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An experimental and numerical study on the inertial focusing of neutrally buoyant spherical particles suspended in laminar circular tube flows was performed at Reynolds numbers (
) ranging from 100 to 1000 for particle-to-tube diameter ratios of
. In the experiments, we measured the cross-sectional distribution of particles in dilute suspensions flowing through circular tubes several hundreds of micrometres in diameter. In the cross-section located at 1000 times the tube diameter from the tube inlet, all particles were highly concentrated on one annulus or two annuli, depending on
. At low
, the particles were focused on the so-called Segré–Silberberg (SS) annulus, in accordance with previous studies (regime (A)). At higher
, two particle focusing annuli appeared, with the outer annulus corresponding to the SS annulus (regime (B)). We call the annulus closer to the tube centre ‘the inner annulus’, although this term was used by Matas et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 515, 2004, pp. 171–195) for a significantly broader annulus which included the transient accumulation of particles observed in regime (A). At even higher
, particles were focused on the inner annulus (regime (C)), indicating that the radial position of the SS annulus is no longer a stable equilibrium position. These experimental results were confirmed by a numerical simulation based on the immersed boundary method. The results of this study also indicate that the critical Reynolds numbers between two neighbouring regimes decrease with the increase of the particle-to-tube diameter ratio.
Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a psychological intervention designed to change the meaning of images and associated memories and reduce emotional distress. Recent studies have shown that ImRs can be successfully applied to many psychological problems and disorders; however, little has been reported on the application of ImRs for panic disorder (PD). Consequently, we explored the therapeutic effects of ImRs on patients with PD. Fifteen patients with PD received 16 individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) sessions weekly, including one ImRs session. Early traumatic memories associated with recurrent images in panic situations were identified and rescripted to alleviate maladaptive encapsulated beliefs. ImRs ratings (vividness and distress of the images and memories and conviction degree of encapsulated beliefs) were measured prior to and after ImRs. Self-negative contents not directly related to symptoms of panic attack were observed as common themes in the worst meaning of the image, the memory, and in the encapsulated belief. Whilst five (33%) patients had anticipatory anxiety, 10 (67%) patients had other self-negative beliefs. ImRs significantly reduced distress from images, memories and encapsulated beliefs; however, it did not change the vividness of images and memories. There was no significant correlation between the reduction in PD severity over the CBT program and the change in each ImRs rating. The results of this study are promising for certain aspects of panic disorder. However, further research is needed to overcome the limitations of this study.
Myocardial bridging is a congenital coronary artery anomaly in which the coronary artery has a partly “tunnelled” intramyocardial course. This tunnelling leads to compression of the affected vessel segment during ventricular systole. It is considered to be a benign variation of the norm in about 25% of the population caused by an aberrancy of embryologic coronary development. The bridging is also thought to cause severe cardiac conditions in a few of those affected. The series of six young patients presented here is the largest series so far to report on symptomatic myocardial bridging in children with different underlying heart diseases. All patients recently presented to our centre with signs of myocardial ischaemia. They subsequently underwent coronary angiography, which revealed myocardial bridging of the ramus interventricularis anterior. In all patients, therapy with β blockers was started to reduce heart rate and myocardial contractility. β Blocker treatment was also given in order to prolong diastole and improve coronary artery blood flow. Two patients underwent surgical exposure of the involved coronary segment: a 2-year-old boy because of recurrent, severe myocardial ischaemia in combination with a reduction of general health, changes in ST-segments, and the presence of a dilative cardiomyopathy; and a 13-year-old girl because of evidence of myocardial ischaemia during exercise testing after surviving sudden cardiac death. Surgery was successful and recovery was complete and uneventful. The presented series shows that myocardial bridging can be symptomatic and may require urgent treatment and even surgical intervention in early childhood in rare cases.
CS(J = 2-1) observations of B335 are carried out using the NRO 45-m telescope with a 16″ beam. We get many self-reversed profiles with good S/N ratio. Assuming that this region consists of a core and a halo, we get the molecular hydrogen density and the CS relative abundance in the halo. The CS wings are located within the cavity of the CO wing (Goldsmith et al. 1984).
B335 is now recognized as the smallest isolated star forming region. The detection of a Far-IR source and a bipolar flow were succesful, on the other hand, the distribution of the quiet gas is poorly understood. We are trying to determine the density distribution in B335. As the first step, we have carried out HC3N (J = 5-4 and 4-3) observations of B335. The observations of the J = 5-4 line have revealed a high density core with a 30″-60″ size. The Far-IR source is located just at the center of the core, and the core lies at the center of the bipolar flow. A mean hydrogen molecular density in the core of about 5x104 cm−3 is derived from the line ratio J – 5-4/4-3.
B361 is an isolated, round-shaped globule in Cygnus. The results of FIR observations by Keene (1981) indicate that there are no internal heat sources while recent CO observations (Hirano et al. 1987) afford evidence for the existence of a few fragments in the core of the globule.
Extensive mapping of the CO and 13CO (J = 1-0) emission of the Bok globule, B361, is reported. The observations were made with the 4-m millimeter-wave telescope of Nagoya University. The mapped area extends over 60'x40′ which includes some filamentary dark clouds: L967, L964, L961, and L960, located to the west of B361.
