extent and nature of ‘treatment gaps’ (non-adherence to stepped care pathways) experienced by a sample of patients with established TRD (non-response to two or more adequate treatments in the current depressive episode) across three cities in the UK.
Five treatment gaps were considered and compared with guidelines, in a cross-sectional retrospective analysis: delay to receiving treatment, lack of access to psychological therapies, delays to medication changes, delays to adjunctive (pharmacological augmentation) treatment and lack of access to secondary care. We additionally explored participant characteristics associated with the extent of treatment gaps experienced.
Of 178 patients with TRD, 47% had been in the current depressive episode for >1 year before initiating antidepressants; 53% had received adequate psychological therapy. A total of 47 and 51% had remained on an unsuccessful first and second antidepressant trial respectively for >16 weeks, and 24 and 27% for >1 year before medication switch, respectively. Further, 54% had tried three or more antidepressant medications within their episode, and only 11% had received adjunctive treatment.
There appears to be a considerable difference between treatment guidelines for depression and the reality of care received by people with TRD. Future research examining representative samples of patients could determine recommendations for optimising care pathways, and ultimately outcomes, for individuals with this illness.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is a critical aspect of preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings. We aimed to identify factors related to lapses in PPE usage that may influence transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients to healthcare personnel (HCP).
Retrospective cohort study
Tertiary care medical center in Minnesota
A total of 345 HCP that sustained a significant occupational exposure to a patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from May 13th, 2020 through November 30th, 2020 were evaluated.
Eight HCP (2.3%) were found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection during their 14-day post-exposure quarantine. A lack of eye protection during the care of a patient with COVID-19 was associated with HCP testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR during the post-exposure quarantine (RR 10.25 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.28-82.39), p=.009). Overall, the most common reason for a significant exposure was the usage of a surgical facemask instead of a respirator during an aerosolizing generating procedure (AGP) (55.9%). However, this was not associated with HCP testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the post-exposure quarantine (RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1), p=1). Notably, transmission primarily occurred in units that did not regularly care for patients with COVID-19.
The use of universal eye protection is a critical aspect of PPE to prevent patient to HCP transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
Nosocomial transmission of influenza is a major concern for infection control. We aimed to dissect transmission dynamics of influenza, including asymptomatic transmission events, in acute care.
Prospective surveillance study during 2 influenza seasons.
Volunteer sample of inpatients on medical wards and healthcare workers (HCWs).
Participants provided daily illness diaries and nasal swabs for influenza A and B detection and whole-genome sequencing for phylogenetic analyses. Contacts between study participants were tracked. Secondary influenza attack rates were calculated based on spatial and temporal proximity and phylogenetic evidence for transmission.
In total, 152 HCWs and 542 inpatients were included; 16 HCWs (10.5%) and 19 inpatients (3.5%) tested positive for influenza on 109 study days. Study participants had symptoms of disease on most of the days they tested positive for influenza (83.1% and 91.9% for HCWs and inpatients, respectively). Also, 11(15.5%) of 71 influenza-positive swabs among HCWs and 3 (7.9%) of 38 influenza-positive swabs among inpatients were collected on days without symptoms; 2 (12.5%) of 16 HCWs and 2 (10.5%) of 19 inpatients remained fully asymptomatic. The secondary attack rate was low: we recorded 1 transmission event over 159 contact days (0.6%) that originated from a symptomatic case. No transmission event occurred in 61 monitored days of contacts with asymptomatic influenza-positive individuals.
Influenza in acute care is common, and individuals regularly shed influenza virus without harboring symptoms. Nevertheless, both symptomatic and asymptomatic transmission events proved rare. We suggest that healthcare-associated influenza prevention strategies that are based on preseason vaccination and barrier precautions for symptomatic individuals seem to be effective.
