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The wide geographical distribution and genetic diversity of bat-associated lyssaviruses (LYSVs) across Europe suggest that similar viruses may also be harboured in Italian insectivorous bats. Indeed, bats were first included within the passive national surveillance programme for rabies in wildlife in the 1980s, while active surveillance has been performed since 2008. The active surveillance strategies implemented allowed us to detect neutralizing antibodies directed towards European bat 1 lyssavirus in six out of the nine maternity colonies object of the study across the whole country. Seropositive bats were Myotis myotis, M. blythii and Tadarida teniotis. On the contrary, the virus was neither detected through passive nor active surveillance, suggesting that fatal neurological infection is rare also in seropositive colonies. Although the number of tested samples has steadily increased in recent years, submission turned out to be rather sporadic and did not include carcasses from bat species that account for the majority of LYSVs cases in Europe, such as Eptesicus serotinus, M. daubentonii, M. dasycneme and M. nattereri. A closer collaboration with bat handlers is therefore mandatory to improve passive surveillance and decrypt the significance of serological data obtained up to now.
To analyse trends in sweetened beverages consumption among adults in Brazil between 2007 and 2016.
A time-series analysis, with data from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL). The prevalence of regular consumption (≥5 d/week), the average daily consumption (millilitres) and the prevalence of non-consumption of these beverages were analysed. The temporal variations of the indicators were calculated by linear regression. The analyses were performed for the complete set of the evaluated population and stratified by sociodemographic characteristics.
Brazilian capitals and Federal District.
Brazilian adults aged ≥18 years (n 519 641).
There was a reduction in both regular and average daily consumption of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages (−1·28 percentage points (pp)/year, P=0·001 and −9·63 ml/year, P=0·001, respectively). The same result regarding regular consumption was found when only sugar-sweetened beverages were analysed (−1·11 pp/year, P=0·011). Similar trends were identified in the stratified analyses, with a greater magnitude of reduction among males, young adults, those with higher schooling and residents of more developed regions. Coincidentally, there was an increase in the prevalence of adults who did not consume sweetened beverages (1·54 pp/year, P=0·005).
The consumption of sweetened beverages decreased during the period. However, a significant portion of the population still referred a daily consumption of these beverages.
Subcutaneous fat thickness and fatty acid composition (FAC) play an important role on seasoning loss and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned hams. Dry-cured ham industry prefers meats with low contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) because these negatively affect fat firmness and ham quality, whereas consumers require higher contents in those fatty acids (FA) for their positive effect on human health. A population of 950 Italian Large White pigs from the Italian National Sib Test Selection Programme was investigated with the aim to estimate heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations of backfat FAC, Semimembranosus muscle intramuscular fat (IMF) content and other carcass traits. The pigs were reared in controlled environmental condition at the same central testing station and were slaughtered at reaching 150 kg live weight. Backfat samples were collected to analyze FAC by gas chromatography. Carcass traits showed heritability levels from 0.087 for estimated carcass lean percentage to 0.361 for hot carcass weight. Heritability values of FA classes were low-to-moderate, all in the range 0.245 for n-3 PUFA to 0.264 for monounsaturated FA (MUFA). Polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant genetic correlation with loin thickness (0.128), backfat thickness (−0.124 for backfat measured by Fat-O-Meat’er and −0.175 for backfat measured by calibre) and IMF (−0.102). Obviously, C18:2(n-6) shows similar genetic correlations with the same traits (0.211 with loin thickness, −0.206 with backfat measured by Fat-O-Meat’er, −0.291 with backfat measured by calibre and −0.171 with IMF). Monounsaturated FA, except with the backfat measured by calibre (0.068; P<0.01), do not show genetic correlations with carcass characteristics, whereas a negative genetic correlation was found between MUFA and saturated FA (SFA; −0.339; P<0.001). These results suggest that MUFA/SFA ratio could be increased without interfering with carcass traits. The level of genetic correlations between FA and carcass traits should be taken into account in dealing with the development of selection schemes addressed to modify carcass composition and/or backfat FAC.