Observation of the high-velocity flows in the core region of the NGC7538 molecular cloud are carried out with CO (J=1-0) molecular line using NRO 45-m radio telescope. The beam size is 14″ and the mapping area covers about 4'x3′. Four high-velocity flows are found in the core region. The high-velocity flows are prominent at and around IRS1, 9, and 11.
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals’ species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil. Out of 322 bat samples collected, while 17 (5·28%) were positive to quantitative PCR for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene, 45 samples (13·97%) were positive to cPCR assays for hemoplasmas based on 16S rRNA gene. While seven sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG) (n = 3), gltA (n = 2), rpoB (n = 1), ftsZ (n = 1), five 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for hemoplasmas. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats sampled in Latin America countries. All five hemoplasmas sequences clustered together as a monophyletic group by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. The present work showed the first evidence of circulation of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas among bats in Brazil.
The heat capacities of quenched and annealed heavy ice Ih were measured in the temperature range 14 to 300 K by an adiabatic calorimeter. A relaxational thermal anomaly was found at around 115K and this phenomenon was ascribed to the onset of deuteron ordering in the crystal. The average activation enthalpy of the relaxational process was determined to be (26±5) kJ mol–1. Residual entropies of the crystal were recalculated on the basis of the present heat-capacity data combined with the revised values for enthalpy of vapourization, saturated vapour pressure, and spectroscopic entropy. They are (3.47±0.41) J K–1 mol–1 for the quenched crystal and (3.44±0.41) J K–1 mol–1 for the crystal annealed at 102–106 K for 264 h. The characteristics and the origin of the anomaly are discussed in comparison with that of ordinary ice.
The heat capacities of quenched and annealed heavy ice Ih were measured in the temperature range 14 to 300 K by an adiabatic calorimeter. A relaxational thermal anomaly was found at around 115 K and this phenomenon was ascribed to the onset of deuteron ordering in the crystal. The average activation enthalpy of the relaxational process was determined to be (26±5) kJ mol-1. Residual entropies of the crystal were recalculated on the basis of the present heat-capacity data combined with the revised values for enthalpy of vaporization, saturated vapour pressure, and spectroscopic entropy. They are (3.47±0.41 J K-1 mol-1 for the quenched crystal and (3.44±0.41) J K-1 mol-1 for a crystal annealed at 102-106 K for 264 h. The characteristics and the origin of the anomaly are discussed in comparison with that of ordinary ice.
This paper has been accepted for publication in full in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Glaciology.
An experimental study of the inertial migration of neutrally buoyant spherical particles suspended in the Poiseuille flow through circular tubes has been conducted at Reynolds numbers
from 100 to 1100 for particle-to-tube diameter ratios of
0.1. The distributions of particles in the tube cross-section were measured at various distances from the tube inlet and the radial probability function of particles was calculated. At relatively high
, the radial probability function was found to have two peaks, corresponding to the so-called Segre–Silberberg annulus and the inner annulus, the latter of which was first reported experimentally by Matas et al. (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 515, 2004, pp. 171–195) to represent accumulation of particles at smaller radial positions than the Segre–Silberberg annulus. They assumed that the inner annulus would be an equilibrium position of particles, where the resultant lateral force on the particles disappears, similar to the Segre–Silberberg annulus. The present experimental study showed that the fraction of particles observed on the Segre–Silberberg annulus increased and the fraction on the inner annulus decreased further downstream, accompanying an outward shift of the inner annulus towards the Segre–Silberberg annulus and a decrease in its width. These results suggested that if the tubes were long enough, the inner annulus would disappear such that all particles would be focused on the Segre–Silberberg annulus for
. At the cross-section nearest to the tube inlet, particles were absent in the peripheral region close to the tube wall including the expected Segre–Silberberg annulus position for
. In addition, the entry length after which radial migration has fully developed was found to increase with increasing
, in contrast to the conventional estimate. These results may be related to the developing flow in the tube entrance region where the radial force profile would be different from that of the fully developed Poiseuille flow and there may not be an equilibrium position corresponding to the Segre–Silberberg annulus.
The well-known pathogens of fasciolosis, Fasciola hepatica (Fh) and Fasciola Gigantica (Fg), possess abundant mature sperms in their seminal vesicles, and thus, they reproduce bisexually. On the other hand, aspermic Fasciola flukes reported from Asian countries, which have no sperm in their seminal vesicles, probably reproduce parthenogenetically. The aim of this study was to reveal the origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. The nuclear single copy markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta, were employed for analysis of Fasciola species from China. The hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes was strongly suggested by the presence of the Fh/Fg type, which includes DNA fragments of both F. hepatica and F. gigantica. China can be regarded as the cradle of the interspecific hybridization because F. hepatica and F. gigantica were detected in the northern and southern parts of China, respectively, and hybrids flukes were distributed between the habitats of the two species. The Chinese origin was supported by the fact that a larger number of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) haplotypes was detected in Chinese aspermic Fasciola populations than in aspermic populations from the neighbouring countries. Hereafter, ‘aspermic’ Fasciola flukes should be termed as ‘hybrid’ Fasciola flukes.
We have detected interstellar polarization amounting to 2.6 % in the Ursa Major molecular clouds at a distance of 110 pc. Assuming that paramagnetic grains in those clouds are aligned with the magnetic fields and combining our results with the measurement of Zeeman splitting at 21 cm (Heiles 1989), we argue the strength and direction of magnetic fields.