Bilingual speakers are less accurate and slower than monolinguals in word production. This bilingual cost has been demonstrated primarily for nouns. This study compared verb and noun retrieval to better understand bilingual lexical representation and test alternate hypotheses about bilingual cost. Picture naming speeds from highly proficient English–Spanish bilinguals showed a smaller bilingual cost for verbs compared to nouns. In Experiment 1, picture naming speeds were influenced by name agreement, age-of-acquisition and word length. Additionally, noun (but not verb) naming speed was predicted by word frequency. Experiment 2 examined two potential explanations for the smaller bilingual cost for verbs: verbs experience weaker cross-language interference (measured by translation speed) and smaller frequency effects. Both these predictions were confirmed, showing crucial differences between verbs and nouns and suggesting that cross-language facilitation rather than interference influences bilingual lexical retrieval, and that the frequency lag account of bilingual cost is more applicable to nouns than to verbs. We propose a Bilingual Integrated Grammatical Category model for highly proficient bilinguals to represent lexical category differences.
We present a theoretical and experimental study of the dynamics of two-layer viscous fluid flows on inclined surfaces, motivated by natural and industrial phenomena involving the interactions between two fluid layers. A general model describing the evolution of two fluids on an inclined substrate is developed and explored to reveal a rich variety of flow regimes for different modes of release. The asymptotic reduction of this problem due to the dominance of the along-slope component of gravity is shown to yield considerable analytical inroads compared with previous studies of multi-layer flow configurations, which have focused exclusively on the case of horizontal beds. For the canonical example in which two fluids are introduced at a constant flux, the flow forms two regions: an upstream region containing both fluids, and a downstream region comprised purely of the lighter fluid, with a sharp intervening jump in thicknesses between the two. By constructing similarity solutions, we establish a full regime diagram of the possible configurations over all asymptotic limits of the viscosity, flux and density ratios. For the release of two fixed volumes of fluid, the layers separate completely into two disjoint but connected regions, contrasting in essential structure from the constant flux case. Even a small volume of the heavier fluid is able to significantly accelerate the propagation of the lighter fluid in front of it. Excellent agreement is found between our theoretical predictions and the results of a series of laboratory experiments.
Developing community writing systems in marginalized communities may have many benefits. These range from improved self-esteem and visibility of the language, for written communication and the production of materials. Writing is essential for education: both mother tongue-based multilingual education and immersion teaching for revitalization. This chapter reviews practical and ideological considerations in writing oral languages, exploring motivations behind spelling and script choices. It is essential that communities be in control of all activities that aim at establishing community orthographies for their languages – above all, community members must wish to have their languages written. Key factors in designing effective orthographies are considered, including examples of scripts adopted by minority languages and factors that have influenced their choices. One individual recounts his personal journey to writing and creating literature in his language, Wymysiöeryś. Examples are also given of how curriculum development and research are shaped by a focus on Nahuatl ways of thinking and organizing knowledge.
Infertility is a difficult and stressful condition that impacts about 15 percent of couples attempting to conceive for the first time . In about half of these cases a male factor is causative and, in general, constitutes a major health issue. While the cornerstone of the evaluation of male infertility remains the basic semen analysis, the sperm penetration assay (SPA) is a useful laboratory test for predicting the capacity of an individual male’s spermatozoa to fertilize a female oocyte. This assay supplements standard semen parameters and aids clinicians in identifying couples who will have a high chance of success with in vitro fertilization. The test was first developed in the 1970s and gained momentum when, in 1976, Yanagimachi and colleagues noted that enzymatic removal of the zona pellucida of hamster ova allowed penetration by human spermatozoa . The goal of the SPA is to measure the spermatozoa’s ability to undergo capacitation, acrosome reaction, fusion and penetration through the oolemma (egg plasma membrane), and decondensation within the cytoplasm of hamster oocytes resulting in the formation of the male pronucleus .
Training emergency department (ED) personnel in the care of victims of mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) is a highly challenging task requiring unique and innovative approaches. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the value of high-fidelity simulators in an exercise that incorporates time and resource limitation as an optimal method of training health care personnel in mass-casualty care.