The article uses the first population census of postcolonial Ghana to analyze the relationship between statistics and the process of imagining the nation-state. In contrast with much historical and sociological literature, which conceptualizes the relationship between census-taking and state formation in terms of identification, classification, and quantification, the departure point of this analysis is the importance of gaining the trust of the counted subjects. In Ghana, where the possibility of obtaining accurate population returns had been severely hindered by people's distrust in the state, the 1960 population census saw the organization of a capillary education campaign in schools and in the press. By dissecting the iconographies emerging from the Census Education and Enlightenment Campaign, the article makes three contributions. First, it shows that understanding the concrete ways in which statistics inform political imagination requires an expansion of the field of observation beyond the statistical machinery and other “centers of calculation.” Second, complementing James Ferguson's understanding of “development discourse” as an “anti-politics machine,” it is argued that the possibility of making the people of Ghana “census minded” depended on the construction of a much richer set of inherently political representations about the nature of the postcolonial state. Finally, it shows the importance of critically interrogating the political implications acquired by the reception of global statistical practices. It does so by documenting the multiple ways in which the international standards promoted by the United Nations became entwined with the transformation of Ghanaian politics through the mobilization of children and press propaganda.
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), a mammal species whose population is declining, can play a role as a reservoir or carrier of a wide number of arthropod-borne pathogens. Translocation procedures have been used as an alternative approach for species conservation. However, the veterinary aspects of this sort of procedures are extremely important to minimize the impact on animal health. In order to detect Bartonella and haemoplasmas, two important group of bacterial that have an impact in both human and animal health, EDTA whole-blood samples were screened for the presence of these bacterial pathogens by molecular techniques. As a result, a molecular occurrence of 4.1 and 15.4% for Bartonella spp. and haemoplasmas, respectively, was reported among 97 wild buffaloes sampled during a translocation procedure from Marromeu to Gorongosa Reserve, Mozambique. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of the obtained sequences were conducted. At least, three bovine-associated pathogens, namely B. bovis, M. wenyonii and ‘Candidatus M. haemobos’, as well as a probably new Bartonella genotype/species were detected in S. caffer. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether these bacterial species may cause impact in buffaloes and other sympatric ruminant species living in the release site.
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer and the prevalence of HPV types varies depending on the geographic region. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of HPV types in women with cervical lesions from Sergipe state, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in women with cervical lesions from March to December 2014. These lesions were investigated by PCR and HPV types were identified by DNA sequencing. 432 patients were included, of which 337 patients tested positive for HPV. Eighteen different HPV types were detected, and high-risk HPV types were detected in 69.2%. HPV 16 (63.4%) was the most prevalent HPV type found, followed by HPV 66 (4.6%), HPV 18 (1.6%) and HPV 45 (1.4%). These results highlight the importance of the high prevalence of HPV 66, which is a possibly carcinogenic virus type not covered by the available vaccines. The prevalence of HPV 16 was high in the studied population, reaffirming the importance of young vaccination. However, the high prevalence of HPV 66 found in this study shows the importance of monitoring the diversity of HPV types in different populations and geographic regions to better understand the impacts of current HPV vaccines.
We develop a frame-invariant theory of material spike formation during flow separation over a no-slip boundary in two-dimensional flows with arbitrary time dependence. Based on the exact curvature evolution of near-wall material lines, our theory identifies both fixed and moving flow separation, is effective also over short time intervals, and admits a rigorous instantaneous limit. As a byproduct, we derive explicit formulae for the evolution of material line curvature and the curvature rate for general compressible flows. The material backbone that we identify acts first as the precursor and later as the centrepiece of unsteady Lagrangian flow separation. We also discover a previously undetected spiking point where the backbone of separation connects to the boundary, and derive wall-based analytical formulae for its location. Finally, our theory explains the perception of off-wall separation in unsteady flows and provides conditions under which such a perception is justified. We illustrate our results on several analytical and experimental flows.
There are few reports of cryopreservation and injuries in Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryoprotectants agents and cooling on stage VIII of this species. Fertilized eggs from ovigerous females were removed from the incubation chamber, then placed in 10 ml Falcon tubes with a cryoprotectant solution and saline-free calcium solution. Thus, the embryos underwent a cooling curve of 1°C per min until reaching 5°C, and then were stored for 2 h. The tubes containing the embryos were washed to remove the cryoprotectant, acclimated for 5 min and then transferred to 50 ml incubators. At the end of the 24-h period, living embryos from each tube were counted and tabulated. A pool of embryos was fixed with 4% formaldehyde and then subjected to histology using 3-mm thick sections and stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Another pool was used for biometric analysis in which length, width and volume were analyzed. The cryoprotectants agents used were: dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol at 1, 5 and 10% and sucrose (0.5 M). Variance analysis was performed followed by Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test at 5% significance level. DMSO cryoprotectant affected embryo survival the least with rates of 71.8, 36.2 and 0% for concentrations of 1, 5 and 10%, respectively. Ethylene glycol caused 100% mortality at all the concentrations used. It was not possible to observe the interference of cooling and cryoprotectants on embryonic structures in this study.