Mass-casualty injury patterns from an explosive blast event were simulated for 12 victims using high-fidelity computerized simulators (HFCS). Programmed outcomes, based on the nature of injuries and conduct of participants, ranged from successful resuscitation and survival to death. The training exercise was conducted five times with different teams of health care personnel (n = 42). The exercise involved limited time and resources such as blood, ventilators, and imaging capability. Medical team performance was observed and recorded. Following the exercise, participants completed a survey regarding their training satisfaction, quality of the exercise, and their prior experiences with MCI simulations. The Likert scale responses from the survey were evaluated using mean with 95% confidence interval, as well as median and inter-quartile range. For the categorical responses, the frequency, proportions, and associated 95% confidence interval were calculated.
The mean rating on the quality of experiences related trainee survey questions (n = 42) was between 4.1 and 4.6 on a scale of 5.0. The mean ratings on a scale of 10.0 for quality, usefulness, and pertinence of the program were 9.2, 9.5, and 9.5, respectfully. One hundred percent of respondents believed that this type of exercise should be required for MCI training and would recommend this exercise to colleagues. The five medical team (n = 5) performances resulted in the number of deaths ranging from two (including the expectant victims) to six. Eighty percent of medical teams attempted to resuscitate the “expectant” infant and exhausted the O- blood supply. Sixty percent of medical teams depleted the supply of ventilators. Forty percent of medical teams treated “delayed” victims too early.
A training exercise using HFCS for mass casualties and employing limited time and resources is described. This exercise is a preferred method of training among participating health care personnel.
We discuss the question of learning distributions over permutations of a given set of choices, options or items based on partial observations. This is central to capturing the so-called “choice’’ in a variety of contexts. The question of learning distributions over permutations arises beyond capturing “choice’’ too, e.g., tracking a collection of objects using noisy cameras, or aggregating ranking of web-pages using outcomes of multiple search engines. Here we focus on learning distributions over permutations from marginal distributions of two types: first-order marginals and pair-wise comparisons. We emphasize the ability to identify the entire distribution over permutations as well as the “best ranking’’.
This study sought to understand the evolving continuing medical education (CME) needs of physicians managing patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). A case-based survey was developed, and later updated, to assess current practice, knowledge, and attitudes of neurologists and psychiatrists in the management of patients with TD. The original and updated survey were fielded in May 2018 and March 2020, respectively, to US-practicing psychiatrists and neurologists. Results were obtained from 213 psychiatrists and 187 neurologists in 2018 and from 125 psychiatrists and 128 neurologists in 2020. Less than half of physicians in both 2018 and 2020 were able to correctly identify the prevalence of TD in patients on maintenance antipsychotics, with many underestimating reported prevalence. Respondents reported moderate familiarity with VMAT2 inhibitor therapies for TD, with self-reported familiarity increasing more among neurologists than psychiatrists since the 2018 study. Psychiatrists are more likely than neurologists to take responsibility for medical management of TD symptoms and antipsychotic medication adjustment. Despite recommendations from APA guidelines and AAN reviews, 15% of physicians would use an anticholinergic to manage TD symptoms and only about half would opt for a VMAT2 inhibitor. There was a larger increase in VMAT inhibitor use between 2018 and 2020 among neurologists as compared to psychiatrists. The findings support the need for CME on TD focused toward specific provider groups. While both types of specialists would benefit from CME on the topic of TD epidemiology, there is an increased need for CME that includes treatment updates among psychiatrists.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent and potentially disabling movement disorder associated with prolonged exposure to antipsychotic medications that jeopardizes adherence to treatment and reduces quality of life. The recognition and management of TD can be challenging in many instances. An online activity was developed to assess the ability of continuing medical education (CME) to improve awareness of the recognition and management of TD among psychiatrists.
The online CME activity consisted of a 30-minute video discussion between three expert faculty. Educational effect was assessed by comparing a matched sample of psychiatrists’ responses to four identical questions pre- and post-activity. A chi-square test identified significant differences between pre- and post-assessment responses. Cramer’s V was used to calculate the effect size of the online education (≥ 0.16 is considerable). Data were collected between June 26 and August 6, 2019.