The Spanish National Network (REDETS) is a group of eight agencies, units and services, depending on National and Regional Governments that coordinate their work within a common methodological framework, guided by the principles of mutual recognition and cooperation. The necessity of considering a Quality Management System has been detected and, consequently, a common tool for all the members needs to be developed. We describe in this study the process to achieve that goal.
Based on both a review of previous literature and the proposal for a self-evaluating tool, a group of experts from each agency through consensus have developed a tool for self-evaluation in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies. Through the structure described in the handbook of the Andalusian Agency for Healthcare Quality (ACSA), each standard should have a statement or proposal that needs to also include evidence or good practices, and the corresponding evaluation questions. In separate workgroups, the definition of these proposals, evidence and evaluation questions were developed. One face-to-face meeting and two meetings via teleconference were necessary to achieve a final document with all the quality standards.
From a proposed structure of sixty-six standards, the titles, definitions, statements and evidence as well as good practices and evaluation questions were established in workgroups with consensus among all of the members (1 - 3). The final version of the self-assessment tool was composed of sixty-eight standards, grouped in twelve quality criteria structured in four dimensions: I Responsibility, II Clients and Stakeholders, III Production Process, and IV Resources.
Quality management requires an evaluation tool and this version, based on a systematic review and consensus, is a useful and practical instrument for developing a handbook by each member of REDETS. An online version of the tool is in process of development.
Soya bean is the main protein source in poultry feed but rising prices make an alternative protein source necessary. Insects, such as the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), may be an attractive solution for hens, although little information is available on their effect on egg quality. The present study aims to fill this gap by testing the effect of 100% replacement of soya bean with H. illucens larva meal in the diet of Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens for 21 weeks. At the end of the trial, the eggs were characterized for parameters such as weight, colour, proximate composition of albumen and yolk, and content of carotenoids, tocopherols and cholesterol. The fatty acid profile of yolks was also determined. Hens fed the insect-based diet produced eggs (HIM group) with a higher proportion of yolk than the group fed the soya bean-based diet (SBM group). HIM was associated with redder yolks (red index 5.63 v. 1.36) than SBM. HIM yolks were richer in γ-tocopherol (4.0 against 2.4 mg/kg), lutein (8.6 against 4.9 mg/kg), β-carotene (0.33 against 0.19 mg/kg) and total carotenoids (15 against 10.5 mg/kg) than SBM yolks. The fatty acid composition of HIM yolks was almost identical to that of SBM yolks. Finally, HIM yolks contained 11% less cholesterol than SBM yolks. These results suggest that H. illucens larva meal is a suitable total substitute for soya bean meal in the diet of Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A sustainable alternative to the plant protein source therefore seems feasible.
Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) rigorously collected in four Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) of Samoa provided conservation and ecological insights about the endemic and evolutionarily distinctive Tooth-billed Pigeon Didunculus strigirostris. This study confirmed the 2006 estimate of a sharply declining population, supporting the recent conservation status assessment of Critically Endangered. Birds are killed as bycatch during hunting for the sympatric Pacific Pigeon Ducula pacifica, suggesting that this activity may be a key threat. The Tooth-billed Pigeon was observed by selected reliable indigenous hunters in several forest areas targeted in the present study, from a few months to several years ago. In the field, it was detected acoustically and identified through TEK and a mix of a TEK-scientific approach in four forest areas within three Samoan KBAs. Detection of the bird in the field is an issue due to its highly cryptic behaviour and because its call largely overlaps with one of the calls of Pacific Pigeon. Original TEK about the behavioural ecology of this species, including the fruiting trees mostly used and its terrestrial habits is reported. Short-term conservation recommendations are provided based on the findings.
A multiparametric (chemical, isotopic and physical) study on three shallow firn cores sampled in northern Victoria Land was carried out to obtain glaciological information and climatic data in this Antarctic region. Sampling areas were accurately prospected to identify sites, located at different altitudes and distances from the sea, where the snow accumulation was not influenced by katabatic wind redistribution or summer melting. Stratigraphic, isotopic (δl8O) and chemical (H2O2, MSA and nssSO42−) profiles were mutually examined for dating purposes and to determine the mean snow-accumulation rates at three different stations. Annual accumulation rates of 85–420 kg m−2 a−1 were determined in the period 1971–92. An inverse pattern between accumulation rate and altitude was shown by the progression of the mean annual rates of 160, 203 and 260 kg m−2 a−1, respectively, in the highest, medium and lowest stations. The mean accumulation value of all northern Victoria Land data available, 170 kg m−2 a−1, represents a decrease of up to 35% with respect to the estimated value most widely used until now. Our accumulation value is very close to that required for a zero net surface mass balance according to ice discharge. A linear relationship with a gradient of 0.81‰ °C−1 has been found between mean δ18O values and mean annual surface temperature for different ice cores drilled in northern Victoria Land.