Activity participation resulted in a considerable educational effect among psychiatrists (n=739; V=0.25, P<0.001). The following areas showed significant (P <0.05) pre- vs post-educational improvements: recognition of incidence of TD associated with different antipsychotic therapies, differentiation of TD from parkinsonism, and the personalized selection of therapies for the management of TD. 37% of psychiatrists had a measurable increase in confidence in understanding the role of the interprofessional team in recognizing TD after activity participation.
The results indicated that a CME-certified 30-minute video activity was effective at improving knowledge among psychiatrists for the recognition and management of TD. Future education should continue to address best practices in the care of patients with TD.
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) refers to abnormal, involuntary, choreoathetoid movements of the tongue, lips, face, trunk, and extremities and is associated with long-term exposure to dopamine-blocking agents, such as antipsychotic medications. Once established, these movements usually persist. The movements are disfiguring and can bring unwanted attention to affected individuals. When severe, especially if the respiratory muscles are affected, the movements can be disabling, limit activity, and reduce quality of life. The prevalence is 7.2% in individuals on newer antipsychotics who have never been exposed to older neuroleptics. Until recently, there were no effective treatments for TD. In recent years, many new treatments have been investigated for the treatment of TD, including valbenazine, deutetrabenazine, and branched chain amino acids. Valbenazine first, followed by deutetrabenazine are FDA approved to treat TD. A virtual broadcast was developed to assess the ability of continuing medical education (CME) to improve awareness of the recognition and treatment of TD among psychiatrists.
The virtual broadcast (May 9, 2020) consisted of a two-hour, live-streamed discussion between two expert faculty. Impact of the educational activity was assessed by comparing psychiatrists’ responses to four identical questions presented before and directly after activity participation. A follow-up survey was sent to all participants six-weeks post-activity to measure performance in practice changes. A chi-square test was used to identify significant differences between pre- and post-assessment responses. Cohen’s d was used to calculate the effect size of the virtual broadcast.
Activity participation resulted in a noticeable educational effect among psychiatrists (n=621; d=6.12, P<.001). The following areas showed significant (P<0.05) pre- vs post-educational improvements: recognition of movements in patients with TD, rate of TD in SGA exposed patients, treatment options for TD (on and off-label), and treatment of TD using VMAT inhibitors. Additionally, 54% of psychiatrists reported a change in practice performance as a result of the education received in the activity, including utilization of a standard scale to evaluate movement disorders and educate patients and family members about potential for TD, how to recognize symptoms, and when to treat.
The results indicated that a CME-certified two-hour virtual broadcast was effective at improving knowledge among psychiatrists for the recognition and treatment of TD. This knowledge also resulted in positive changes in practice performance post-activity. Future education should continue to address best practices in the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with TD, as there remains an increased need for tailored CME among psychiatrists.
The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) total score (sum of items 1–7) is usually the primary efficacy measure in tardive dyskinesia (TD) clinical trials. However, item 8 of the AIMS (clinician’s global impression of severity) might also be an appropriate assessment in real-life healthcare settings. To explore the potential of item 8 as a clinical measure, post hoc analyses were conducted using data from a long-term study of valbenazine, an approved TD medication.
In KINECT 4 (NCT02405091), adults with TD received once-daily valbenazine (40 or 80 mg) for 48 weeks. Analyses included two sets of AIMS item 8 scores: based on investigators ratings of item 8 using protocol-defined descriptors; and based on investigators highest scores from items 1–7 (analyzed post hoc). Shift analyses included an improvement from score =3 at baseline (moderate or severe) to score =2 at Week 48 (none to mild).
At baseline in all participants (N=163), AIMS item 8 mean scores were 3.2 (protocol) and 3.3 (post hoc). In participants with a score =3 at baseline per investigators ratings using protocol-defined descriptors, 95.9% [94/98] shifted to a score =2 by Week 48. A similar result (93.9% [93/99]) was found when item 8 was based on investigators highest scores from items 1–7.
Shift analyses using AIMS item 8 scores indicated that most participants in KINECT 4 had a clinically meaningful improvement after 48 weeks of once-daily treatment with valbenazine. AIMS item 8 may be an appropriate clinical measure for assessing changes in TD severity.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent and potentially disabling movement disorder associated with prolonged exposure to antipsychotics and other dopamine receptor blocking agents. Long-term safety of the approved TD medication, valbenazine, was demonstrated in 2 clinical trials (KINECT 3 [NCT02274558], KINECT 4 [NCT02405091]). Data from these trials were analyzed post hoc to evaluate the onset and resolution of adverse events (AEs).
Participants in KINECT 3 and KINECT 4 received up to 48 weeks of once-daily valbenazine (40 or 80 mg). Data from these studies were pooled and analyzed to assess the incidence, time to first occurrence, and resolution for the following AEs of potential clinical interest: akathisia, balance disorder, dizziness, parkinsonism, somnolence/sedation, suicidal behavior/ideation, and tremor.
In the pooled population (N=314), all AEs of potential clinical interest occurred in <10% of participants, with somnolence (9.6%), suicidal behavior/ideation (6.4%), and dizziness (5.7%) being the most common AEs. Mean time to first occurrence ranged from 36 days (akathisia [n=9]) to 224 days (parkinsonism [n=2]). By end of study (or last study visit), resolution of AEs was as follows: 100% (suicidal ideation/behavior, parkinsonism); >85% (somnolence/sedation, dizziness); >70% (akathisia, balance disorder, tremor).
In long-term clinical trials, the incidence of AEs of potential clinical interest was low (<10%) and most were resolved by end of treatment (>70–100%). All patients taking valbenazine should be routinely monitored for AEs, particularly those that may exacerbate the motor symptoms associated with TD.
Disease prevalence, comorbid conditions, and pharmacological treatments were examined in a large population of US commercial- or Medicaid-insured individuals with schizophrenia.
This retrospective, cross-sectional claims analysis sourced data from the IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases and the Multi-state Medicaid Database (01Jan2009 to 30Jun2016). Cases were defined by =1 diagnostic claim (ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM) for schizophrenia during the study period. Comorbidities (=1 ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM diagnosis code) were grouped according to Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) level 2 categories. For the per-database analysis of comorbidities, schizophrenia cases were matched with controls by demographic characteristics. Case-control comorbidity comparisons were performed using prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% CIs. Per-database medication exposure (=1 National Drug Code in outpatients grouped by Redbook classification) was also assessed.
Schizophrenia prevalence was 0.11% and 0.99% in commercially and Medicaid-insured patients, respectively. In both databases, comorbidity prevalence was higher among schizophrenia cases versus controls in approximately =80% of the CCS level 2 categories assessed. Common top categories of comorbidities for schizophrenia cases were mood disorders, anxiety disorders, other connective tissue disease, and diseases of the heart. Comorbidities with the highest case-control PRRs included personality disorders, suicide and intentional self-inflicted injury, and impulse control disorders. Across databases, the most commonly prescribed medications in cases were antipsychotics, antidepressants, and analgesics/antipyretics opiate agonists; the most highly prescribed antipsychotics were risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, and olanzapine.
This large-scale analysis quantifies the high prevalence of medical and psychiatric comorbidity burden in patients with schizophrenia, highlighting the importance of integrated medical and psychiatric care.
Virtual reality (VR) is a promising tool with the potential to enhance care of cognitive and affective disorders in the aging population. VR has been implemented in clinical settings with adolescents and children; however, it has been less studied in the geriatric population.
The objective of this study is to determine the existing levels of evidence for VR use in clinical settings and identify areas where more evidence may guide translation of existing VR interventions for older adults.
Design and measurements:
We conducted a systematic review in PubMed and Web of Science in November 2019 for peer-reviewed journal articles on VR technology and its applications in older adults. We reviewed article content and extracted the number of study participants, study population, goal of the investigation, the level of evidence, and categorized articles based on the indication of the VR technology and the study population.
The database search yielded 1554 total results, and 55 articles were included in the final synthesis. The most represented study design was cross-sectional, and the most common study population was subjects with cognitive impairment. Articles fell into three categories for VR Indication: Testing, Training, and Screening. There was a wide variety of VR environments used across studies.