Older adults tend to require fewer energy content and higher levels of nutrients to promote and maintain optimal health. Regrettably, dietary variety and quality are known to decline with advancing age. We conducted a 2-year prospective, randomised, dietary intervention trial where we asked free-living elderly subjects (63–79 years) on self-selected habitual diets to incorporate walnuts daily into their diet (15 % energy). We then compared their nutrient intake with that of a similar group of concurrent participants on self-selected habitual diets but abstaining from walnut consumption (control). No recipes or advice on use of nuts were provided. Dietary intake was assessed by multiple unannounced 24-h telephone dietary recalls. On average, walnut supplement consumption was 43 g/d or 1171·5 kJ (281 kcal). The mean daily energy intake was 954 kJ (228 kcal) higher in the walnut group than in the control group (P<0·001). Compared with control, participants in the walnut group reported significantly higher intake of total protein, vegetable protein, total PUFA and n-3 and n-6 PUFA; and significantly lower intake of total carbohydrate, animal protein, SFA, and Na. An estimated 19 % of total energy and 25 % of total fat from other food sources was displaced. Displacement of MUFA and total PUFA was 21 and 16 %, respectively. Thus adding a daily supplement of walnuts to an ad libitum diet of older adults can induce favourable modifications to the nutrient profile in a way that addresses declining nutrient intake associated with aging.
In this paper, we introduce the simplest exponential dispersion model containing the Pareto and exponential distributions. In this way, we obtain distributions with support (0, ∞) that in a long interval are equivalent to the Pareto distribution; however, for very high values, decrease like the exponential. This model is useful for solving relevant problems that arise in the practical use of extreme value theory. The results are applied to two real examples, the first of these on the analysis of aggregate loss distributions associated to the quantitative modelling of operational risk. The second example shows that the new model improves adjustments to the destructive power of hurricanes, which are among the major causes of insurance losses worldwide.
To study the association of meal patterns and timing with central obesity to identify the best dietary strategies to deal with the increasing obesity prevalence.
A cross-sectional study performed on data from a representative sample of the Spanish population. Height and waist circumference were measured using standardized procedures and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated. The sample was divided into those without central obesity (WHtR<0·5) and those with central obesity (WHtR≥0·5).
ANIBES (‘Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain’) Study.
Adults aged 18–64 years (n 1655; 798 men and 857 women).
A higher percentage of people ate more than four meals daily in the group without central obesity and those with central obesity more frequently skipped the mid-afternoon snack than those without. Breakfasts containing >25 % of total energy intake and lunches containing >35 % of total energy intake were associated with increased likelihood of central obesity (OR=1·874, 95 % CI 1·019, 3·448; P<0·05 and OR=1·693, 95 % CI 1·264, 2·268; P<0·001, respectively). On the contrary, mid-morning snacks and mid-afternoon snacks containing >15 % of total energy were associated with decreased likelihood of central obesity (OR=0·477, 95 % CI 0·313, 0·727; P<0·001 and OR=0·650, 95 % CI 0·453, 0·932; P<0·05, respectively). The variety of cereals, wholegrain cereals and dairy was higher in the population without central obesity.
Our results suggest that ‘what and when we eat’ should be considered dietary strategies to reduce central obesity.
The sea asparagus Sarcocornia ambigua is a widespread coastal halophyte of South America that has a recent history of successful cultivation with saline shrimp farm effluent and nutritional quality for human and animal diets, as well as chemical characteristics for biofuel production. Two morphologically distinct lineages (BTH1 and BTH2) of S. ambigua were obtained by crossing pure lineages of natural biotypes. The growth and biomass production of f3 and f4 progenies of S. ambigua lineages were evaluated, as well as their macro- and micro-mineral components were investigated by spectrophotometry. The BTH2 lineage showed a 43% higher shoot growth rate, a two times faster branch production and a higher biomass allocation to shoots than in BTH1. BTH1 shoots showed higher concentrations of N, K and Cu than did the BTH2 progenies. The average levels of N, K, P and Ca in BTH1-f4 shoots were higher than those in wild plants of S. ambigua and ranked in the mid-upper range of these mineral contents in other species of the subfamily Salicorniodeae and gourmet vegetables. The mineral profile of the two selected lineages of S. ambigua confirms high nutritional quality of these plants for humans and animals. They can be presented as alternatives to food production with saline effluent from aquaculture on the temperate and tropical coast and/or inland salt-affected soils of South America.