Existing evidence offers support for VR as a screening and training tool for cognitive impairment in older adults. VR-based tasks demonstrated validity comparable to some paper-based assessments of cognition, though more work is needed to refine diagnostic specificity. The variety of VR environments used shows a need for standardization before comparisons can be made across VR simulations. Future studies should address key issues such as usability, data privacy, and confidentiality. Since most literature was generated from high-income countries (HICs), it remains unclear how this may be translated to other parts of the world.
In 1988, Malaysia’s Constitution was amended to separate the Syariah and civil jurisdictions of the courts. Henceforth, matters involving Syariah (Islamic religious law) would only be litigated in the Syariah courts and not the civil courts. This move proved problematic especially since the Federal Constitution regulates all fundamental rights and liberties – including the right to religious freedom – while religion is regulated by the constituent states. State legislatures are thus empowered to create and punish offences against precepts of Islam. This chapter analyses how common law principles of administrative law have been applied and developed in Malaysia by studying their interaction with the administration of Syariah law. More specifically, it asks: How do the civil courts exercise its powers of judicial review in cases involving Syariah and the exercise of powers by both secular and religious authorities in such cases? It traces the patterns of judicial application and assessment of key administrative law principles such as natural justice, reasonableness, and proportionality and argues that while English precedents continue to be cited, these same precedents are often jettisoned and modified when it conflicts with the political power and primacy of Islamic law.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work will inform the ongoing development of adaptive capacity and preparedness of the CTSA Program and other clinical and translational research organizations in their quest of improving processes that drive outcomes and impacts, shaping effective programs and services, and strengthening their emergency readiness and sustainability. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: -Share the progress and preliminary findings of an ‘Adaptive Capacity and Preparedness of CTSA Hubs’ CTSA Working Group; -Improve our awareness and understanding of the efficient and effective changes helping CTSA hubs build robust capacity to address METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A multi-case study including: - Triangulating multiple sources of information and mixed methods (survey/interviews of research administrators, researchers, evaluators, and other key stakeholders), literature review, document and M&E system information analysis, and expert review; - Describing CTSA hubs’ experiences as related to research implementation, translation, and support during the time of emergency; - Administering a comprehensive survey of the CTSAs addressing their challenges, lessons learned, and practices that work in various program components/areas. Data collection includes aggregate and cross-sectional data, with representation based on CTSA size, maturity, and population density. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The described approach shows sound promise to investigate and share strategies and best practices for building adaptive capacity and preparedness of CTSAs -- across various scientific sectors, translational research spectrum, and the goals outlined by NCATS for the CTSA program. The anticipated results of this research will include the identified/shared innovative solutions and lessons learned for this rapidly emerging, high-priority clinical and translational science issue. ‘High-quality lessons learned’ are those that represent principles extrapolated from multiple sources and triangulated to increase transferability to new contexts and situations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The project provides useful knowledge and tools to research organizations and stakeholders across multiple disciplines -- for mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 disaster via effective adjusting programs, practices, and processes, and building capacity for future successful, ‘emergency ready and responsive’ research and training.
The COVID-19 outbreak has caused challenges for healthcare systems worldwide. Recent data indicates that the psychological impact has differed with respect to occupation. In many countries, medical residents have been on the front line of this pandemic. However, data on the psychological impact of infectious disease outbreaks, and COVID-19 in particular, on medical residents are relatively lacking.
The aim of our study was to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical residents working on the front and second line.
An electronic survey was sent to all medical residents in Qatar. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale – 21 Items. Professional quality of life was measured by the Professional Quality of Life measure.
Of the 640 medical residents contacted, 127 (20%) responded. A considerable proportion of residents reported symptoms of depression (42.5%), anxiety (41.7%) and stress (30.7%). Multivariate analysis of variance showed significant effects of seniority in residency, with junior residents having poorer outcomes. In addition, there was a statistically significant interaction effect with moderate effect sizes between gender and working on the front line, as well as gender, working on the front line and seniority, on mental health outcomes.
The COVID-19 pandemic may have a negative impact on junior residents’ mental health. Preventive measures to reduce stress levels and easy access to professional mental health services are crucial.